[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine has been shown to protect against monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. To investigate the possible role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mediating this protective effect, MCT-treated rats were administered fluoxetine by gavage, at doses of 2 mg/kg body mass or 10 mg/kg once daily for 3 weeks. Changes in pulmonary hemodynamic parameters, pulmonary artery morphologies, and expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF were assessed. Fluoxetine at the 10 mg/kg dose, but not at the 2 mg/kg dose, attenuated the effects of MCT on pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricle index, and medial wall thickness. In addition, 10 mg/kg fluoxetine mitigated the MCT-induced up-regulation of HIF-1α and VEGF protein and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lungs. This dosage also decreased pERK1/2 levels and inhibited proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells in MCT-treated rats. In conclusion, fluoxetine can protect against MCT-induced pulmonary arterial remodeling, which linked to reduced ROS generation and decreased HIF-1α and VEGF protein levels via the ERK1/2 phosphorylation pathway.
Article · Mar 2012 · Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: 1. Osteopontin (OPN) has emerged as a key factor in inflammatory activation and cardiovascular remodelling. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of OPN in fluoxetine amelioration of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary inflammation and vascular remodelling in rats.
2. Wistar rats were divided into control, MCT and two fluoxetine-treated groups. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was induced by a single injection of MCT (60 mg/kg, i.p.). Fluoxetine (2 and 10 mg/kg) was administered via the intragastric route once a day for 21 days. On Day 22, pulmonary haemodynamic measurements were undertaken, followed by ELISA, western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
3. Monocrotaline caused pulmonary inflammation and vascular remodelling and significantly enhanced OPN expression in the plasma, lungs and pulmonary arteries. Fluoxetine decreased pulmonary arterial pressure and ameliorated pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodelling. At 10 mg/kg, fluoxetine significantly inhibited MCT-induced increases in the expression of serotonin transporter (SERT) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and downregulated the expression of OPN, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β and matrix metalloproteinase 2/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2. Although 2 mg/kg fluoxetine tended to ameliorate some MCT-induced changes in the lung, the differences did not always reach statistical significance. Linear regression analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between plasma OPN concentrations and mean pulmonary arterial pressure, as well as percentage medial wall thickness and percentage wall area in the pulmonary artery.
4. In conclusion, the amelioration by fluoxetine of MCT-induced pulmonary inflammation and vascular remodelling is associated with downregulation of OPN expression in rats.
Article · Mar 2011 · Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine on extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling of the pulmonary artery and inflammation of the lungs in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by monocrotaline in rats.
MCT-induced chronic PAH was established in Wistar rats. After treatment with fluoxetine for 3 weeks, pulmonary hemodynamic measurement and morphological investigation of lung tissues were undertaken. The main components of the ECM, elastin and collagen, were detected using Van Gieson stain and Orcein stain, respectively, or using Victoria-ponceau's double stain. The ECM proteolytic enzymes matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2, were detected by Western blot. Inflammation of lung tissue was assayed using lung morphology and inflammatory cytokine expression.
Fluoxetine (2 and 10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited MCT-induced PAH, attenuated pulmonary arterial muscularization and ECM remodeling, and decreased MMP/TIMP expression. Fluoxetine also suppressed inflammatory responses in lung tissue and inhibited the expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1).
Fluoxetine inhibited MCT-induced ECM remodeling of the pulmonary artery and inflammation of lung tissue. These effects were related to its inhibition on MMPs/TIMPs and cytokine productions.