[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This was a cross-sectional national survey of the elderly population of Saudi Arabia conducted between January 1994 and December 1995. The participants' physical, mental, social, and environmental health status were assessed in a personal interview during which a structured data form was completed by a trained research team. Data on 6,139 elderly participants have been analyzed: 64.2 percent were males mean age: 69.2 +/- 7.8 years which was higher than females 68.0 +/- 7.6 years (P < 0.0001). The widowhood (46.7%) status was also higher than the widowerhood (4.1%) and 9.3 percent of the participants were never married. The proportion of female illiterates (95.8%) was higher than the males (71.4%). The proportion of participants with definite psychopathology was 33.8 percent and this increased with age and higher among females than males. Overall, 18.8 percent were dependent on others for ADL. Other clinical findings included visual impairment (46.1%) and difficulty in hearing (19.9%). However, a sizeable majority (72.2%) enjoyed good health. Only 3.7 percent lived alone. The proportion of the elderly taking part in any recreational exercise was 14.7 percent and only 4.3 percent had any experience of physical therapy. There were no special hospital wards for the elderly patients, and they were treated by general internists. There is a need for a national cost-effective program for the care of the elderly. The present widespread primary health care centers can be upgraded to coordinate the proposed services.
Preview · Article · Jan 2000 · The International Journal of Aging and Human Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to examine the demographic and fertility factors that may predispose to spontaneous abortion in women with prior abortion. The study was conducted in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It included a series of women who aborted their pregnancies over a period of months (January 1; 1992-December 31, 1992). Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to analyze the statistical relationship between abortion and various demographic and fertility, related to abortion. There was a direct statistically significant relationship between maternal age, level of education, parity and a history of previous abortion. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, parity and history of previous abortion were found to be significant as determinants of recurrent abortion. Even though many of these risk factors are not preventable, counseling of the women about the value of education, early reproduction in the child-bearing age, and control of fertility would go a long way in reducing the incidence of fetal wastage in these women.
No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · African journal of medicine and medical sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The epidemiology of stroke at different geographical locations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has not been adequately investigated.
In this study, clinical types and risk factors of stroke were compared among patients at low-altitude (Riyadh, 620 m) and high-altitude (Al Baha > 2000 m) areas using a case-control study design. One-hundred ninety recently diagnosed cases (109 from Riyadh and 81 from Al Baha) were verified and subjects were interviewed. An equal number of age- and sex-matched controls from the corresponding areas were also interviewed using a specific standard questionnaire.
The frequency of thrombotic stroke at high altitude was 93.4% as compared to 79.3% at low altitude (P < 0.05). The odds ratios (OR) for the different risk factors at high and low altitudes, respectively, were: hypertension 4.4 and 2.1; diabetes mellitus: 2.7 and 1.9; ischemic heart disease (IHD): 2.4 and 1.9; atrial fibrillation: 3.9 and 3.3, and smoking: 2.3 and 2.5. The mean hematocrit values were 45.3% at high altitude and 41.0% for low altitude patients (P < 0.001) and its association with stroke at high altitude remained significant even after adjusting for age, gender and occupation.
The study's finding of an increased frequency of thrombotic stroke at high altitude was explained by increased hematocrit which might have caused this in conjunction with other factors such as hypertension and IHD. Larger studies are recommended for better clarification of interaction between high altitude and other established risk factors not included in this study, such as sickle cell anemia and congenital heart diseases in young patients.
No preview · Article · Jul 1998 · Archives of Medical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A series of women who aborted their pregnancies at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over a period of 12 months (1 January 1992 to 3 December 1992), were followed up for 6-48 months afterwards to examine their pregnancy trends. Descriptive statistics for data presentation with Kaplan-Meier survivorship function estimates time from abortion to the next pregnancy and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used to identify prognostic factors. Eighty-one per cent of the women achieved pregnancy over a 4-year follow-up. The median time to pregnancy was 7.6 months, with a 95% confidence interval of 6.4-10.0 months. Age and nationality were found to be significant prognostic factors related to time to achieve a pregnancy. Furthermore, the outcome of the subsequent pregnancy was found to be statistically related to the number of previous abortions. There is a high chance of fertility after an abortion, with 75.2% of these occurring within the first 12 months of the post-abortion follow-up period and dwindling to only 4.1% by the end of 36 months. Using multivariate regression analysis, only age seemed to be an important determinant factor.
