[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore right ventricular (RV) mechanical function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography (2-D-STE).
Forty-three patients with HCM (mean age 48, 17 females) and 40 healthy subjects were consecutively included in this cross-sectional study. The diagnosis of HCM was based on the presence of typical clinical, electrocardiographic (ECG), and echocardiographic features. Patients with LV systolic impairment, significant valvular disease, history of coronary artery disease, hypertension, malignancy, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were excluded. Right and left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and 2-D-STE. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients were divided into two groups according to ACC/ESC guidelines (LVOT gradient below and above 30 mm Hg). Student t-test was used to compare differences between groups. Non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney U) were used in cases of abnormal distribution.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients had a significantly larger right atrium and RV diameters compared to controls. Mean pulmonary artery pressures (mPAB) were significantly higher in HCM patients (19.01±13.09 mm Hg vs. 8.40±4.50 mm Hg; p<0.001). Although RV Sm measurements were similar, RV strain measurements (-28.51±5.36% vs. -32.06±7.65%; p=0.016) were significantly lower in HCM patients. Left ventricular global longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain values were also significantly different between the two groups (-20.50±3.58% vs. -24.12±3.40%; p<0.001, 38.18±12.67% vs. 44.80±10.15%; p=0.012, -21.94±4.28% vs. -23.91±3.95%; p=0.036 consecutively). Rotational movement of LV in each apical, mid-, and basal left ventricular segment was determined, and only mid-ventricular rotation of the HCM patients was more clockwise (-1.71±2.16 ° vs. 0.04±1.72 °; p<0.001). Although mPAP measurements were higher in HCM patients with significant LVOT obstruction (21.52±13.26 mm Hg vs. 12.31±10.53 mm Hg; p=0.049), none of the other TDI or 2-D-STE parameters was significantly different between groups.
Speckle tracking echocardiography-derived right ventricular systolic function is impaired in HCM patients when compared with healthy subjects. However, RV systolic function is not affected form LVOT obstruction and left ventricular rotation dynamics in HCM patients.
Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi: AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apical transverse motion (ATM) is a new parameter for assessing left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. Speckle-tracking radial strain analysis seems to be the best method to identify potential responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between ATM and radial dyssynchrony assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NDC).
We examined 35 NDC patients (mean age 49.2±28.1 years; 21 males). Cardiac dimension and ejection fraction (EF) were measured. Speckle-tracking analysis was performed on two-dimensional greyscale images in the mid-LV short axis view and apical views to calculate global radial, circumferential, and longitudinal strain (GRS, GCS, GLS), as well as rotational indexes (LV twist and torsion). Radial dyssynchrony was defined as a difference in time to peak systolic radial strain between the anteroseptal and posterior segments with a cut-off value of 130 ms. ATM was estimated using motion traces of 2 opposite apical segments.
Radial dyssynchrony was significantly correlated with ATMloop (r=0.78, p<0.001), ATM4CV (r=0.71, p=0.001), ATM3CV (r=0.67, p=0.003), GRS (r=-0.51, p=0.04), GCS (r=-0.55, p=0.03), LV twist (r=-0.58, p=0.02), and LV torsion (r=-0.56, p=0.03). The receiver operating characteristics analysis for ATMloop to distinguish between patients with and without radial dyssynchrony revealed an area under the curve value of 0.88 (CI: 0.73-1.04, p=0.005). The best cut-off value was 2.5 mm for ATMloop (85% sensitivity and 86% specificity).
