[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Acrosome morphology of epididymal, ejaculated and the capacity of spermatozoa to fertilize ovum so as fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa, has not been adequately tested previously. Mammalian spermatozoa are able to swim during their transit from the testis of the boar to the female oviduct under the control of several external and intracellular factors.
Twelve mature Southern African indigenous Sus scrufa mukota (n=4), Sus scrufa windsnyer (n=4) and Sus scrufa kolbroek (n=4) boars were randomly assigned to sexual stimulation procedure at 0MR, 5MR, 10MR, 15MR, 20MR and 25MR each during 08:30 and 14:30 respectively followed by semen collection mounted over receptive sows on. Semen was collected using artificial vagina (AV) and immediately strained through cheese-cloth to remove the gelatinous portion. The sperm-rich fraction and the pre- and post-sperm fractions of the ejaculate were collected separately in insulated containers pre-heated to 37oC. The sperm-rich fraction was considered to be that portion of the ejaculate that was distinctly ‘milky’ in appearance as opposed to the ‘watery’ pre- and post-sperm fractions. Acrosomal morphology exemplified by normal apical ridge (NAR), damaged apical ridge (DAR), missing apical ridge (MAR) and loose acrosomal cap (LAC) were evaluated for the acrosomal morphology trials. The acrosomal morphology was assessed by mixing a high grade Indian ink with semen on a slide and the mixture then drawn out to make a thin smear. The smear was read using a light microscope at x400 magnification. Data were analysed using the general linear model procedure of SAS (2002 SAS, Version 9.1). Acromosal morphology was analysed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test (McDonald, 2008). Differences between treatment means were tested for significance.
Acrosomal morphology parameters recorded were observed to have improved missing apical ridge (MAR) following 0MR, 10MR, 15MR during the morning (08:30) and 5MR, 20MR and 25MR in the afternoon
Improvements acrosomal morphology were recorded and observed following 0MR, 15MR, 20MR and 25MR during the afternoon and 5MR and 10MR in the morning
Keywords: acrosome; missing apical ridge; damage apical ridge; loose acrosomal cap; normal apical ridge
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Sexual drive (libido) has been defined as the willingness and eagerness of a male to mount and to complete service of female. Mating ability presupposes a certain amount of sexual drive. This study determines whether period of semen collection, false mounts and prompt ejaculation provided a definite, clearly recognisable end point, for establishing that a boar was sufficiently sexually stimulated.
Materials and methods
The 12 boars from three different Southern African pig breeds mokuta (n=4), windsnyer (n=4) and kolbroek (n=4) were assigned at random to sexual preparation technique where they were sexually restraint at the following levels; 0MR, 5MR, 15MR, 20MR and 25MR treatments. Reaction time (libido) was recorded at every level of sexual excitement. Data were analysed using the general linear model procedure of SAS (2002 SAS, Version 9.1). The statistical model included sexual restraint classification of boars and individual breeding boars within treatment groups. As libido test data for mounts, reaction time and ejaculations were discrete, these were analysed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Libido estimates were tested by Chi square analysis (McDonald, 2008). Differences between treatment means were tested for significance.
Results and discussions
Reaction time (RT) was improved in all breeds (mokuta, windsnyer and kolbroek) following 5 minutes of sexual restraint (MR) and 10MR , 15MR and 25MR during the morning (08:30) and afternoon (14:30) semen collections respectively. Reaction time was similarly improved during 20MR with all breeds, however during the morning mokuta and windsnyer resulted with the lower RT and with kolbroek during the afternoon. Lower RT was recorded during the morning with mokuta and during the afternoon with windsnyer and kolbroek. Noticeable decrease in reaction time (RT) in mokuta breed following various (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 & 25) minutes of sexual restraints (MR) in the morning (08:30) and the afternoon (14:30), with lowest reaction time observed at the afternoon following 10MR.
