Donald M Lloyd-Jones

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States

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Publications (344)3865.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Multiple genetic loci are associated with clinical cardiovascular (CV) disease and individual CV risk factors. Individuals with ideal levels of all major CV risk factors have very low risk for CVD morbidity or mortality. Ideal levels of risk factors can be attained by lifestyle modifications; however, little is known about gene variants associated with ideal CV health. Our objective was to carry out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on the trait.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Circulation
  • Donald M Lloyd-Jones · David C Goff · Neil J Stone

    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Annals of internal medicine
  • John T. Wilkins · Ron C. Li · Allan Sniderman · Cheeling Chan · Donald M. Lloyd-Jones
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND High levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB) have been shown to predict atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults even in the context of low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C). OBJECTIVES This study aimed to quantify the associations between apoB and the discordance between apoB and LDL-C or non-HDL-C in young adults and measured coronary artery calcium (CAC) in midlife. METHODS Data were derived from a multicenter cohort study of young adults recruited at ages 18 to 30 years. All participants with complete baseline CVD risk factor data, including apoB and year 25 (Y25) CAC score, were entered into this study. Presence of CAC was defined as having a positive, nonzero Agatston score as determined by computed tomography. Baseline apoB values were divided into tertiles of 4 mutually exclusive concordant/discordant groups, based on median apoB and LDL-C or non-HDL-C. RESULTS Analysis included 2,794 participants (mean age: 25 +/- 3.6 years; body mass index: 24.5 +/- 5 kg/m(2); and 44.4% male). Mean lipid values were as follows: total cholesterol: 177.3 +/- 33.1 mg/dl; LDL-C: 109.9 +/- 31.1 mg/dl; non-HDL-C: 124.0 +/- 33.5 mg/dl; HDL-C: 53 +/- 12.8 mg/dl; and apoB: 90.7 +/- 24 mg/dl; median triglycerides were 61 mg/dl. Compared with the lowest apoB tertile, higher odds of developing Y25 CAC were seen in the middle (odds ratio [OR]: 1.53) and high (OR: 2.28) tertiles based on traditional risk factor-adjusted models. High apoB and low LDL-C or non-HDL-C discordance was also associated with Y25 CAC in adjusted models (OR: 1.55 and OR: 1.45, respectively). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest a dose-response association between apoB in young adults and the presence of midlife CAC independent of baseline traditional CVD risk factors. (C) 2016 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  • Neil J. Stone · Donald Lloyd-Jones · Sidney Smith

    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Examine associations of favorable levels of all cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (RFs) [i.e., low risk (LR)] at younger ages with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) at older ages. Methods: There were 1,324 participants ages 65-84 years with hs-CRP ≤ 10mg/l from the Chicago Healthy Aging Study (2007-2010), CVD RFs assessed at baseline (1967-73) and 39 years later. LR was defined as untreated blood pressure (BP) ≤120/≤80 mmHg, untreated serum total cholesterol <200 mg/dL, body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m(2), not smoking, no diabetes. Hs-CRP was natural log-transformed or dichotomized as elevated (≥3 mg/l or ≥2 mg/l) vs. otherwise. Results: With multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for follow-up hs-CRP ≥3 mg/ in participants with baseline 0RF, 1RF and 2+RFs compared to those with baseline LR were 1.35 (0.89-2.03), 1.61(1.08-2.40) and 1.69(1.04-2.75), respectively. There was also a graded, direct association across four categories of RF groups with follow-up hs-CRP levels (β coefficient/P-trend = 0.18/0.014). Associations were mainly due to baseline smoking and BMI, independent of 39-year change in BMI levels. Similar trends were observed in gender-specific analyses. Conclusions: Favorable levels of all CVD RFs in younger age are associated with lower hs-CRP level in older age.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale and objectives: To assess the performance of automated quantification of left ventricular function and mass based on heart deformation analysis (HDA) in asymptomatic older adults. Materials and methods: This study complied with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations. Following the approval of the institutional review board, 160 asymptomatic older participants were recruited for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging including two-dimensional cine images covering the entire left ventricle in short-axis view. Data analysis included the calculation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular mass (LVM), and cardiac output (CO) using HDA and standard global cardiac function analysis (delineation of end-systolic and end-diastolic left ventricle