[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although fibrosis is becoming increasingly recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic inflammatory diseases, available treatment strategies are limited. Tenascins constitute a family of matricellular proteins, primarily modulating interactions of cells with other matrix components and growth factors. Data obtained from tenascin C deficient mice show important roles of this molecule in several models of fibrosis. Moreover there is growing evidence that tenascin C has a strong impact on chronic inflammation, myofibroblast differentiation and recruitment. Tenascin C as well as tenascin X has furthermore been shown to affect TGF-β activation and signaling. Taken together these data suggest that these proteins might be important factors in fibrosis development and make them attractive both as biological markers and as targets for therapeutical intervention. So far most clinical research in fibrosis has been focused on tenascin C. This review aims at summarizing our up-to-date knowledge on the involvement of tenascin C in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose:
Eculizumab, an anti-C5 complement antibody, emerged as a treatment option for C3-glomerulonephritis, in the absence of a disease specific therapy. Our patient showed subclinical recurrence of C3 glomerulonephritis, with elevated MAC and low circulating C3, but without proteinurea or inflammation in his 6 week and 1 year protocol biopsies. When he developed nephrotic proteinurea 3,5 years post-transplantation, and later crescentic changes in the transplant biopsy, we decided to treat him with Eculizumab.
In our patient complement factor H and I levels were normal, no Factor H antibodies or mutations in CFH, CFI, CFB; MCP, C3 or CFHR5 could be established. No improvement clinically or in the biopsy 3 months after initiation, led to Eculizumab being discontinued. We speculate that the patient might have benefited from Eculizumab if started earlier, but better criteria is needed to decide whom and when to treat with complement inhibition in C3 glomerulonehritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nutritionally relevant levels of genistein, the predominant isoflavone in soyabean associated with lower risk of prostate cancer (PCa), may modulate the expression of prostate tissue biomarkers associated with cancer prediction and progression. A phase 2 placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind clinical trial was conducted in forty-seven Norwegian patients before prostatectomy. Intervention was 30 mg genistein or placebo capsules daily for 3–6 weeks. Luminal cells from malignant and benign glands were isolated with laser capture microdissection and the mRNA levels of androgen-related biomarkers (androgen receptor, NK3 homeobox 1, kallikrein-related peptide 4 (KLK4)) and cell cycle-related genes (p21
, p53) were analysed with real-time semiquantitative PCR. Immunohistochemistry of androgen-, cell cycle-, proliferative- (Ki67 nuclear antigen), apoptotic- (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and BCL-2-associated X protein) and neuroendocrine differentiation-related biomarkers (neuron-specific enolase and cytoplasmic chromogranin A) was performed using tissue microarrays containing normal, Gleason grade 3 and grade 4 prostate tissues. There were no significant effects by genistein intervention on proliferation-, cell cycle-, apoptosis- or neuroendocrine biomarkers. Genistein intervention, however, significantly reduced the mRNA level of KLK4 in tumour cells (P = 0·033) and there was a non-significant reduction in androgen and cell cycle-related biomarkers, except for p27Kip1, whose expression in the nuclear compartment was increased. Genistein intervention modulated the expression of several biomarkers which may be related to PCa prediction and progression. The present study supports genistein as a chemopreventive agent in PCa. Further investigation is warranted in larger and longer-duration studies.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immune system can both promote and suppress cancer. Chronic inflammation and proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 are considered to be tumour promoting. In contrast, the exact nature of protective antitumour immunity remains obscure. Here, we quantify locally secreted cytokines during primary immune responses against myeloma and B-cell lymphoma in mice. Strikingly, successful cancer immunosurveillance mediated by tumour-specific CD4(+) T cells is consistently associated with elevated local levels of both proinflammatory (IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6) and T helper 1 (Th1)-associated cytokines (interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-2 and IL-12). Cancer eradication is achieved by a collaboration between tumour-specific Th1 cells and tumour-infiltrating, antigen-presenting macrophages. Th1 cells induce secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 by macrophages. Th1-derived IFN-γ is shown to render macrophages directly cytotoxic to cancer cells, and to induce macrophages to secrete the angiostatic chemokines CXCL9/MIG and CXCL10/IP-10. Thus, inflammation, when driven by tumour-specific Th1 cells, may prevent rather than promote cancer.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a novel member of the interleukin-1 family that induces mucosal pathology in vivo and may drive fibrosis development and angiogenesis. To address its potential role in inflammatory bowel disease, we explored its tissue expression in biopsy specimens from untreated ulcerative colitis patients, observing a 2.6-fold up-regulation of IL-33 mRNA levels, compared to controls. Immunohistochemical analyses of surgical specimens showed that a prominent source of IL-33 in ulcerative colitis lesions were ulceration-associated myofibroblasts that co-expressed the fibroblast marker heat shock protein 47, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)β, and, in part, the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (SMA). In contrast, IL-33-positive myofibroblasts were almost absent near the deep fissures seen in Crohn's disease. A screen of known and putative activators of IL-33 in cultured fibroblasts revealed that the Toll-like receptor-3 agonist poly (I:C) was among the strongest inducers of IL-33 and that it synergized with transforming growth factor-β, a combination also known to boost myofibroblast differentiation. Experimental wound healing in rat skin revealed that the de novo induction of IL-33 in pericytes and the possible activation of scattered, tissue-resident IL-33(+)PDGFRβ(+)αSMA(-) fibroblast-like cells were early events that preceded the later appearance of IL-33(+)PDGFRβ(+)αSMA(+) cells. In conclusion, our data point to a novel role for IL-33 in mucosal healing and wound repair and to an interesting difference between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcriptome analyses of organ transplants have until now usually focused on whole tissue samples containing activation profiles from different cell populations. Here, we enriched endothelial cells from rat cardiac allografts and isografts, establishing their activation profile at baseline and on days 2, 3 and 4 after transplantation. Modulated transcripts were assigned to three categories based on their regulation profile in allografts and isografts. Categories A and B contained the majority of transcripts and showed similar regulation in both graft types, appearing to represent responses to surgical trauma. By contrast, category C contained transcripts that were partly allograft-specific and to a large extent associated with interferon-gamma-responsiveness. Several transcripts were verified by immunohistochemical analysis of graft lesions, among them the matricellular protein periostin, which was one of the most highly upregulated transcripts but has not been associated with transplantation previously. In conclusion, the majority of the differentially expressed genes in graft endothelial cells are affected by the transplantation procedure whereas relatively few are associated with allograft rejection.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · American Journal of Transplantation