Although there was improvement in libido from at all levels of sexual excitement, semen collections following 10MR during the afternoon (14:30) improved the RT. Libido was significantly influenced by both sexual stimulation and diurnal period it recorded the highest reaction times
Keywords: libido, reaction time, sexual stimulation, semen collection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at establishing the interaction effects of sexual preparation and diurnal period on reproductive capacity indices and sperm quality of boars. Twelve Large White boars (aged 2 years) were subjected to 0, (0R) 5 (5R) and 10 (10R) sexual restraint (sexual preparation) tests per 30 minutes reaction time at 8:30 and 14:30 hours (diurnal period). Libido was recorded as the reaction time (RT) (in minutes) and was defined as the time from intromission to ejaculation. Semen was collected by the use of a gloved hand device following sexual stimulation, Semen parameter tests were performed from aliquots of fresh semen following semen collection and analyzed for quantitative and qualitative parameters using standard methodology.
Sexual restraint of boars for 10 min (10R) at 8:30 hours (diurnal period) resulted in the highest number of mounts (10.4 ± 0.6), ejaculation rates (4.1 ± 0.8/ 30 min), with shortest reaction time (1.5 ± 0.3 min/ 30 min). Semen volume was significantly improved (120.81 ± 9.2 ml) when boars were subjected to 10R at 08:30 hours. The percentage of motile spermatozoa were significantly improved with 10R (80.8 ± 2.6%) at 08:30 hours. There was a significant improvement in semen concentration per ml with 10R (670.50 ± 40 x106) at 08:30. Semen concentration per ejaculate (x109), live sperm and normal sperm were significantly improved with 5R at 14:30 and 10R at 08:30 and 14:30, respectively, with highest values recorded with 10R at 08:30 hours. The 10 min of sexual restraint of boars during the morning hours following semen collection produced the best results in boar reproductive capacity tests and semen quality and quantity. The 10 min of sexual restraint of boars conducted during the morning hours were most suitable for use in AI services.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study evaluated the digestibility of potato hash silage (PHS) using 24 crossbred sows (± 30 kg live weight) that were housed individually. Four diets containing either no PHS (control) or 600 g/kg PHS [untreated PHS, Lactobacillus buchneri (LB) PHS and Bonsilage forte (BF) PHS] were formulated and fed ad libitum to the pigs. Experimental period lasted for eleven days (seven days adaptation and four days faecal collection). Intake of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), fibre and gross energy (GE) was reduced (P<0.05) in diets containing PHS compared to the control. Digestibility of dry matter (DM), EE, and GE was not affected by treatment. It was concluded that dietary addition of 600 g/kg PHS did not improve nutrient digestibility in pigs. Therefore work that will evaluate the optimal effects of higher dietary (> 600 g/kg) inclusion level of PHS is warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E on libido, servicing capacity (SC), sperm quality and serum α-tocopherol of Large White boars was evaluated. Twenty four boars were divided into three groups of eight boars each. Groups were randomly allocated to treatment groups, i.e. 0, 40 or 70 IU of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg of diet. Libido was defined as the time from intromission to ejaculation being recorded as the reaction time (RT) in minutes. Serving capacity (SC) was measured by number of mounts, combats, head-kicks, anogenital sniffs during a 30 min test period. Semen was collected by the use of an artificial vagina following the SC test, and afterwards analyzed for quantitative and qualitative parameters. The 70 IU supplementation of dietary vitamin E per kg diet to pigs resulted in the highest number of mounts, combats, head-kicks and anogenital sniffs with the shortest RT in comparison to the 40 and 0 IU vitamin E supplementation. The 70 IU vitamin E boar group produced semen with the highest semen volume, sperm cell motility, progressive movement, acrosomal normal apical ridge (NAR), percentage live sperm, sperm concentration per mL semen volume and total number of sperm per ejaculate and improved serum α-tocopherol concentrations (5.1 ± 0.5 µg/mL). Results suggest that supplementing 70 IU per kg α-tocopheryl acetate in boar diets appears to be most beneficial in optimizing libido and reproductive capacity in breeding boars.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · South African Journal Of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consistent estimates of boar fertility potential from objective semen evaluation could be a valuable tool for boar selection. The objective of this study was to evaluate semen characteristics of Kolbroek and Large White boars following computer aided sperm analysis® (CASA). Eight ejaculates were collected separately from individual Kolbroek (n = 4) and Large White (n = 4) boars using the gloved-hand technique. Following semen collection, semen was evaluated for macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the differences between the breeds (P<0.05). The bodyweight of Kolbroek (154.7 ± 8.5) was significantly lower compared to Large White (189.9 ± 7.7) boar. There was also a positive correlation between bodyweight and semen volume of both Kolbroek (r = 0.2197) and Large White (r = 0.2577) boar. However, no significant differences were observed in Kolbroek and Large White boar semen volume (140 and 170 ml), sperm concentration (0.727 and 0.761 × 109 sperm cell/ml), pH (7.0 and 7.0), total motility (95 and 91%) and morphology (84 and 82%). In conclusion, the bodyweight of Kolbroek and Large White boar was positively correlated with ejaculated semen volume. Sperm characteristics of both Kolbroek and Large White boar were similar. Sperm class analyser® provided a precise and more objective information of sperm motility characteristics.
