[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The culmination of over a century's work to understand the role of the immune system in tumor control has led to the recent advances in cancer immunotherapies that have resulted in durable clinical responses in patients with a variety of malignancies. Cancer immunotherapies are rapidly changing traditional treatment paradigms and expanding the therapeutic landscape for cancer patients. However, despite the current success of these therapies, not all patients respond to immunotherapy and even those that do often experience toxicities. Thus, there is a growing need to identify predictive and prognostic biomarkers that enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions between the immune system and cancer. Therefore, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) reconvened an Immune Biomarkers Task Force to review state of the art technologies, identify current hurdlers, and make recommendations for the field. As a product of this task force, Working Group 2 (WG2), consisting of international experts from academia and industry, assembled to identify and discuss promising technologies for biomarker discovery and validation. Thus, this WG2 consensus paper will focus on the current status of emerging biomarkers for immune checkpoint blockade therapy and discuss novel technologies as well as high dimensional data analysis platforms that will be pivotal for future biomarker research. In addition, this paper will include a brief overview of the current challenges with recommendations for future biomarker discovery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune checkpoint antibodies that augment the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway have demonstrated anti-tumor activity across multiple malignancies,
and gained recent regulatory approval as single agent therapy for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma and non-small
cell lung cancer. Knowledge of toxicities associated with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, as well as effective management algorithms
for these toxicities, is pivotal in order to optimize clinical efficacy and safety. Herein, we review selected published and
presented clinical studies investigating single agent anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy and trials of combination approaches with other
standard anti-cancer therapies, in multiple tumor types. We summarize the key adverse events reported in these studies, and
their management algorithms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pioneers of tumor immunology and cancer immunotherapy, including the late William B. Coley and Lloyd J. Old, have championed the potential for immunotherapy for over a century. Finally, advances in our understanding of the fundamentals of tumor immunology are translating into clinical success, with recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of several immunotherapies that improve clinical outcomes across prostate cancer, metastatic melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and lymphocytic leukemia. In tandem with these clinical successes, new technologies such as high-throughput DNA/RNA sequencing, genetic engineering, and streamlined ex vivo cell culturing have paved the way for the next generation of immunotherapies and provided new tools for investigating potential biomarkers of response to existing therapies. During the November 2014 Annual Meeting of the Society of the Immunotherapy of Cancer, leaders in tumor immunology and cancer immunotherapy convened at the second annual SITC Primer to review both current knowledge and future directions in the field. Here, we will review the key discussions across a variety of topics, including innate immunity, adaptive immunity, dendritic cells, adoptive T cell therapy, anti-tumor antibodies, cancer vaccines, immune checkpoint blockade, challenges to immunotherapy, monitoring immune responses, and immunotherapy clinical trial design.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic immune checkpoint antibodies promote potentially durable cancer control by modulating key regulatory factors of the endogenous anti-tumor immune response. The first clinical trial data of these agents in breast cancer were presented at the 2014 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, with seemingly modest response rates compared with metastatic melanoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. In this article, we review the San Antonio immunotherapy data, drawing key analogies to historical experiences in metastatic melanoma that support an enthusiastic outlook for immunotherapy in breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Checkpoint blockade is a transformative therapeutic approach to a broad spectrum of malignancies because it increases the power of antitumor immunity to obtain durable responses. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is the prototypical inhibitory checkpoint receptor. Since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab for use in patients with melanoma, there has been ever-increasing excitement among oncologists about new ways to use this method of releasing the "brakes" on patients' endogenous immune systems. This review will summarize the preclinical and clinical development of CTLA-4-blocking antibodies, discuss recent insights into the biology of CTLA-4 blockade, review the use of these antibodies in combination with established and novel therapeutic modalities, and comment on ongoing questions regarding their administration.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Immune modulation in cancer refers to a range of treatments aimed at harnessing a patient's immune system to achieve tumour control, stabilisation, and potential eradication of disease. A novel therapeutic drug class called immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies modulate T-cell pathways that regulate T cells and have the potential to reinvigorate an antitumour immune response. Ipilimumab was the first FDA-approved immune checkpoint antibody licensed for the treatment of metastatic melanoma (MM) and blocks a checkpoint molecule called cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4).
Herein we review the preclinical and clinical development of ipilimumab. We outline the mode of action of these agents and other immune checkpoint inhibitors, the management of their toxicities, and how to adequately assess response to treatment.
As a result of these data, a number of other antibodies that block novel checkpoint molecules including programmed death-1 (PD-1), and corresponding ligands such as programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are under preclinical and clinical development, and have demonstrated activity in multiple tumour types.