epi- and endocardial borders). The agreement between methods was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CoV). Results: HDA had a shorter processing time than the standard method (1.5 ± 0.3 min/case vs. 5.8 ± 1.4 min/case, P < 0.001). There was good agreement for LVEF (ICC = 0.552, CoV = 10.5%), CO (ICC = 0.773, CoV = 13.5%), and LVM (ICC = 0.859, CoV = 14.5%) acquired with the standard method and HDA. There was a systemic bias toward lower LVEF (62.8% ± 8.3% vs. 69.3% ± 6.7%, P < 0.001) and CO (4.4 ± 1.0 L/min vs. 4.8 ± 1.3 L/min, P < 0.001) by HDA compared to the standard technique. Conversely, HDA overestimated LVM (114.8 ± 30.1 g vs. 100.2 ± 29.0 g, P < 0.001) as compared to the reference method. Conclusions: HDA has the potential to measure LVEF, CO, and LVM without the need for user interaction based on standard cardiac two-dimensional cine images.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Academic radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Many eligible primary cardiovascular disease prevention candidates are not treated with statins. Electronic health record data can identify patients with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Methods and results: We performed a pragmatic randomized controlled trial at community health centers in 2 states. Participants were men aged ≥35 years and women ≥45 years, without cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus, and with a 10-year risk of coronary heart disease of at least 10%. The intervention group received telephone and mailed outreach, individualized based on patients' cardiovascular disease risk and uncontrolled risk factors, provided by lay health workers. Main outcomes included: documented discussion of medication treatment for cholesterol with a primary care clinician, receipt of statin prescription within 6 months, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol repeated and at least 30 mg/dL lower than baseline within 1 year. Six hundred forty-six participants (328 and 318 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) were included. At 6 months, 26.8% of intervention and 11.6% of control patients had discussed cholesterol treatment with a primary care clinician (odds ratio, 2.79; [95% confidence interval, 2.25-3.46]). Statin prescribing occurred for 10.1% in the intervention group and 6.0% in the control group (odds ratio, 1.76; [95% confidence interval, 0.90-3.45]). The cholesterol outcome did not differ, and the majority of patients did not repeat lipid levels during follow-up. Conclusions: Risk communication and lay outreach increased cholesterol treatment discussions with primary care clinicians. However, most discussions did not result in statin prescribing. For outreach to be successful, it should be combined with interventions to encourage clinicians to follow contemporary risk-based cholesterol treatment guidelines. Clinical trial registration: URL: Unique identifier: NCT01610609.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
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    ABSTRACT: Background-Middle-aged adults with ideal blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose levels exhibit substantially lower cardiovascular mortality than those with unfavorable levels. Four healthy lifestyle components-optimal body weight, diet, physical activity, and not smoking-are recommended for cardiovascular health (CVH). This study quantified associations between combinations of healthy lifestyle components measured in young adulthood and loss of the ideal CVH profile into middle age. Methods and Results-Analyses included 2164 young adults in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study with the ideal CVH profile (defined as untreated blood pressure <120/80 mm Hg, total cholesterol <200 mg/dL, fasting blood glucose <100 mg/dL, and absence of cardiovascular disease) at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated hazard ratios for loss of the ideal CVH profile over 25 years according to 4 individual and 16 combinations of optimal healthy lifestyle components measured in young adulthood: body mass index, physical activity, nonsmoking status, and diet quality. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, study center, and baseline blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose. Eighty percent (n=1737) of participants lost the ideal CVH profile by middle age; loss was greatest for young adults with no optimal healthy lifestyle components at baseline. Relative to young adults with no optimal healthy lifestyle components, those with all 4 were less likely to lose the ideal CVH profile (hazard ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.44-0.80). Combinations that included optimal body mass index and nonsmoking status were each associated with lower risk. Conclusions-Optimal body mass index and not smoking in young adulthood were protective against loss of the ideal CVH profile through middle age. Importance of diet and physical activity may be included through their effects on healthy weight.