Key words: Sperm, Large White, Kolbroek, motility rate, boar
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The choice of the short-term extender is important to preserve the quality of the diluted South African indigenous Kolbroek boar semen during short-term storage prior to artificial insemination. The aim of this study was to identify the suitable extender for short-term storage of Kolbroek boar semen at 17°C. Five ejaculates were collected separately from five Kolbroek boars using the gloved-hand technique in a 300-mL glass beaker. The filtered sperm fraction were sealed with a gauze filter inside a prewarmed (39°C) insulated thermos flask. Following semen collection, the semen was evaluated for macroscopic characteristics; semen volume, pH, and concentration. Sperm cells morphology was evaluated using eosin-nigrosin staining solution using fluorescent microscope system. Only ejaculates with >75% motile sperm and <15 abnormalities were used. The semen was pooled and diluted with five different short-term extenders, namely: Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), Kobidil(+), Hungarian Standard, Citrate, and Tris-based extenders at a ratio of 1:1 (v/v). Sperm cells motility parameters were evaluated using a sperm class analyzer (SCA) at 0, 3, 24, and 48h intervals. The data were analysed by SPSS. The results demonstrated that sperm cell motility rate did not differ when stored at 0 (88.9±8.3) and 3 (93.8±4.4)h irrespective of extender. However, semen that was diluted with Hungarian extender and Tris-based extender maintained higher proportion of sperm cells motility (90.0±2.5 and 87.8±4.8, respectively) for a longer period during storage for 24h as compared with the other extenders. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that prolonged storage of boar sperm cells reduces motility rates. However; Hungarian Standard and Tris-based extenders preserved sperm motility rate better than the other extenders when stored up to 48h at 17°C. Thus, this study suggests that Kolbroek sperm cells can be transported within 24 to 48h in South African regions without adversely affecting motility rates when diluted with Hungarian Standard and Tris-based extender at 17°C without cryopreserving them.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Reproduction Fertility and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The application of technologies in the field of male reproductive physiology has advanced greatly during past couple of decades. Since, the advent of frozen semen and artificial insemination, reproductive physiologists have attempted to manipulate male reproductive rates of mammals, sometimes successfully or sometimes not. The past five decades has resulted in phenomenal expansion in the improvement spermatozoa with direct application to livestock and medicine. Spermatogenesis had been reported to be induced in male animals using synthetic fertility drugs and local plant extracts. Sperm production and function have been improved via the use of nutritional regiments, semen extender and semen pool admixture. Currently, the sex of animal has been predetermined with 85-95% accuracy by sexing spermatozoa. The current success recorded in male assisted reproductive techniques came about due to advances in computer science, biophysics, cell biology and genetic engineering. This review will briefly cover the developments and modifications of existing sperm manipulation techniques that have direct practical applications today and in the near future in animal agriculture and bio-medicine.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Journal of Medical Sciences(Faisalabad)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Umesiobi, D.O. 2010. Enhanced testicular development and fertilizing capacity of boars following sexual stimulation at different ages. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 37: 105–108.Thirty six Large White boars were used to determine whether testicular development and fertilizing capacity of boars could be evaluated by sexual stimulation tests. Twelve boars were assigned to each of the three treatment groups involving 0, 5 and 10 min of sexual restraint (R) per 30 min test period and two different (300- and 450-d) age groups. Boars from each treatment group were hemi-orchidectomised immediately after sexual stimulation at 300 and 450 d of age, respectively, to evaluate testicular components (testis weight, total daily sperm production per testis, tubular diameter, tubular length, total tubular mass and total Leydig mass). Sexual stimulation of boars at 10R during 450 d of age resulted in the highest (P
Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty Large White boars and 60 sows were used in two experiments for this study. In experiment 1, 20 sows were assigned per group to each of three treatments, twice daily for a 30-min period during a 4-wk observation, involving: (1) NBE, a control in which sows were not exposed to boars during oestrus detection; (2) FBE, in which sows were exposed to fence-line boars during oestrus detection and (3) PBE, in which sows received physical contact with the boar during oestrus detection. In experiment 2, semen were collected at 24-or 96-h intervals from each boar and used (3.5 x 10 9 sperm/100 mL/sow) to artificially inseminate three oestrus-synchronised sows, 24 h after the onset of oestrus, for four weeks. Boar exposure for 4 d before oestrus induction (PG600) increased the proportion of sows expressing oestrus within 7 d by 44% with 88.3 ± 5.5% farrowing rate in the PBE group with the shortest interval from PG600 to oestrus (3.5 ± 0.2 d), number of returns to oestrus (0.01 ± 0.02) and farrowing-farrowing interval (136 ± 0.01 d). On average, 45.8 ± 2.5% of the control NBE group of the sows showed spontaneous oestrus compared to 56.3 ± 1.9 vs. 88.5 ± 0.7% of FBE and PBE groups, respectively. Ejaculates collected on the 96-h intervals had larger volumes (288 ± 9.3 vs. 124.9 ± 5.7 mL), sperm motility (87.1 ± 3.3 vs. 55.2 ± 0.9%) and type of movement (8.7 ± 0.5 vs. 3.0 ± 0.1), live sperm (78.3 ± 9.6 vs. 57.9 ± 12.6.), sperm/mL (132.6 ± 8.1 vs. 90. 4 ± 12.1 x10 6), total sperm/ejaculate (83.2 ± 7.7 vs. 52.5 ± 4.6 x10 9) and normal acrosome (92.5 ± 18.4 vs. 55.5 ± 15.6%) than ejaculates collected on the 24-h intervals. Semen collected at 96-h had gave higher non-return rate (93.5 ± 2.9 vs. 76.8 ± 5.2 %), farrowing rate (85.5 ± 14.3 vs. 56.8 ± 9.1%,), litter size (12 ± 0.03 vs. 8 ± 0.02) and live piglets were 30% higher compared with those from sows inseminated with semen collected at 24-h intervals, respectively. Results suggest that direct exposure of boars to sows prior to semen collection enhances oestrus expressions and farrowing rates. Secondly, ejaculating boars at 96-h intervals enhances semen quality and quantity leading to significant improvement in the fertility and litter size of artificially inseminated sows.
Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · South African Journal Of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potato hash was mixed with wheat bran at 7:3 ratio, treated with homofermentative LAB inoculant (BMF, bonsilage forte), heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (LFLB, Lalsil Fresh LB) and without LAB inoculant and ensiled in 210 L drums for 90 days. After 90 days of ensiling, concentrates that contained 40% potato hash silage (PHS) were formulated and the treatment groups were control (no silage), untreated PHS, BMF treated PHS and LFLB treated PHS. The diets were fed to 64 growing pigs (60 days old and 30.4 ± 2.3 kg body mass). The pigs were allocated in a complete randomized block design with four treatments, and each treatment consisted of eight boars and eight sows. Pigs were fed ad libitum, feed intake was measured daily while body masses were recorded at the start and weekly throughout the experimental period. The dry matter intake (DMI) was higher in the control diet (1062 g/kg) than in the untreated PHS diets (933 g/kg), BMF treated PHS (873 g/kg) and LFLB treated PHS (919 g/kg) diets, respectively. Pigs in the control group had higher final body weight (60.77 kg), average daily gain (ADG) (551 g/d) and better feed conversion rate (FCR) (4.92 g/g) at the end of the trial compared to those in other treatment groups. It can be concluded that potato hash silage produced with or without LAB inoculants had the same effect on the growth performance of growing pigs. However, further work is needed to evaluate the effects of higher dietary inclusion levels (>40 %) of ensiled potato hash on pig growth and reproductive performance.