Apical transverse motion is closely associated with radial dyssynchrony assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography. Quantitative measure of apical rocking has the potential for clinical applications.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi: AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: D-dimer is a final product of fibrin degradation and gives an indirect estimation of the thrombotic burden. We aimed to investigate the value of plasma D-dimer levels on admission in predicting no-reflow after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI) and long-term prognosis in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We retrospectively involved 569 patients treated with p-PCI for acute STEMIs. We prospectively followed up the patients for a median duration of 38 months. Angiographic no-reflow was defined as postprocedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade <3 or TIMI 3 with a myocardial blush grade <2. Electrocardiographic no-reflow was defined as ST-segment resolution <70 %. The primary clinical end points were mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The incidences of angiographic and electrocardiographic no-reflow were 31 and 39 % respectively. At multivariable analysis, D-dimer was found to be an independent predictor of both angiographic (p < 0.001), and electrocardiographic (p < 0.001) no-reflow. Both mortality (from Q1 to Q4, 5.7, 6.4, 11.3 and 34.1 %, respectively, p < 0.001) and MACE (from Q1 to Q4, 17.9, 29.3, 36.9 and 52.2 %, respectively, p < 0.001) rates at long-term follow-up were highest in patients with admission D-dimer levels in the highest quartile (Q4), compared to the rates in other quartiles. However, Cox proportional hazard model revealed that high D-dimer on admission (Q4) was not an independent predictor of mortality or MACE. In contrast, electrocardiographic no-reflow was independently predictive of both mortality [Hazard ratio (HR) 2.88, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-8.58, p = 0.041] and MACE [HR 1.90, 95 % CI 1.32-4.71, p = 0.042]. In conclusion, plasma D-dimer level on admission independently predicts no-reflow after p-PCI. However, D-dimer has no independent prognostic value in patients with STEMI.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
We aimed to determine the effect of drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation on soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) levels in patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing stent replacement.
Eighty-nine consecutive patients (33 women, 56 men; mean age 61±10 years) with stable coronary artery disease undergoing stent replacement were recruited. Pre- and post-procedural blood samples were collected for sCD40L analysis, and differences in plasma levels were calculated and expressed as delta sCD40L. Total size and length of implanted stents and pre- and post-dilatation procedures were recorded for each patient, for possible impact on sCD40L release. Patients were followed for one year following procedures for possible adverse cardiac events such as death, myocardial infarction and revascularization.
Forty-nine patients received bare metal stent (BMS) and 40 patients received DES. There were no differences between BMS- and DES-implanted patients in terms of age, stent size and length, and delta sCD40L plasma levels. Delta sCD40L was correlated only with total implanted stent length (r=0.374, p<0.001). Delta sCD40L levels were divided into quartiles for better determination of the procedural parameters that are effective on biomarker release. Total stent length (p=0.008), stent size (p=0.038) and pre-dilatation procedure (p=0.034) were the statistically differing parameters between delta sCD40L quartiles. Although statistically non-significant, all three adverse events were observed in patients with the highest quartile (p=0.179).
Procedural sCD40L release did not differ between DES- and BMS-implanted stable coronary artery disease patients. Total implanted stent length, stent size and pre-dilatation procedure were the influential parameters on procedural sCD40L release.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Turk Kardiyoloji Dernegi arsivi: Turk Kardiyoloji Derneginin yayin organidir
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular (LV) rotation, twist, and torsion are important aspects of thecardiac performance. Myocardial fibrosis can be identified as the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). In this study, we investigated the associationbetween myocardial fibrosis and LV rotational parameters in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NDC).
Twenty-two NDC patients were enrolled. LV dimensions, volumes and ejection fraction (EF) were measured, conventional tissue Doppler imaging data was acquired. Speckletracking imaging was performed to measure LV deformation, LV rotational parameters. Bloodsamples were obtained for NT-proBNP. Late gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) was used to assess cardiac fibrosis index.
Myocardial deformation was similar between LGE+ and LGE- groups. LGE+patients have significantly higher basal and lower apical systolic rotation, lower twist andtorsion when compared to LGE- patients. However, untwisting rate was similar between thegroups. Torsion was significantly correlated with LVEF and MR-index. Patients with reversedapical systolic rotation had significantly greater NT-proBNP values, basal systolic rotation andsignificantly lower apical systolic rotation, torsion, and MR-index.