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Greater public awareness of venous thromboembolism may be an important next step for optimizing venous thromboembolism prevention and treatment. "Lifetime risk" is an easily interpretable way of presenting risk information. Therefore, we sought to calculate the lifetime risk of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism) using data from two large, prospective cohort studies: the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Methods: We followed participants aged 45-64 years in ARIC (n=14,185) and ≥65 in CHS (n=5,414) at baseline visits (1987-89 in ARIC, 1989-90 and 1992-93 in CHS) for incident venous thromboembolism (n=728 in ARIC through 2011 and n=172 in CHS through 2001). We estimated lifetime risks and 95% confidence intervals of incident venous thromboembolism using a modified Kaplan-Meier method, accounting for the competing risk of death from other causes. Results: At age 45, the remaining lifetime risk of venous thromboembolism in ARIC was 8.1% (95% confidence interval: 7.1-8.7). High-risk groups were African Americans (11.5% lifetime risk), those with obesity (10.9%), heterozygous for the factor V Leiden (17.1%), or with sickle cell trait or disease (18.2%). Lifetime risk estimates differed by cohort; these differences were explained by differences in time period of venous thromboembolism ascertainment. Conclusions: At least 1 in 12 middle-aged adults will develop venous thromboembolism in their remaining lifetime. This estimate of lifetime risk may be useful to promote awareness of venous thromboembolism and guide decisions at both clinical and policy levels.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The American journal of medicine
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    ABSTRACT: With widespread availability and the use of antiretroviral therapy, patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States are living long enough to experience non-AIDS-defining illnesses. HIV is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) because of traditional CVD risk factors, residual virally mediated inflammation despite HIV treatment, and side effects of antiretroviral therapy. No United States population-wide studies have evaluated patterns of CVD mortality for HIV-infected subjects. Our central hypothesis was that the proportionate mortality from CVD (CVD mortality/total mortality) in the HIV-infected population increased from 1999 to 2013. We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research online database of the United States public health data to assess proportionate CVD mortality from 1999 to 2013 in the HIV-infected, general, and inflammatory polyarthropathy populations; the inflammatory polyarthropathy population was included as a positive control group. Total mortality in the HIV-infected population decreased from 15,739 in 1999 to 8,660 in 2013; however, CVD mortality increased from 307 to 400 during the same period. Thus, proportionate CVD mortality for the HIV-infected population increased significantly from 1999 to 2013 (p <0.0001); this pattern was consistent across races, particularly for men. In contrast, proportionate CVD mortality decreased for the general and inflammatory polyarthropathy populations from 1999 to 2013. In conclusion, CVD has become an increasingly common cause of death in HIV-infected subjects since 1999; understanding evolving mortality risks in the HIV-infected population is essential to inform routine clinical care of HIV-infected subjects as well as CVD prevention and treatment.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The American journal of cardiology
  • Donald M. Lloyd-Jones

    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events, including coronary heart disease and stroke, are the most frequent cause of death and major disability in the world. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association primary prevention guidelines are mainly on the basis of randomized controlled trials of statin-based low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering therapy for primary prevention of ASCVD events. Despite the clear demonstration of statin-based LDL-C lowering, substantial 10-year and lifetime risks of incident ASCVD continue. Although the 10-year risk is low in young and middle-aged adults who would not be treated according to current guidelines, they ultimately account for most incident ASCVD. If statin-based LDL-C lowering were initiated in them at an age before complex coronary plaques are common in the population, a substantial reduction in lifetime risk of incident coronary heart disease might be achieved. We examine this hypothesis and introduce the design of a currently recruiting trial to address it. (Eliminate Coronary Artery Disease [ECAD]; NCT02245087)