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · South African Journal Of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E to sows on sow fertility and serum α-tocopherol, growth and physiological state of their weanling pigs. A total of 60 Large White gilts were randomly allotted to three groups (20 gilts per group) from coitus to lactation phases over a two-parity period to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E on fecundity rates and litter size of sows. Each of the three dietary vitamin E treatment combinations involved 0, 40 or 70 IU/kg of dl- α-tocopheryl acetate/kg of diet, and parity 1 and 2. Sow serum α-tocopherol and Selenium (Se) were collected at 30 day post coitum, 99 day of gestation and 21 day lactation. Serum α-tocopherol and Se were collected from piglets at 1 day post natum and on day 21 (weaning age). Data relating to sow fecundity and litter size were also recorded. Results indicate that body weights and body weight gains of sows and their litters increased significantly (P < 0.01) by parity, increasing more from parities 1 to 2, mostly when dietary vitamin E was increased from 40 to 70 IU/kg diet. The highest number of total piglets and number of piglets born alive (12 ± 8.9 vs. 11 ± 0.1) were obtained at parity 2 when dietary vitamin E was increased to 70 IU/kg diet. There was an increase in weights of the piglets when dietary vitamin E was increased in sow’s diet. There was a dramatic increase in serum α-tocopherol and Se concentrations following 40 and 70 IU/kg of vitamin E supplementation during the 30 and 99 day gestation and 21 day lactation periods as parity increased. Se concentrations were about 3 fold higher in the 70 IU/kg vitamin E supplemented group in parity 2 compared to the other groups. In both parities, female piglets had higher serum α-tocopherol and Se concentrations at both 2 day post natum and on day 21 (weaning) compared to the male piglets. Results from this study suggest that supplementing 70 IU/kg α-tocopheryl acetate in sow’s diets appears to enhance growth of their weanling piglets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One hundred and sixty hens and 32 cocks of four different South African indigenous chicken breeds (Naked Neck (NN), Ovambo (OVB), Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK) and Venda (VD) were used in this study. Reproductive performance tests as determined by the number of ejaculations per five minutes of abdominal sexual massage (5ASM) were used to select 16 high performing (HP) and 16 low performing (LP) cocks from a population of 80 cocks. Cocks with >2 ejaculates/60 min or <1 ejaculate/60 min following ASM were considered as HP or LP cocks, respectively. Semen was collected from each cock following 5ASM, evaluated for semen viability and 0.05 mL diluted semen used to inseminate five hens per breed, in each experimental group. Significant differences in ejaculation rates and semen quality and quantity were recorded in the four breeds of cocks - with the HP cocks of the PK breed producing the highest ejaculation rate (4.1 ± 0.1/60 min), ejaculate volume (0.7 ± 0.02 mL), sperm motility (92 Class Test 2 ± 0.7), percentage live sperm (88.4 ± 0.7%) and total sperm per ejaculate. Significant differences were also recorded in hen fertility and subsequent hatchability of set eggs. Semen from the HP cocks were superior to those from the LP cocks, as evidenced in most of the fertility and hatchability parameters, with PK layers producing eggs that gave the highest average egg weight (58.04 ± 0.9 g), fertility (74.3 ± 0.2%), hatchability of set eggs (84.03 ± 0.7%), percentage of normal chicks (98.1 ± 0.7%) and chick weight (37.9 ± 0.3 g). Results suggest that selection of high performing cocks following five minutes of sexual massage prior to semen collection enhances semen quality and quantity leading to significant improvement in the fertility of artificially inseminated hens.
Preview · Article · Dec 2008 · South African Journal Of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Umesiobi, D.O. 2008. Measures of servicing capacity of boars and their effects on subsequent fertility in artificially inseminated gilts. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 34: 9–12.Serving capacity (SC) was measured in twenty-four 8 month old Large White boars during two pen tests each of 60 min duration following five minutes of sexual restraint (SR) to evaluate servicing capacity of boars and their effects on subsequent fertility in artificially inseminated (AI) gilts. Two groups each of twelve boars, a high serving capacity group (HSC) of mean serving capacity 4.50±0.3 and a low serving capacity group (LSC) of mean serving capacity 2.50±0.5 in 60 min were formed. Reaction time, number of mounts, combats, head-kicks, anogenital sniffs, ejaculate volume, sperm motility, live sperm, sperm concentrations per ml, total sperm per ejaculate and acrosomal morphology improved with increasing levels of SC. Gilts inseminated with semen from HSC boars resulted in higher conception rate and farrowing rate with larger litter size. Thus ≥ 4.50 SC per 60 min duration following SR prior to semen collection and use is recommended for pig AI breeding programme.
