Chao Chen

China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (95)215.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Learning to nature emerges as one of the most promising ways to develop advanced functional materials and biodevices. Here, inspired by melanin formation, we report the tyrosinase (Tyr)-catalyzed polymerization of L-DOPA (versus L-tyrosine and dopamine) to immobilize enzymes for amperometric biosensing. The enzymatic polymerization is examined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods. A poly(L-DOPA) (PD)-Tyr/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) prepared by casting an aqueous mixture of L-DOPA and Tyr on a GCE exhibits a linear cathodic amperometric response to catechol concentration from 0.4 to 57 μM (R2=0.997) with a sensitivity of 4.29 mA mM-1 cm-2 and a limit of detection (LOD) of 70 nM (S/N=3). A PD-glucose oxidase (GOx)-Tyr/Pt electrode prepared by casting an aqueous mixture of L-DOPA, GOx and Tyr on a Pt electrode exhibits a linear anodic amperometric response to glucose concentration from 2 to 5700 μM (R2=0.998) with a sensitivity of 78.6 μA mM-1 cm-2 and a LOD of 0.1 μM (S/N=3). The PD-based enzyme electrode shows better biosensing performance and higher bioactivity of the immobilized Tyr than those based on similarly biosynthesized poly(L-tyrosine) and polydopamine as well as well-established chitosan and Nafion systems, implying that the biosynthesized PD as a melanin-biomimetic material has promising application potential for biomacromolecular immobilization and biosensing.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · RSC Advances
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    ABSTRACT: Structural, electrical, and up-conversion (UC) properties of Na0.5Bi4.5-xErxTi4O15 (NBT–xEr3+) (0.00 < x < 0.40) ceramics have been studied. All the ceramic samples possessed a single-phase orthorhombic structure. The unit cell volume, the lattice parameters a, b, and c, and orthorhombic distortion analyzed on the basis of Rietveld refinement were observed to decrease with increasing Er3+ contents (x). The average values of grain size were found to slightly decrease with increasing x. Raman spectroscopy revealed that (Bi2O2)2+ layers remained unaffected in the modified compositions, and Er3+ substitution for Bi3+ occurred predominantly at the A-site in the perovskite blocks causing the cationic disorder and a slight decrease in the TiO6 octahedral distortion. NBT–xEr3+ ceramic with x = 0.20 achieved the optimized photoluminescence. The relative intensity of green and red UC emissions could be tuned by changing Er3+ ions concentrations. Ferroelectric measurements revealed that Er3+ doping led to reduction in 2Pr and 2Ec. However, dielectric measurements showed that the incorporation of Er3+ ions increased Tc with simultaneously lowered tanδ at high temperature, implying that this ceramics can be suitable for high-temperature sensor applications.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of the American Ceramic Society
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    ABSTRACT: A lead-free single crystal 0.92(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3-0.02(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (NBT-6BT-2KNN) with dimension of Φ35 mm × 10 mm is grown by a precisely controlled top seeded solution growth method. The 〈001〉 oriented single crystals have excellent piezoelectricproperties with a giant strain of 0.83% at 28 kV/cm. Application of an electric-field ≥14 kV/cm leads to a phase transition from pseudocubic to coexistence of tetragonal and pseudocubic. A strong ferroelectric domain texture occurs during the phase transition. Furthermore, the variation of tetragonal phase fraction agrees well with the macroscopic strain curve, demonstrating that the induced tetragonal phase plays a critical role in the high strain property.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Applied Physics Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We report a new protocol for ultrasensitive electrochemical sandwich-type immunosensing, on the basis of signal amplification by gold-label/copper-staining, galvanic replacement reactions (GRRs), and in situ microliter-droplet anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) after an enhanced cathodic preconcentration of copper. First, a sandwich-type immuno-structure is appropriately assembled at a glassy carbon electrode. Second, copper is selectively stained on the catalytic surfaces of second antibody-conjugated Au nanoparticles through CuSO4-ascorbic acid redox reaction, and the GRRs between HAuCl4 and the stained copper are used to amplify the quantity of copper. Finally, the corresponding antigen is determined based on simultaneous chemical-dissolution/cathodic-preconcentration of copper for in-situ ASV analysis directly at the immunoelectrode. Cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance and scanning electron microscopy are used for film characterization and/or process monitoring. Under optimized conditions, ultrasensitive analyses of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and human carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) are achieved. The limits of detection are 0.3 fg mL−1 (equivalent to 7 IgG molecules in the 6 μL sample employed) for IgG (S/N=3) and 1.3 nU mL−1 for CA125 (S/N=3), respectively, which are amongst the best reported to date for the two proteins. The theoretical feasibility of such a single-molecule-level amperometric immunoassay is also discussed based on the immunological reaction thermodynamics.