This review will summarise the mechanism of action and clinical development of immune checkpoint antibodies, as well as lessons learned in the management and assessment of patients receiving these agents.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the development and approval of Ipilimumab, the first immune checkpoint inhibitor licensed for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, clinicians have gained a better understanding of the mode of action, management of toxicities, and assessment of response to this class of drugs. Several antibodies are now in development, aimed at blocking novel immune checkpoint molecules, such as PD-1 and it's corresponding ligand PD-L1. This article summarizes the mechanism of action, preclinical development, and subsequent clinical studies of immune checkpoint antibodies in melanoma.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although immunogenicity is typically associated with renal cell carcinomas and melanoma, there are several compelling reasons why immune-based therapies should be explored in breast cancer. First, breast cancers express multiple putative tumor-associated antigens, such as HER-2 and MUC-1, which have been the successful focus of vaccine development over the past decade, translating into tumor-specific immune responses and, in some cases, clinical benefit. Second, passive immune strategies with anti-HER-2 antibodies, such as trastuzumab and pertuzumab, have led to survival benefits in breast cancer. Finally, the successes observed with novel immunotherapeutic strategies, such as immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell therapies in other malignancies, combined with a growing body of literature that supports an interplay between solid tumors and the immune system, indicate that these strategies have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ipilimumab is the prototypical immunomodulatory antibody, approved by the FDA in 2011 for advanced melanoma on the basis of survival benefit. Since that time, we have made significant strides in optimizing this therapy: we have characterized the spectrum of immune-related adverse events and learned how to mitigate them with treatment algorithms, discovered potential biomarkers of activity, and identified the potential synergy between checkpoint modulation and other therapeutic modalities. Recent phase I trials have established the efficacy and safety of next-generation checkpoint agents, including PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors, across multiple tumor types. Much work lies ahead in developing these next-generation checkpoint agents, testing them in combination, and determining how to integrate them into the treatment paradigms of various tumor types. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 65 is January 14, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Annual review of medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ipilimumab, an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody, was the first therapy demonstrated to improve overall survival in melanoma. Since ipilimumab's approval by the FDA in 2011, a wealth of data has amassed, helping clinicians to optimize its use. We have learned how to mitigate the adverse effects of ipilimumab, identified its effects in melanoma subpopulations such as those with brain metastases, uveal melanoma, and mucosal melanoma, discovered potential biomarkers of activity, and investigated its use in combination with other therapeutic modalities. These discoveries have paved the way for rapid development of second-generation immunomodulatory antibodies such as inhibitors of the programmed cell death 1 receptor axis. These new agents hold promise as monotherapy, but perhaps the greatest allure lies in the possibility of combining these agents in synergistic multidrug regimens.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Current Oncology Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibodies, such as ipilimumab, have generated measurable immune responses to Melan-A, NY-ESO-1, and gp100 antigens in metastatic melanoma. Vaccination against such targets has potential for immunogenicity and may produce an effector-memory T-cell response.
To determine the effect of CTLA-4 blockade on antigen-specific responses following vaccination, in-depth immune monitoring was performed on three ipilimumab-treated patients prevaccinated with gp100 DNA (IMF-24), gp100(209-217) and tyrosinase peptides plus GM-CSF DNA (IMF-32), or NY-ESO-1 protein plus imiquimod (IMF-11); peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by tetramer and/or intracellular cytokine staining following 10-day culture with HLA-A*0201-restricted gp100(209-217) (ITDQVPFSV), tyrosinase(369-377) (YMDGTMSQV), or 20-mer NY-ESO-1 overlapping peptides, respectively. Tumors from IMF-32 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to help elucidate mechanism(s) underlying tumor escape.
Following vaccination, patients generated weak to no CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell response specific to the vaccine antigen but demonstrated increases in effector-memory (CCR7(lo)CD45RA(lo)) tetramer(+)CD8(+) T cells. After ipilimumab induction, patients experienced a robust, although sometimes transient, antigen-specific response for gp100 (IMF-32 and IMF-24) or NY-ESO-1 (IMF-11) and produced polyfunctional intracellular cytokines. Primary and metastatic tumors expressed tyrosinase but not gp100 or class I/II MHC molecules.
Vaccination induced a measurable antigen-specific T-cell response that increased following CTLA-4 blockade, potentially "boosting" the vaccine-primed response. Tumor escape may be related to antigen loss or lack of MHC expression necessary for immune activity. These results in a limited number of patients support the need for further research into combining vaccination with ipilimumab and provide insight into mechanisms underlying tumor escape.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immune system can simultaneously protect against tumor growth and sculpt resistant tumor strains. By a variety of mechanisms, anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 therapy may shift such opposing forces towards tumor elimination. In recent clinical trials, anti-CTLA-4 therapy induces durable responses that correlate with markers of immune activity, such as antigen-specific CD4(+) or CD8(+) cytokine release, antitumor antibody formation or cellular phenotype differentiation. However, some patients exhibit atypical responses to anti-CTLA-4 therapy, demonstrating transient/delayed responses or heterogeneity by lesion site. Such atypical responses may offer insight into the mechanism of anti-CTLA-4 therapy. The immunogram - a newly described graphical synthesis of treatment data and immune correlates in individual patients - may help us to confirm, reject or formulate new hypotheses regarding the mechanism of anti-CTLA-4 activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody that antagonizes cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, a negative regulator of the immune system. The authors report on advanced refractory melanoma patients treated in a compassionate use trial of ipilimumab at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
: Patients with advanced refractory melanoma were treated in a compassionate use trial with ipilimumab 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 doses. Those with evidence of clinical benefit at Week 24 (complete response [CR], partial response [PR], or stable disease [SD]) then received ipilimumab every 12 weeks.
: A total of 53 patients were enrolled, with 51 evaluable. Grade 3/4 immune-related adverse events were noted in 29% of patients, with the most common immune-related adverse events being pruritus (43%), rash (37%), and diarrhea (33%). On the basis of immune-related response criteria, the response rate (CR + PR) was 12% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5%-25%), whereas 29% had SD (95% CI, 18%-44%). The median progression-free survival was 2.6 months (95% CI, 2.3-5.2 months), whereas the median overall survival (OS) was 7.2 months (95% CI, 4.0-13.3 months). Patients with an absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) > micro =1000/microL after 2 ipilimumab treatments (Week 7) had a significantly improved clinical benefit rate (51% vs 0%; P = .01) and median OS (11.9 vs 1.4 months; P < .001) compared with those with an ALC <1000/microL.
: The results confirm that ipilimumab is clinically active in patients with advanced refractory melanoma. The ALC after 2 ipilimumab treatments appears to correlate with clinical benefit and OS, and should be prospectively validated. Cancer 2010. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.