Full-text · Article · Mar 1998 · Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The objectives of this Community-based National Epidemiological Household Survey, conducted between 1990-1993, were to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi Arabia and to examine its association with the socio-demographic characteristics of the adult population. A sample of Saudis 20 years and over was selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique with probability proportionate to size. The selected subjects were requested to visit primary health care centers in their localities. Physicians in these clinics took measurements of heights and weights and collected other relevant data. Obesity was measured by the Body Mass Index, using the Quetelet Index. The results showed the sample of 10,651 subjects of which 50.8% were males, had a mean age of 35.8 years (SD = 14.27 years). The prevalence of overweight was 31.2% (95% confidence interval: 30.3%, 32.1%); 33.1% for males and 29.4% for females. For obesity, the overall prevalence was 22.1%; males 17.8% and females 26.6%. The study design suggested that these estimates could be closer to the true values. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, residential area, region, income, gender, and education are statistically significant predictors of obesity. The prevalence of obesity was higher in females than males, lower in subjects living in rural areas with traditional lifestyles than those in more urbanized environments, and increased with increasing age. The observed prevalence and pattern of overweight and obesity with age and gender is similar to those observed in the Arab community and some Western nations. There is a need for increased physical activity and better nutrition education programs to reduce the extent of obesity and to prevent the serious health consequences, especially, in the middle age group.
Full-text · Article · Jul 1997 · Journal of Community Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of the study is to describe the characteristics of the disabled in institutionalized care in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Setting: All institutions for the disabled in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design: A structured questionnaire was completed on each disabled subject by health officials responsible for their care in a cross-sectional study. The health officials under the supervision of the physicians in the Ministry of Social Affairs, obtained additional information from the health records of either the parents or the care providers of the disabled subjects. The major items of information were the demography, family history and types of physical disability or associated diseases of the subjects. Results: Information was available on a total of 2,275 subjects of which 61.7% were males and 38.7% were females. Seventy percent were and 70% were below the age of 20 years. Nearly all subjects (99.2%) were either unemployed or unemployable. The majority of subjects had a combination of disability of which dumbness (63.8%) and cerebral palsy (51.6%) were the main diagnosis while epilepsy was the most common disease. Motor disability included quadriparesis (29.3%), paraplegia (8.6%), hemiplegia (4.2%) and monoplegia (3.2%). The major factors associated with these disabilities were incomplete immunization, previous infections and perinatal problems. Conclusion: The findings showed a high frequency of children and young adults in institutionalized care with low employment potential. The frequency of disabilities can be reduced if efforts are directed towards factors associated with occurrences of dumbness and cerebral palsy which can be associated with epilepsy and other disabilities.
No preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Saudi medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Following transsternal thymectomy, up to 50% of patients may require postoperative ventilation. The aim of this study was to identify the variables most useful in predicting the myasthenic patient who needs postoperative mechanical ventilation.
We applied multivariate discriminant analysis to preoperative physical, historical, laboratory and intraoperative data of 51 myasthenic patients who underwent transcervical-transsternal thymectomy to select those variables most useful in predicting the postoperative need for mechanical ventilation. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also used to describe the discrimination abilities and to explore the trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity of the model.
Discriminant analysis identified seven risk factors that correlated with the need for postoperative ventilation: FVC, FEF25-75%, MEF50% and their percentages of the predicted values, as well as, sex. The model correctly predicted the actual ventilatory outcome in 88.2% of patients. The area under the ROC curve verified that our model correctly predicted the actual ventilatory outcome with a probability of 88.2%.
This model can be used for predicting the need for postoperative mechanical ventilation in myasthenia gravis patients.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1996 · Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To assess the validity of the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) in Arabic as a screening instrument in nonclinical populations.
A representative sample of Grade 7-12 female students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was selected randomly but proportional to various social classes. The girls were independently assessed by the EAT-26 and a structured clinical interview.
One hundred twenty-nine subjects were included. Twenty-five were identified by EAT-26 as having abnormal eating attitudes. One case was identified as anorexia nervosa by the interview and no cases of bulimia were found.
EAT-26 was found to be highly sensitive and reasonably specific. Like some other studies in non-Western populations, it yielded a high false positive rate and a low positive predictive value. Because of its low cost and practicality, EAT-26 might be a useful tool in screening large populations for eating disorders.
No preview · Article · Nov 1996 · International Journal of Eating Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among male school children in Saudi Arabia and provide a growth chart for males 6-18 y old.
Three stage stratified cluster sampling procedure.
The study population was 9061 male school children, attending public schools in Saudi Arabia. Their ages ranged from 6-18 y and covered all the 12 grade levels of school. Children with evidence of chronic or acute diseases were excluded from the study.