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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    ABSTRACT: Na0.5Bi4.5-x Eux Ti4O15 (NBT-x Eu3+) ceramics with x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 and 0.40 were prepared by conventional ceramics processing. NBT-0.25Eu3+ ceramics show the strongest red and orange emissions corresponding to the 5D0 → 7F2 (617 nm) and 5D0 → 7F1 (596 nm) transitions, respectively. The strongest excitation band around 465 nm matches well with the emission wavelength of commercial InGaN-based blue LED chip, indicating that Eu3+-doped NBT ceramics may be used as potential environmental friendly red-orange phosphor for W-LEDs application. As an inherent ferroelectric and piezoelectric material, the electrical properties of this potentially multifunctional electro-optical material have been also studied. The introduction of Eu3+ distinctly increased the Curie temperature (T C ) of NBT-x Eu3+ ceramics from 640°C to 711°C as x ranges from 0 to 0.40. For higher temperature applications, the electrical conductivity was also investigated. The conduction of charge carriers in hightemperature range originates from the conducting electrons from the ionization of oxygen vacancies. High T C and low tanδ makes Eu3+-doped NBTceramic also suitable for high temperature piezoelectric sensor applications and electro-optical integration.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Frontiers of Materials Science

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Talanta
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    ABSTRACT: A new relaxor-based ferroelectric ternary system Pb(Lu1/2Nb1/2)O3–Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 (PLN–PMN–PT), with a combination of a high-Curie temperature system Pb(Lu1/2Nb1/2)O3–PbTiO3 (PLN–PT) and a high piezoelectricity system Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 (PMN–PT), was investigated in this paper. Single crystal PLN–PMN–PT with dimensions of Φ20×45 mm3 was grown successfully by the modified Bridgman technique for the first time. The studies of structure and composition of the as-grown crystal showed structural consistency but compositional deviation along the growth direction. The 〈0 0 1〉-oriented wafers of the PLN–PMN–PT single crystal showed excellent electrical properties at room temperature: ε33~4500, tanδ~0.5%, d33~2300 pC/N. The crystal was found to exhibit high Curie temperature (TC~176°C), rhombohedral–tetragonal phase transition temperature (TRT~108 °C) and coercive field (EC~8.1 kV/cm), superior to those of PMN–0.3PT single crystal. Studies of temperature dependence ferroelectric properties showed that high values of k33 and d33 could be maintained up to the TRT. These results showed that PLN–PMN–PT piezoelectric single crystal has a higher Curie temperature and coercive field with excellent electrical properties, making the crystal a promising candidate for high-power transducer applications in a broad temperature range.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Crystal Growth
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    ABSTRACT: Much attention is drawn to the preparation, structure and properties investigation of lead-free ferroelectrics for the next generation of piezoelectric devices. (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 (NBT-BT) lead-free solid solution piezoelectric single crystals with composition x in the range of 0-0.05 as a materials with high piezoelectric properties were successfully grown from platinum crucible by using the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. The dimensions of NBT-BT crystal is o40 x 10 mm(2). X-ray powder diffraction patterns reveal that the crystal structure of NBT-BT crystal changes from rhombohedral to tetragonal symmetry with increasing amounts of BT(x). The dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of NBT-BT crystals with different compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) were studied systematically. Ions (Mn, Eu, Zn) doped NBT and NBT-BT 95/5 crystals were also grown and studied. In addition, their piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties are investigated. Further, a high-quality and large-sized (K0.25Na0.75)NbO3 (KNN25/75) single crystal has been achieved by a carefully controlled TSSG method. The dimensions of the as-grown KNN25/75 single crystal reached up to o30 x 10 mm(2). The obtained KNN crystals provided us a superb material for the dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric and electromechanical coupling property characterization along different orientations.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Crystals