No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 60 Large White gilts were randomly allotted to three groups (20 gilts per group) from coitus to lactation phases over a two-parity period to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E on fecundity rates and litter size of sows. Each of the three dietary vitamin E treatment combinations involved 0,40 or 70 IU per kg of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate per kg of diet, and parity 1 and 2. Sow serum α-tocopherol and elenium (Se) were collected on the 30 th d postcoitum, 99 th d of gestation and 21 st d of lactation. Serum α-tocopherol and Se were collected from piglets at 1 d post birth and 21 d weaning age. Data relating to sow fecundity and litter size were also recorded. Results indicated that body weights and body weight gains of sows and their litters increased significantly (P<0.01) by parity, increasing more from parities 1 to 2, mostly when dietary vitamin E was increased from 40-70 IU per kg diet. The highest total piglets and number of piglets born alive (12 ± 8.9 vs. 11 ± 0.1) were obtained at parity 2 when dietary vitamin E was increased to 70 IU per kg diet. There was an increase in weights of the piglets when dietary vitamin E was increased in the sow's diet. There was a dramatic increase in serum α- tocopherol following 40 and 70 IU per kg of vitamin E supplementation during the 30 th and 99 th d gestation and 21 st d lactation periods as parity increased. Se concentrations were about three-fold lower in 70 IU per kg of the vitamin E supplemented group in parity 2 compared with the respective groups. In both parities, female piglets gave higher serum α-tocopherol and Se at both 2 d post birth and 21 d weaning periods compared with the male piglets. Based on the results, supplementing 70 IU per kg α-tocopheryl acetate in sow's diets appears to be most beneficial in optimizing fecundity rates in sows and the survival of their litters.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · The Philippine agriculturist
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixty Large White sows (aged 2.0 yr) and 12 boars of the same breed and age were used to study the relative dependence of sow fertility and fecundity rate on the sexual stimulation of boars. Boars were subjected to two different sexual stimulation procedures. In the first, four boars were assigned to each of the three treatment groups involving 0, 5 and 10 min of sexual restraint (R) per 30 min test period. In the second, the 12 boars were randomly reassigned to 6 treatment combinations involving 0, 5 and 10R and two levels (5 and 10 min) of libido tests (reaction time) per 30 min period. Libido was recorded as the reaction time (RT) (in minutes) and was defined as the time from intromission to ejaculation. Semen was collected by the use of an artificial vagina device following sexual stimulation, and analyzed for quantitative and qualitative parameters using standard methodology. Semen from each boar was artificially inseminated (AI) to 5 sows twice, 12 and 24 h after the onset of the first oestrus. Fertility was determined as non-return rate, which was observed as the proportion of females that conceived, divided by the total number in a herd of sows that were artificially inseminated. Fecundity was measured in terms of the percentage of sows that farrowed and the total number of piglets (litter size) born per litter. Results from the first procedure indicated that 5 min of sexual restraint (5R) was necessary to achieve the highest sexual drive at the shortest reaction time of 2.8 min. The 5R boars produced semen that gave the highest semen viability and fertility in AI sows compared with the 10R and 10R, respectively. In the second procedure, 5 min sexual restraint combined with 5 min reaction time (5R- 5RT) produced an overall advantage in improving the sperm viability and fertility of AI sows, compared with the various groups in both the first and second procedures. Results of the two experimental procedures showed that in comparison, boars in the 5R vs. the 5R-RT groups produced semen with the highest sperm cell motility (80.7 ± 0.25 vs. 83.6 ± 0.34%), progressive movement (6.8 ± 0.25 vs. 8.7 ± 0.53), acrosomal NAR (90.0 ± 6.61 vs. 91.4 ± 0.22%), non-return rate (82.5 ± 0.18 vs. 90.0 ± 0.2%), farrowing rate (85.5 0.43 vs. 88.1 ± 0.06%) and the largest number (7.4 ± 0.11 vs. 8.3 ± 0.05) of piglets per litter with the greatest proportion (5.5 ± 0.19 vs. 7.3 ± 0.05 piglets) farrowed alive. The results suggest that sexual stimulation of boars significantly enhanced semen viability of the boars, with concomitant improvement in fecundity and non-return rate of AI sows. The 5 min of sexual restraint in conjunction with 5 min reaction time (5R-5RT) of boars were most suitable for use in AI services.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · The Philippine agriculturist
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Okereke, C.O., Ukachukwu, S.N. and Umesiobi, D.O. 2008. Assessment of egg production indices of layers following dietary inclusion of composite cassava (Manihot esculanta) meal. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 33: 69–72.Ninety (90) 40-week-old laying hens of the Lowman Brown strain were used in a 10 weeks experiment to determine the effect of replacing dietary maize meal at 0%,10%, 20%, 30% and 40% levels with composite cassava meal (CCM) on the performance of laying birds. Feed intake and feed per dozen eggs increased with increasing level of CCM in diet. Other parameters were generally similar among all groups. Results suggest that the diets containing various inclusion levels of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% CCM were equally utilised by the laying hens.
Preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Semen were collected using artificial vagina (AV), from 5 large white boars aged 2-2.5 years twice a week for 16 weeks in each of the two seasons, early rainy (ER) and late rainy (LR) seasons, to determine the effects of multiple semen pool admixture on the viability and acrosomal morphology. The semen qualities studied were sperm motility, live sperm and sperm concentration, while the acrosomal parameters includes normal apical ridge (NAR), damaged apical ridge (DAR), missing apical ridge (MAR) and loose apical ridge (LAC). There were no significant (P>0.05) seasonal effects. Three-boar semen admixture gave the highest percentage NAR, motility, live sperm concentration and least DAR and LAC, although these were not significantly (P>0.05) different from the 2-boar semen admixture. The result of this study suggests that 3-boar semen admixture is most suitable for use in artificial insemination program.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Umesiobi, D.O. 2006. Effect of oral administration of Clomiphene citrate on sperm viability and fertility of boar semen. J. Appl. Anin. Res., 30: 167–170.In order to improve semen characteristics of boars with poor quality semen, 24 (2.0 years old) Large White boars and 120 cycling non-lactating Large White sows (aged 2.5 years) were used in this study. Two groups of eight boars each were randomly administered with oral doses of either 50 mg or 100 mg Clomiphene citrate daily for 5 days and a control group of 8 boars was administered with normal saline for the same period. Semen characteristics were examined twice a week for 16 weeks. Semen from each boar was randomly inseminated into five sows following sperm viability tests. It was observed that total semen volume, sperm motility, per cent live sperm, total sperm/ejaculate, sperm with normal apical ridge and serum testosterone levels improved with increasing levels of Clomiphene citrate. Sows inseminated with semen from such boars resulted in higher furrowing rates with larger litter size. It is concluded that 100 mg Clomiphene citrate given orally for 5 days resulted in significant improvement in the performance of breeding boars.
No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementary light on the performance of bulls in a feedlot. Feed intake (FI), average daily gain (ADG), back fat thickness (BFT), eye muscle area (EMA), P8 (fat layer on the rump), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and body development were measure in bulls exposed to different levels of light supplementation. Thirty young Bonsmara bulls from the same farm were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups of 10 animals each and subjected to one of three different levels of light treatment (16h, 24h and normal photoperiod). The additional light provided an average light intensity of 124 lux measured at eye level. The animals were housed in open pens and fed for 84 days ad libitum on a diet containing 11 MJ ME/kg DM and 14 g CP/kg. Ultrasound scanning was done using a PIE Medical Falco 100 scanner to measure subcutaneous fat depth between the 12th and 13th rib (BFT), longissimus dorsi (EMA) and P8 on days 1, 22, 51, 62 and 84 of the trial. Body measurements (body weight, body length and heart girth) were taken on the same days. The FI, ADG and FCR were calculated at the end of the trial. The results of this study demonstrated that light supplementation (24h light) significantly reduced FI and improved ADG and FCR, with no significant effect on the body measurements or subcutaneous fat accumulation (BFT and EMA). It was concluded that an extended photoperiod (EP = 24h) reduces FI but improves ADG and FCR of young beef bulls fed under intensive conditions.