Cardiac fibrosis index is closely related with myocardial torsion and LV systolicfunction and may be used for the evaluation of cardiac condition. Reversed apical systolicrotation indicated more extensive cardiac fibrosis as it may reflect severe LV dyssynchrony andpoor LV performance.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Cardiology journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
In contrast to its membrane-bound form, soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR) expresses procoagulant activity through binding to protein C. We aimed to investigate the relationship between sEPCR levels and protein C activity in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
The study population included 60 STEMI patients who had undergone a primary percutaneous coronary intervention and 29 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) with significant coronary stenosis on angiography. Preprocedural sEPCR levels and protein C activity were determined in all study patients.
In the STEMI group, the baseline sEPCR level was significantly higher (172.0±89.3 vs. 107.1±39.2 ng/ml, P<0.001) and protein C activity was significantly lower (91.9±26.4 vs. 124.5±16.2%, P<0.001) compared with patients with SAP. There was a significant negative correlation between protein C activity and sEPCR in the STEMI group (r=-0.38, P=0.002); however, no significant correlation was observed in the SAP group (r=0.02, P=0.91). Angiographic thrombus load and the incidence of no-reflow phenomenon were significantly higher in STEMI patients with protein C activity under the median level.
The ratio of sEPCR levels to protein C activity is high, with a significant negative correlation in patients with STEMI. Lower protein C activity is associated with the development of no-reflow in STEMI patients. However, the sEPCR level has no relation to the development of no-reflow. The clinical significance of elevated sEPCR level in STEMI should be evaluated in larger studies.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Coronary artery disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic heart failure is a common problem and a major cause of death, hospital admission, poor physical function and impaired quality of life. In addition to the direct effect of heart failure on prognosis, several modifiable and non-modifiable factors contribute to the worse prognosis in heart failure. Anemia, which is common in patients with heart failure, may represent a modifiable risk factor for adverse outcome. It is also a marker for co-morbidity burden and greater disease severity. If anemia is a marker, treatment may not obviate the increased risk associated with anemia, but if it is a mediator, treatment may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality in heart failure. As anemia has been identified as an independent prognostic factor of both morbidity and mortality for patients with congestive heart failure, there is an increased interest in the hypothesis that the correction of anemia with erythropoietin or iron supplementation might lead to an improvement on patients' symptoms and functional status. Large randomized trials are necessary to show the effect of anemia and the specific treatments on the outcome in these patients. This article reviews the mechanisms, impact on outcomes and therapy of anemia in patients with heart failure.
Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi: AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this pilot study was to compare intracoronary bolus-only with standard intravenous bolus plus maintenance infusion of tirofiban with respect to improvement in myocardial reperfusion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI).
Changes in clinical practice may obviate the need for a maintenance infusion of small molecule glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in current practice.
Forty-nine patients undergoing p-PCI were randomized to either intracoronary bolus-only (n = 25) or intravenous bolus plus infusion (n = 24) of tirofiban. The primary end point was coronary hemodynamic indices of microvascular perfusion measured 4-5 days after p-PCI. The secondary end points were ST segment resolution at 90 min, the corrected TIMI frame count and myocardial blush grade. At 6 months, echocardiography and technetium-99m single-photon-emission computed tomography were performed.
Microvascular perfusion did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups: index of microvascular resistance (27 ± 13 vs. 35 ± 15 U, P = 0.08) and coronary flow reserve (2.2 ± 0.7 vs. 1.9 ± 0.6, P = 0.25). The corrected TIMI frame counts assessed in the first (P = 0.13) and the second (P = 0.09) catheterization or the myocardial blush grades evaluated immediately (P = 0.23) and 4-5 days after MI (P = 1.00) were not significantly different between the two groups. At 6 months, there was no difference between the two groups in infarct size, left ventricular volumes, or ejection fraction.