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    ABSTRACT: A new amperometric enzyme electrode and its biofuel cell were fabricated based on a glucose oxidase (GOx)-poly(3-anilineboronic acid) (PABA)-Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) bionanocomposite for biosensing of glucose. Briefly, Pd was electroplated on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-modified Au electrode, and the GOx-PABA-PdNPs bionanocomposite was prepared on the Pdplate/MWCNTs/Au electrode through the chemical oxidation of a GOx-3-anilineboronic acid adduct by Na2PdCl4, followed by electrode-modification with an outer-layer chitosan (CS) film. The thus-prepared CS/GOx-PABA-PdNPs/Pdplate/MWCNTs/Au electrode exhibited a linear amperometric response to glucose concentration from 2.0μM to 4.5mM with a sensitivity of 160μA/mM/cm(2), sub-μM detection limit, and excellent operation/storage stability in the first-generation biosensing mode, as well as excellent analytical performance in the second-generation biosensing mode. The good recoveries of glucose obtained from spiked urine samples revealed the application potential of our amperometric enzyme electrode. In addition, a glucose/O2 biofuel cell was constructed using this enzyme electrode as the anode and a Pt/MWCNTs/Au electrode as the cathode, and this biofuel cell as a self-powered biosensing device showed a linear voltage response to glucose concentration from 100μM to 13.5mM with a sensitivity of 43.5mV/mM/cm(2) and excellent operation/storage stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Talanta
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    ABSTRACT: Ternary ferroelectric single crystal Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) was grown by the modified Bridgman method. The compositional variation of different regions of the crystals was measured, and the segregation regularity of the crystals was proposed. Variations in the dielectric properties and domain structures of the PIN-PMN-PT single crystals were investigated as a function of temperature and composition, and the phase transformation behavior of the crystals was observed. The PIN-PMN-PT crystals showed high Curie temperatures (T C = 160-210 °C), ferroelectric phase transition temperatures (T R-T up to 132 °C) and coercive fields (E C = 6-8 kV/cm) as well as excellent piezoelectric properties (d 33 up to 2,800 pC/N) and electromechanical coefficients (k 33 > 0.90). As the temperature increased, k 33 values remained relatively constant and d 33 increased gradually prior to ferroelectric phase transformation, and these results reflect the wide temperature usage range of PIN-PMN-PT single crystals. The polarization (P r ) and E C of the crystals showed unique trends during the phase transformation process; high P r and E C values can be maintained prior to depolarization, which indicates that the PIN-PMN-PT single crystals are candidate materials for high-power applications. In summary, PIN-PMN-PT single crystals with ultrahigh electric properties, large coercive fields and excellent thermal stability may potentially be applied in harsh environments.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Materials Science Materials in Electronics
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    ABSTRACT: We report that the cathodic preconcentration of electron-insulating As(0) on Au and Pt electrodes can be enhanced by chemical reduction of As(III) and As(V) by electrogenerated H2, as studied by cyclic voltammetry. This finding is used for sensitive anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) analysis of As(III) and/or As(V) at the Au electrode. About three As(0) monolayers were cathodically preconcentrated on the Pt electrode at -0.3 V (vs. SCE) in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4, as a result of both the chemical reduction of the solution-state As(III) near the electrode surface by the electrogenerated H2 and the direct electroreduction of As(III) on the highly catalytic surface Pt sites. Only one As(0) monolayer was electrodeposited at -0.2 V (vs. SCE) on the Au electrode in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4, but about two As(0) monolayers were deposited on the Au electrode at a more negative potential at which the mild evolution of H2 occurred. The electrogenerated H2 could also chemically reduce As(V), though the direct electroreduction of As(V) was sluggish on the Au electrode. Linear sweep ASV (LSASV) oxidation of the preconcentrated As(0) to As(III) and then to As(V) at a fast scan rate gave two sharper and higher anodic peaks on the Au electrode than on the Pt electrode. Based on these observations, sensitive dual-signal LSASV analysis of As(III) and/or As(V) was achieved on the Au electrode, with limits of detection of 1.0 nM for As(III) and 5.4 nM for As(V) under optimized experimental conditions. Our method was successfully applied for analysis of As(III) and/or As(V) in real water samples. The insights into cathodic As(0) deposition provided here may help the better understanding of electrochemical deposition of many other electron-insulating thin films, especially those obeying the electrode material-dependent inner-sphere mechanism, for electrochemical and surface-coating applications.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