Structured questionnaire, including: location of school, socio-demographic characteristics and age of the student. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height was done for all the study sample. Growth charts were designed through fitting the polynomial regression model of degree three. The percentage of body mass index (BMI) of expected BMI at the 50th percentile for each age group was computed. The 50th percentile of The National Center for Health Statistics/Center for Disease Control reference population was used as the expected standard population values for defining childhood overweight and obesity.
The overall prevalence of overweight was 11.7% and obesity 15.8%. There was a statistically significant variation in the regional distribution of overweight and obesity (P < 0.01). The highest prevalence (18.0%) was recorded in Riyadh, capital of Saudi Arabia, and the lowest was in Sabea (11.1%) located in the Southern region.
These findings of a high prevalence of childhood obesity when compared with the NCHS/CDC calls for an early health education program on the appropriate choice of diets for growth, health and longevity. However, because of the possible ethnic differences between the Saudi and American populations, the growth charts presented could serve as a better reference for future comparisons.
No preview · Article · Nov 1996 · International Journal of Obesity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: PurposeFollowing transsternal thymectomy, up to 50% of patients may require postoperative ventilation. The aim of this study was
to identify the variables most useful in predicting the myasthenic patient who needs postoperative mechanical ventilation.
MethodsWe applied multivariate discriminant analysis to preoperative physical, historical, laboratory and intraoperative data of
51 myasthenic patients who underwent transcervical-transsternal thymectomy to select those variables most useful in predicting
the postoperative need for mechanical ventilation. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also used to describe
the discrimination abilities and to explore the trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity of the model.
ResultsDiscriminant analysis identified seven risk factors that correlated with the need for postoperative ventilation: FVC, FEF25–75%, MEF50% and their percentages of the predicted values, as well as, sex. The model correctly predicted the actual ventilatory outcome
in 88.2% of patients. The area under the ROC curve verified that our model correctly predicted the actual ventilatory outcome
with a probability of 88.2%.
ConclusionsThis model can be used for predicting the need for postoperative mechanical ventilation in myasthenia gravis patients.
ObjectifAprès une thymectomie transternale, jusqu’à 50% des patients peuvent avoir besoin de ventilation postopératoire. L’objectif
de cette étude était d’identifier les variables les plus utiles pour prédire le besoin de ventilation mécanique postopératoire
chez le myasthénique.
MéthodesL’analyse discriminante multifactorielle a été appliquée à l’examen physique préopératoire, à l’anamnèse, au laboratoire et
aux données peropératoires de 51 myasthéniques qui ont subi une thymectomie transcervicotransternale dans le but de choisir
les variables les plus utiles pour prédire le besoin postopératoire de ventilation mécanique. La courbe ROC (receiver operating
characteristic) a aussi été utilisée pour décrire les capacités de discrimination et pour explorer les échanges entre la sensibilité
et la spécificité du modèle.
RésultatsL’analyse discriminante a identifié sept facteurs de risque qui corrélaient avec le besoin de ventilation postopératoire:
CVF, FEF25–75%, FEM50% et leur pourcentage des valeurs prédites, ainsi que le sexe. Le modèle a prédit le résultat ventilatoire actuel chez 88,2%
des patients. La surface sous la courbe a prédit correctement le résultat ventilatoire actuel avec un probabilité de 88,2%.
ConclusionOn peut utiliser ce modèle pour prédire le besoin de ventilation mécanique postopératoire chez des patients souffrant de myasthénie
Full-text · Article · Oct 1996 · Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We aimed to validate the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) in Arabic.
Subjects were chosen randomly from female school students. Only healthy Saudi students were included. They were asked to fill the EDI and undergo a semi-structured interview by a psychiatrist who was unaware of the EDI scores. Of 146 students approached 12 did not meet our criteria and were excluded; 16 other students were excluded for incomplete responses.
The difference between the two diagnostic methods in the proportion of caseness was statistically significantly (P < 0.0001). The scores on Perfectionism, Maturity Fears and Interoceptive Awareness were significantly higher in the Saudi students compared with Canadians (P < 0.05).
The EDI-DT subscale has a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 85%. Despite its low positive predictive value of 5%, it may be useful for screening large non-clinical groups for eating disorders.