The standard intravenous bolus plus maintenance infusion of tirofiban in p-PCI is not superior to intracoronary bolus-only administration with respect to microvascular perfusion. Further, adequately powered randomized trials are warranted to evaluate the clinical outcomes associated with this strategy.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed in-hospital prognostic value of admission plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI) for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
In a retrospective design, we evaluated 992 patients (801 males, 191 females; mean age 56 ± 12 years) treated with p-PCI for STEMI. The patients were divided into two groups according to the admission BNP levels, taking the cut-off value of BNP as 100 pg/ml; i.e, ≥ 100 pg/ml (n=334, 33.7%) and <100 pg/ml (n=658, 66.3%). Postprocedural angiographic and clinical in-hospital results were recorded.
No-reflow (24% vs. 9%), heart failure (32.3% vs. 5.5%) and death (15.6% vs. 1.7%) were significantly more common in patients with BNP ≥ 100 pg/ml (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, elevated baseline BNP level was identified as an independent predictor of no-reflow (OR=1.83; 95% CI 1.22-2.74, p=0.003), acute heart failure (OR=2.67; 95% CI 1.55-4.58, p<0.001), and in-hospital mortality (OR=3.28; 95% CI 1.51-7.14, p=0.003). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve and sensitivity/specificity of the cut-off value of BNP (100 pg/ml) for prediction of clinical endpoints were 0.741 and 58.6%/70.3% for no-reflow, 0.822 and 75%/73.3% for heart failure, and 0.833 and 82.5%/69.4% for death, respectively (p<0.001 for all).
Elevated admission BNP level is an independent predictor of angiographic no-reflow, acute heart failure, and mortality in STEMI patients during in-hospital period, suggesting that it might be incorporated into traditional risk scoring systems to improve early risk stratification.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Turk Kardiyoloji Dernegi arsivi: Turk Kardiyoloji Derneginin yayin organidir
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anemia is a common comorbidity in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the in-hospital prognostic value of admission hemoglobin (Hb) levels in patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI).
This is a retrospective study of 1,625 patients with STEMI stratified by quartiles of admission Hb concentration (Q1 ≤12.5 g/dl, Q2 12.6-13.8 g/dl, Q3 13.9-15.0 g/dl, Q4 ≥15.1 g/dl). Main outcome measures were in-hospital rates of all cause mortality, re-infarction, target vessel revascularization, stroke, heart failure (HF) and bleeding complications.
The incidences of in-hospital mortality according to quartiles from Q1 to Q4 were 8.6, 3.9, 2.4 and 2.6%, respectively (p < 0.001). The incidences of major hemorrhage and HF were significantly higher in Q1, compared to the other quartiles (7.4, 1.9, 3.1, 2.8%, p < 0.001; 16.3, 8.5, 7.7, 9.8%, p < 0.001, respectively). Multiple logistic-regression analysis showed that low admission Hb level (Q1) is an independent and a potent predictor for in-hospital mortality [unadjusted odds ratio (OR): 3.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.78-7.82; p < 0.001].
Lower concentrations of Hb on admission are associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality, heart failure and major bleeding after p-PCI.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Clinical Research in Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a dilated heart with impaired systolic functions, functional mitral regurgitation could be seen even in the presence of structurally normal mitral apparatus. A number of mechanisms play role in the development of functional mitral regurgitation. These are increased mitral tethering forces, reduction in closing forces and mechanical and electrical dyssynchrony. Papillary muscle dyssynchrony has also been shown to be related with functional mitral regurgitation. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is known to reduce the amount of functional mitral regurgitation in patients with left ventricular systolic failure although some may not respond to treatment with cardiac resynchronization therapy. Papillary muscle dyssynchrony may predict the response of cardiac resynchronization therapy on the regression of functional mitral regurgitation and may suggest the suitable therapeutic options, such as cardiac resynchronization therapy, mitral valve repair, coronary revascularization separately or in combination. In this review, the mechanisms of functional mitral regurgitation, papillary muscle dyssynchrony and its relationship with functional mitral regurgitation and the relationship of papillary muscle dyssynchrony with the improvement of functional mitral regurgitation after cardiac resynchronization therapy are focused.
Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi: AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated in-hospital results of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a high-volume tertiary center.