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    ABSTRACT: Electrochemical/chemical oxidative synthesis and biosensing/biofuel cell applications of poly(L-DOPA) (PD) are studied versus polydopamine (PDA) as a recent hotspot biomaterial. The enzyme electrode developed by coelectrodeposition of PD and glucose oxidase (GOx), uricase or tyrosinase shows biosensing performance superior to the corresponding PDA-based enzyme electrode. The chemical oxidative polymerization of L-DOPA (PDC) by NaAuCl4 in GOx-containing neutral aqueous solution is used to immobilize GOx and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The thus-prepared chitosan (CS)/GOx-PDC-AuNPs/Auplate/Au electrode working in the first-generation biosensing mode responds linearly to glucose concentration with a sensitivity of 152 μA mM-1 cm-2, which is larger than those of the CS/GOx-PDAC-AuNPs/Auplate/Au electrode, the CS/GOx-poly(3-anilineboronic acid) (PABA)-AuNPs/Auplate/Au electrode and most reported GOx-based enzyme electrodes. This PDC-based enzyme electrode also works well in the second-generation biosensing mode and as an excellent bioanode in biofuel cell construction, probably because PD as an amino acid polymer has the higher biocompatibility and the more favorable affinity to the enzyme than PDA. The PD material of great convenience in synthesis, outstanding biocompatibility for preparing high-performance bionanocomposites, and strong capability of multifunctional coatings on many surfaces may find wide applications in diversified fields including biotechnology and surface-coating.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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    ABSTRACT: An electrochemical sandwich immunoassay method that can be sensitive to a few protein molecules (human immunoglobulin G or human prostate-specific antigen) is reported, based on HAuCl4-NH2OH redox reaction to enlarge the size of second antibody labeled gold nanoparticles and in situ microliter-droplet anodic stripping voltammetry analysis with enhanced cathodic preconcentration of gold.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Chemical Communications
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    ABSTRACT: In situ observations of the phase symmetry and domain evolution of (K0.25Na0.75)NbO3 single crystals under bipolar electric fields have been performed for both pseudocubic (110) and (001) orientations using polarized light microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The macroscopic symmetry was identified to be a monoclinic C type phase with the spontaneous polarization direction close to <054>. The electric field-driven domain morphology and evolution model were also presented. It was found that, under an antiparallel electric field, the approximately 180° domain switching process in a pseudocubic (101) sample consists of three steps: two ~60° domain switching and a ~90° domain switching, and the ~90° domain switching process in the pseudocubic (001) sample is composed of two ~60° switching steps.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · CrystEngComm
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    ABSTRACT: Bismuth layer-structured ferroelectric ceramics of Na0.5Bi4.5−x (Nd0.5Ce0.5) x Ti4O15 (NBT-x, 0.0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.4) were synthesized by a traditional solid-state reaction. The effect of (Nd,Ce) substitution for A-site on the microstructure and electrical properties of Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15 (NBT)-based piezoelectric ceramics was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the (Nd,Ce)-modified NBT ceramics have a pure four-layer Aurivillius type structure. The piezoelectric properties of NBT ceramics were significantly improved by the modification of neodymium and cerium. The Curie temperature T C gradually decreased from 638 °C to 618 °C with increasing the (Nd,Ce) modification. The piezoelectric constant d 33, mechanical quality factor Q m, dielectric loss tanδ and Curie temperature T C of the Na0.5Bi4.3(Nd0.5Ce0.5)0.2Ti4O15 ceramic were found to be 28 pC/N, 3239, 0.0032 and 630 °C, respectively. Thermal annealing studies indicated that the (Nd,Ce)-modified NBT ceramics possess stable piezoelectric properties, demonstrating that the Na0.5Bi4.3(Nd0.5Ce0.5)0.2Ti4O15 ceramic is a promising candidate for high temperature applications.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous electroanalysis of isoniazid and uric acid (UA) was achieved at a poly(sulfosalicylic acid) (PSA) and carboxylated graphene (CG)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The CG cast-coated on the GCE was cathodically reduced to form electroreduced CG (ERCG), while the PSA was electrochemically synthesized on the ERCG/GCE. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance was used to investigate the electrodeposition processes. The surface morphologies and electrochemical properties of the PSA/ERCG/GCE were studied by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of isoniazid and UA at PSA/ERCG/GCE were investigated by CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), giving well defined and well separated oxidation peaks of isoniazid and UA. The PSA/ERCG/GCE exhibited notably enhanced electro-oxidation signals of isoniazid and UA in NH3-NH4Cl buffer solution (pH 9.0), as compared with bare GCE and PSA/GCE. Under optimum conditions, the DPV peak currents at PSA/ERCG/GCE responded linearly to isoniazid concentration from 0.05 to 15 μM and to UA concentration from 0.02 to 15 μM, with limits of detection of 12 nM for both isoniazid and UA, which is an improvement compared to many other reported techniques. The PSA/ERCG/GCE was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of isoniazid and UA in urine substrate samples.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Sensors and Actuators B Chemical