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This study was conducted to examine the association between ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) and health-related quality of life and health status indicators. Methods: This cross-sectional study included adult NHANES participants from 2001 to 2010 without CVD (N = 7115). CVH was defined according to AHA definitions with poor, intermediate and ideal levels of the seven factors (diet, BMI, physical activity, smoking, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol) assigned scores of 0, 1, and 2, respectively. A CVH score (CVHS) was calculated as the sum of the scores from each individual health factor (range 0-14; higher score indicating greater CVH). CVHS was categorized as poor (0-7), intermediate (8-10), and ideal (11-14). Linear regression models examined the association between CVHS category with health status and number of unhealthy days per month, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics and disability. Results: Among US adults 20-79 years, 14, 46 and 40 % had ideal, intermediate and poor CVHS, respectively. Compared to those with poor CVH, individuals in intermediate and ideal CVH were 44 and 71 % less likely to report being in fair/poor health. Participants with ideal CVH scores reported a mean of 2.4 fewer unhealthy days over the past month, including one less day in which their physical health was not good and two fewer days in which their mental health was not good. Conclusions: Ideal CVH is associated with greater overall health status and fewer physically and mentally unhealthy days.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the association between cardiovascular health (CVH) in young adulthood and left ventricular (LV) structure and function later in life. Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, which recruited black and white participants aged 18 to 30 years at baseline, were included; echocardiography was performed at year 25. CVH at year 0 was defined on the basis of blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, body mass index, smoking status, diet, and physical activity. Two, 1, or 0 points were assigned to each component for ideal, intermediate, and poor levels of each component. Participants were stratified into CVH groups on the basis of point score: ≤8 (poor), 9 to 11 (intermediate), and 12 to 14 (ideal). The distribution of CVH at year 0 was as follows: poor, n = 264 (9%); intermediate, n = 1,315 (47%); and ideal, n = 1,224 (44%). Individuals with ideal and intermediate CVH at year 0 had significantly lower LV end-diastolic volume and lower LV mass index at year 25. In participants with ideal and intermediate CVH, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for diastolic dysfunction at year 25 was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.37-0.73) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.46-0.83), respectively, compared with participants with poor CVH. Participants with ideal and intermediate CVH had significantly lower odds for LV hypertrophy; the LV mass index was 5.3 to 8.7 g/m(2.7) lower (P < .001 for both) than in participants with poor CVH. Greater levels of CVH in young adulthood are associated with lower LV mass and lower risk for diastolic dysfunction 25 years later. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · International Journal of Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) have widely varying prognoses and treatment options. Validated models for risk stratification of patients with CHD are needed. We sought to evaluate traditional and novel risk factors as predictors of secondary cardiovascular (CV) events, and to develop a prediction model that could be used to risk stratify patients with stable CHD. We used independent derivation (912 participants in the Heart and Soul Study) and validation (2876 participants in the PEACE trial) cohorts of patients with stable CHD to develop a risk prediction model using Cox proportional hazards models. The outcome was CV events, defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, or CV death. The annual rate of CV events was 3.4% in the derivation cohort and 2.2% in the validation cohort. With the exception of smoking, traditional risk factors (including age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes) did not emerge as the top predictors of secondary CV events. The top 4 predictors of secondary events were the following: N-terminal pro-type brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and current smoking. The 5-year C-index for this 4-predictor model was 0.73 in the derivation cohort and 0.65 in the validation cohort. As compared with variables in the Framingham secondary events model, the Heart and Soul risk model resulted in net reclassification improvement of 0.47 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.73) in the derivation cohort and 0.18 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.40) in the validation cohort. Novel risk factors are superior to traditional risk factors for predicting 5-year risk of secondary events in patients with stable CHD. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial disease or myopathy forms the substrate for atrial fibrillation (AF) and underlies the potential for atrial thrombus formation and subsequent stroke. Current diagnostic approaches in patients with AF focus on identifying clinical predictors with the evaluation of left atrial size by echocardiography serving as the sole measure specifically evaluating the atrium. Although the atrial substrate underlying AF is likely developing for years before the onset of AF, there is no current evaluation to identify the preclinical atrial myopathy. Atrial fibrosis is 1 component of the atrial substrate that has garnered recent attention based on newer MRI techniques that have been applied to visualize atrial fibrosis in humans with prognostic implications regarding the success of treatment. Advanced ECG signal processing, echocardiographic techniques, and MRI imaging of fibrosis and flow provide up-to-date approaches to evaluate the atrial myopathy underlying AF. Although thromboembolic risk is currently defined by clinical scores, their predictive value is mediocre. Evaluation of stasis via imaging and biomarkers associated with thrombogenesis may provide enhanced approaches to assess risk for stroke in patients with AF. Better delineation of the atrial myopathy that serves as the substrate for AF and thromboembolic complications might improve treatment outcomes. Furthermore, better delineation of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the development of the atrial substrate for AF, particularly in its earlier stages, could help identify blood and imaging biomarkers that could be useful to assess risk for developing new-onset AF and suggest specific pathways that could be targeted for prevention. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Circulation
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    ABSTRACT: We determined whether poorer 6-minute walk performance and lower physical activity levels are associated with higher rates of ischemic heart disease (IHD) events in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Five hundred ten PAD participants were identified from Chicago-area medical centers and followed prospectively for 19.0±9.5 months. At baseline, participants completed the 6-minute walk and reported number of blocks walked during the past week (physical activity). IHD events were systematically adjudicated and consisted of new myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and cardiac death. For 6-minute walk, IHD event rates were 25/170 (14.7%) for the third (poorest) tertile, 10/171 (5.8%%) for the second tertile, and 6/169 (3.5%) for the first (best) tertile (P=0.003). For physical activity, IHD event rates were 21/154 (13.6%) for the third (poorest) tertile, 15/174 (8.6%) for the second tertile, and 5/182 (2.7%) for the first (best) tertile (P=0.001). Adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, body mass index, comorbidities, and physical activity, participants in the poorest 6-minute walk tertile had a 3.28-fold (95% CI 1.17 to 9.17, P=0.024) higher hazard for IHD events, compared with those in the best tertile. Adjusting for confounders including 6-minute walk, participants in the poorest physical activity tertile had a 3.72-fold (95% CI 1.24 to 11.19, P=0.019) higher hazard for IHD events, compared with the highest tertile. Six-minute walk and physical activity predict IHD event rates in PAD. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions that improve 6-minute walk, physical activity, or both can reduce IHD events in PAD. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the cross-sectional association between optimism and cardiovascular health (CVH). We used data collected from adults aged 52-84 who participated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (n=5,134) during the first follow-up visit (2002-2004). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associations of optimism with ideal and intermediate CVH (with reference being poor CVH), after adjusting for socio-demographic factors and psychological ill-being. Participants in the highest quartile of optimism were more likely to have intermediate [OR=1.51:95%CI=1.25,1.82] and ideal [OR=1.92:95%CI=1.30,2.85] CVH when compared to the least optimistic group. Individual CVH metrics of diet, physical activity, BMI, smoking, blood sugar and total cholesterol contributed to the overall association. We offer evidence for a cross-sectional association between optimism and CVH.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
  • Yuichiro Yano · Stanley S Franklin · Philip Greenland · Donald Lloyd-Jones

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Publication Stats

40k Citations
3,865.85 Total Impact Points


  • 2004-2016
    • Northwestern University
      • • Department of Preventive Medicine
      • • Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2012
    • Northwestern Memorial Hospital
      • Department of Surgery
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2011
    • Wake Forest University
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
    • American College of Cardiology
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2008-2011
    • American Heart Association
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 2009
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2005-2007
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1999-2007
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Division of Cardiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 1999-2003
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      • Division of Cardiovascular Sciences (DCVS)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2002
    • The Vascular Group
      Albany, New York, United States
  • 1998-2000
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Boston Biomedical Research Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States