No preview · Article · May 1996 · The British Journal of Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to examine the distribution and effects of sex and urbanization on cord serum lipids, and to determine the cut-off point for calculating prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in neonates in Saudi Arabia. The study sample was 200 full-term newborns at four different hospitals selected on a quota basis from the urban and rural areas of Saudi Arabia. Total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were the serum lipids assayed. The results showed that the serum total cholesterol and HDL concentration were significantly higher in urban than in rural areas. However, there was no significant sex differential in the lipids. The cut-off points for the calculation of prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia were 1.79 mmol/l in rural areas and 2.56 mmol/l in urban areas. The study also showed that the 95th percentiles of the three lipid parameters were lower than those reported from other countries, e.g. Australia and Finland. This study provides the distributional form of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride in cord blood, and may serve as a pilot for a large-scale study which incorporates the prevalence of familial hypercholesterolaemia in Saudi Arabia.
No preview · Article · Apr 1996 · Annals of Tropical Paediatrics International Child Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among intermediate (junior secondary) schoolboys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
A sample of 1382 students (ages 12-19 years) in 45 classes randomly selected from 15 schools, using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling scheme.
Students in the selected classes were requested to complete an anonymous questionnaire, under the supervision of trained interviewers. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of potential risk factors were performed.
Intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Association between current smoking and socio-demographic variables, history of smoking, age of smoking initiation, smoking behaviour among family members, knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking, and whether smoking is allowed in the presence of relatives and acquaintances.
The prevalence of current smokers was 13.2% overall, ranging from 3.2% in those 12-13 years old to 31.1% in those aged 18-19. Some of the variables (nationality, father's education, and smoking allowed in the presence of parents or teachers) found to be associated with current smoking in a univariate analysis were no longer significantly associated with smoking in the multivariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking, age, smoking allowed in the presence of friends or brothers, and previous smoking were statistically significant determinants of current smoking.
Current health education activities against smoking should be continued and extended to the young population to further reduce the prevalence of smoking and its health consequences. Religious antipathy toward smoking should be emphasised in any local anti-smoking campaigns.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective; To examine the views and attitudes of a sample of outpatients on the proposed appointment system at the Primary Health Care Clinics (PHCC) of King Khalid University Hospital. Setting: The Primary Health Care Clinics of the King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH). Design: A systematic sample of every tenth patient attending the PHCC over a period of three weeks between May and June 1994 was selected. The sample members completed questionnaires containing demographic data and information regarding views and opinions of the intended move to an appointment system. Subjects: Male and female outpatients over 12 years old attending the PHCC of KKUH. Results: The median waiting time was one hour with a mean of 1.33 hours SD(0.882). The waiting time was significantly higher in females than males and significantly different among the occupational groups. There was no statistical significant association between dissatisfaction with waiting times and decisions to seek alternative health providers. Ninety-six percent of the respondents (267) believed the appointment system would be more valuable than the present "walk-in" system for various reasons discussed in the text. Conclusions: Patients showed dissatisfaction with the present system of outpatient admission to the clinic. However, this dissatisfaction did not influence them to seek other health providers thus indicating their confidence in the quality of care at the PHCC of King Khalid University Hospital. They perceived several benefits of the intended appointment system. A post survey to assess the new appointment system is recommended after a trial period of six months.
No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · Saudi medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among males and females in a suburban area of Saudi Arabia and correlate Body Mass Index with observed chronic diseases. Design: A period prevalence study of all adult outpatients meeting the inclusion criteria between July 1993 and January 1994. Setting: The Outpatient Department of Al-Kharj Military Industry Corporation Hospital, a suburban area of Riyadh, capital of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Collection of demographic data, anthropometric measurements and chronic disease diagnoses of all adult male and female patients attending the clinic over an 18 month period. Body Mass Index (BMI) was derived from weight (kg)/height (meter).2 Overweight and obesity were defined as 25 kg/m2 <BMI <30 kg/m2 and BMI > 30 kg/m2 respectively. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the study sample of 1485 patients (685 males and 800 females) was found to be 31.5% and 40.5% for females and 40.2% and 21.0% for males respectively. These values were, however, lower when BMI greater than 85th and 95th percentile of the American population 20-29 year age group, was used to define overweight and obesity respectively. There was a significant sex differential and patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension and gallstones have a significantly higher proportion of obesity. Conclusion: A high prevalence of obesity is observed particularly in females. Outpatient departments and primary health care centers should include nutritionists in their team to educate subjects on good nutritional habits and weight control.