We retrospectively evaluated 1625 patients (1323 males, 302 females; mean age 56.0 ± 11.6 years) who underwent primary PCI for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction between January 2006 and April 2008. All coronary angiography procedures were performed using the femoral artery route. In-hospital clinical and angiographic results were recorded.
On admission, 23% of the patients had diabetes mellitus, 49.6% had anterior myocardial infarction, and 4.9% had cardiogenic shock. The mean duration of pain was 171.2 ± 121.2 minutes, and the mean door-to-balloon time was 31.6 ± 7.2 minutes. Infarct-related artery was the left anterior descending artery in 49.7%, multivessel disease was present in 40.9%, TIMI 2/3 flow was present in 23.6%, and high-grade thrombus was observed in 66.8%. Primary PCI involved balloon dilatation (5.7%) and stent implantation (94.3%). The incidence of angiographic no-reflow was 11.9%. The mean hospital stay was 5.2 ± 3.3 days. All-cause mortality occurred in 71 patients (4.4%). Other in-hospital events were reinfarction (1.4%), target vessel revascularization (1.9%), hemorrhagic/ischemic stroke (0.6%), stent thrombosis (1.2%), major bleeding (3.8%), blood transfusion (4.8%), heart failure (10.5%), atrial fibrillation (4%), and ventricular tachycardia (3.9%).
Primary PCI is an effective method in achieving complete revascularization of the infarct-related artery. Successful in-hospital results not only depend on the experience and equipment of the center, but also on how rapidly reperfusion is achieved.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Turk Kardiyoloji Dernegi arsivi: Turk Kardiyoloji Derneginin yayin organidir
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, has recently been linked to atherosclerosis and development of postinfarction heart failure. This study was designed to assess the association between admission OPG levels and microvascular obstruction (MVO) in patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI). Plasma samples for OPG analysis were obtained <30 minutes after admission in 47 patients who underwent p-PCI. Angiographic no-reflow (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] flow grade <3 or 3 with myocardial blush grade 0 or 1 after p-PCI) was assessed immediately after p-PCI. MVO was assessed and quantified by the intracoronary hemodynamic measure of index of microcirculatory resistance performed on day 4 or 5 after p-PCI. Patients with angiographic no-reflow had significantly higher OPG levels on admission. On multiple linear regression analysis, OPG (β = 0.412, p = 0.001) and B-type natriuretic peptide (β = 0.409, p = 0.001) levels were independently and directly associated with the index of microcirculatory resistance. In conclusion, plasma OPG levels on admission are strongly associated with MVO and significantly correlated with the degree of MVO after p-PCI. It remains to be established whether improvement of microvascular perfusion is feasible with therapeutic strategies aimed to decrease circulating OPG levels.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · The American journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins have many favorable pleiotropic effects beyond their lipid-lowering properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of long-term statin pretreatment on the level of systemic inflammation and myocardial perfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarctions. This was a retrospective study of 1,617 patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention <12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Angiographic no-reflow was defined as postprocedural Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade ≤2. Long-term statin pretreatment was significantly less common in the no-reflow group (6.2% vs 21%, p <0.001). The serum lipid profiles of the groups were similar (p >0.05 for all parameters). Baseline C-reactive protein levels (10 ± 8.2 vs 15 ± 14 mg/L, p <0.001) and the frequency of angiographic no-reflow (3.9% vs 14%, p <0.001) were significantly lower, and myocardial blush grade 3 was more common (50% vs 40%, p = 0.006) in the statin pretreatment group (n = 306). Moreover, the frequency of complete ST-segment resolution (>70%) (70% vs 59%, p <0.001) and the left ventricular ejection fraction were higher (49 ± 7.5% vs 46 ± 8.3%, p <0.001) and peak creatine kinase-MB was lower (186 ± 134 vs 241 ± 187 IU/L, p <0.001) in the statin-treated group. In conclusion, long-term statin pretreatment is associated with lower C-reactive protein levels on admission and better myocardial perfusion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention, leading to lower enzymatic infarct area and a more preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. This is a group effect independent of lipid-lowering properties.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · The American journal of cardiology