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    ABSTRACT: The porous structure characteristics of twenty-one porous microspheres with agarose framework were investigated based on the low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF NMR) relaxation time (T 2) distribution measurements. The feasibility of the technique was confirmed by direct relationship between T 2 and the mean pore size of the polymer networks (Rh) of agarose hydrogel which was established using the “Fiber-Cell” model. The expected pore radius distribution curve was obtained and the reliability was validated by comparing them with the results obtained by inverse size-exclusion chromatography. Thereafter, the technique was applied to characterize the pore size distribution (PSD) of soft microspheres and the pore size transformation of microspheres with or without grafted polymers in the process of protein adsorption. All of these results strongly support LF NMR as a promising, rapid and nondestructive technique for the determination of PSDs in many kinds of soft porous microspheres.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Porous Materials
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    ABSTRACT: A series of (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3–PbTiO3 (NBT–PT) single crystals with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region were grown by the modified Bridgman technique. The dependence of structure on composition was measured, and the MPB region of the NBT–PT system was confirmed. The dielectric properties of the NBT–PT single crystals were investigated, and the phase transition behaviour of the NBT–PT single crystals during heating was examined. With increasing addition of PT, the coercive field of the NBT–PT crystals decreased to levels much lower than that of the pure NBT system; such a change allowed easy poling of the NBT–PT crystals and the resultant piezoelectric properties were significantly enhanced. The electromechanical coupling factor of the crystals showed relatively constant thermal stability at the depolarization temperature (Td). Finally, studies of the domain evolution of NBT–0.09PT showed the disappearance of domains at the Td, which indicates that phase transition at the Td is related to changes in domain structures.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Ceramics International
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    ABSTRACT: A carboxylated graphene (CG) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was prepared by cast-coating a CG solution on a GCE surface, for quantitative analysis of nicotine based on cyclic voltammetry after potentiostatic enrichment of nicotine at −1.1 V for 240 s in 0.1 M KH2PO4–Na2HPO4 buffer solution (pH 7.0). At this enrichment potential, partially electroreduced CG (ERCG) was obtained, as characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemistry techniques. The oxidation peak current of nicotine at the ERCG/GCE after a semi-derivative treatment responded linearly to nicotine concentration from 2 to 5 μM and from 5 to 60 μM, with a limit of detection of 0.1 μM. The ERCG/GCE gave analytical performance superior to that at a bare GCE, and the semi-derivative treatment notably improved the signal resolution. The ERCG/GCE was used to determine nicotine in real tobacco samples, with recoveries over 95%.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Analytical methods
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    ABSTRACT: Single crystals of x at.% Fe+0.95(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-0.05BaTiO3 (x%-Fe:NBBT5, x=0.1, 0.2 and 0.5) with ultrahigh ferroelectric response were developed by introducing defect associations. The giant field-induced bipolar and unipolar strains, i.e. Smax~1.1%, εmax/Emax ~1300 pm/V, d33~600 pC/N and permittivity tunability ~120% demonstrate that they are promising candidates as lead-free ferroelectrics. The presence of ferromagnetic properties further provides new application potential as multiferroic materials. The defect chemistry and domain structure were studied systematically. The effects of microscopic defect functional centers on macroscopic properties were discussed in detail.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014

Publication Stats

649 Citations
215.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2010-2015
    • Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute
      Ching-te-chen, Jiangxi Sheng, China
  • 2009-2015
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • • Information Materials and Devices Research Center
      • • State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2006-2015
    • Hunan University
      • College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
      Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China
  • 2007-2013
    • Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics
      • State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China