No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · Saudi medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study are to describe erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in a Saudi population, examine its variation with age and sex and assess its diagnostic value for specific chronic diseases such as diabetes. The mellitus, hypertension, choleliteriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. The subjects were outpatients sample attending Al-Kharj Military Hospital, Saudi Arabia between July and December 1993. The study showed ESR has a positively skewed distribution and females have statically significantly higher values at all ages than males (P < 0.0001). ESR varies directly with age and cut-off points of ESR > 30 mm/hr and ESR > 40 mm/hr can be defined as morbidly elevated for males and females respectively. These cut-off points have poor sensitivity but high specificity for the diagnosis of a chronic disease. The findings showed that ESR is a poor diagnostic tool for chronic disease has a high proportion of false negatives, however it may be useful in monitoring the prognosis of the disease following treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A case-control study was conducted in Saudi Arabia, where the same strain of BCG has been used and surveys had shown that up to 88% of vaccinated children remain tuberculin negative. Active cases were obtained by surveying the seven tuberculosis centers in 1 yr. Control subjects were obtained from a nationwide survey of normal individuals. Vaccination in both groups was ascertained by history and BCG scar. Relative risk of contracting active tuberculosis in the vaccinated versus unvaccinated and protection was calculated. Protection was as follows: age group 5 to 14 yr, 82% (55 to 93%); age group 15 to 24 yr, 67% (55 to 77%); and age group 25 to 34 yr, 20% (-6 to 37%). We document the uninterrupted record of protection by BCG administered in the neonatal period and discuss the significance of vaccination timing. We concur with other studies that protection lapsed after about 20 yr. More importantly, this is the first large study that documents a lack of tuberculin sensitivity despite protection. This challenges the view that sensitization is essential for protection and supports the "two-pathway" theory that BCG vaccination could trigger either protective (Lister type) or antagonistic (tuberculin or Koch type) reactions and that the most protective vaccines would have little tuberculin-sensitizing effect because the two pathways are competitive.
No preview · Article · Dec 1995 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To measure statistically how soon pregnancy can occur after an ectopic pregnancy (EP) so as to determine the cumulative pregnancy rate and the risk factors involved in nonpregnancy.
The risk of not getting pregnant after an EP (survivorship) was estimated for 120 patients followed up for up to 60 months using the actuarial life-table technique. The risk factors involved in nonpregnancy, abortions, or live births were analyzed, using Cox regression models.
King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
There were 68 pregnancies over the study period, with a conception rate of 56.7%. Using the actuarial life table, the cumulative probability of not achieving pregnancy in a patient decreased sharply during the first 12 months, followed by a gradual decrease up to 48 months. The Cox regression analysis showed a correlation between pregnancy and two variables, namely, age and history of prior EP. The chances of a pregnancy resulting in abortion or live birth also correlated with the presence of prior infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), or postoperative complications.
Age and prior EP are important determinants in pregnancy rates after an EP. Similarly, history of PID, infertility, and postoperative complications are important risk factors in whether the pregnancy goes to term or ends in abortion.
No preview · Article · Dec 1995 · Fertility and Sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to identify possible factors influencing the growth pattern of Saudi children in the first 2 years
of life. The body length and weight of 400 healthy babies attending the well-baby care clinic of King Khalid University Hospital,
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were measured at various determined ages in a cross-sectional study design. Nutritional indicators were
calculated and the proportions with low height-for-age, low weight-for-height and low weight-for-age were compared with the
reference population. The results showed a prevalence of 2 per cent of wasted children and 18 per cent of children with stunted
growth. A univariate and multivariate analysis of personal and nutritional variables with the standard nutritional indicators
identified age, sex, bottle feeding, and type of solid foods as significant risk factors for stunted growth. Stunting increases
with age and males have poorer growth pattern than females. Genetic factors and poor feeding practices of the children are
suggested reasons for the observed faltering growth between 6 and 24 months of age. A public health education programme for
good nutrition is highly recommended
No preview · Article · Sep 1994 · Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The study examines the meaning of waiting time in an outpatient department. Attention is payed to the activities of the patients and companions during the waiting time, the potential for health education programmes during the waiting time and the form such a health education programme should take. The setting was the King Khalid University Hospital Outpatient Department, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study sample was selected by a systematic random sample approach of one in every 10 patients or companions visiting the clinic in a period of 2 weeks. The results showed an average waiting time of 148 min with a standard deviation of 11 min. Patients currently engage in reading, sleeping or talking during long waiting time. However, they showed a preference for health education programmes for specific diseases such as heart disease, diabetes mellitus and bowel diseases during the waiting time. Leaflets were favoured to be the most preferred mode for disseminating such information. A sizeable proportion of patients also wanted religious programmes included. We conclude that education programmes for preferred specific health topics at outpatient clinic services would be of potential benefit to patients' overall health.
No preview · Article · May 1994 · Patient Education and Counseling