[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background It is unknown whether the neonatal tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) loading test is adequate to diagnose long-term BH4 responsiveness in PKU. Therefore we compared the predictive value of the neonatal (test I) versus the 48-h BH4 loading test (test II) and long-term BH4 responsiveness. Methods Data on test I (>1991, 20 mg/kg) at T = 8 (n = 85) and T = 24 (n = 5) were collected and compared with test II and long-term BH4 responsiveness at later age, with ≥30 % Phe decrease used as the cut-off. Results The median (IQR) age at hospital diagnosis was 9 (7–11) days and the age at test II was 11.8 (6.6–13.7) years. The baseline Phe concentrations at test I were significantly higher compared to test II (1309 (834–1710) versus 514 (402–689) μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.000). 15/85 patients had a positive test I T = 8. All, except one patient who was not tested for long-term BH4 responsiveness, showed long-term BH4 responsiveness. In 20/70 patients with a negative test I T = 8, long-term BH4 responsiveness was confirmed. Of 5 patients with a test I T = 24, 1/5 was positive at both tests and showed long-term BH4 responsiveness, 2/5 had negative results at both tests and 2/5 showed a negative test I T = 24, but a positive test II with 1/2 showing long-term BH4 responsiveness. Conclusions Both a positive neonatal 8- and 24-h BH4 loading test are predictive for long-term BH4 responsiveness. However, a negative test does not rule out long-term BH4 responsiveness. Other alternatives to test for BH4 responsiveness at neonatal age should be investigated.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme (PAH) deficiency. Treatment constitutes a strict Phe restricted diet with unpalatable amino acid supplements. Residual PAH activity enhancement with its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a novel treatment which increases dietary tolerance in some patients and permits dietary relaxation. Relaxation of diet may improve health related quality of life (HRQoL). This prospective cohort study aims to evaluate HRQoL of patients with PKU and effects of BH4 treatment on HRQoL.
Patients aged 4years and older, diagnosed through newborn screening and early and continuously treated, were recruited from eight metabolic centers. Patients and mothers completed validated generic and chronic health-conditions HRQoL questionnaires (PedsQL, TAAQOL, and DISABKIDS) twice: before and after testing BH4 responsivity. Baseline results were compared to the general population. Data collected after BH4 testing was used to find differences in HRQoL between BH4 unresponsive patients and BH4 responsive patients after one year of treatment with BH4. Also a within patient comparison was performed to find differences in HRQoL before and after treatment with BH4.
69/81 (85%) patients completed the questionnaires before BH4 responsivity testing, and 45/69 (65%) participated again after testing. Overall PKU patients demonstrated normal HRQoL. However, some significant differences were found when compared to the general population. A significantly higher (thus better) score on the PedsQL was reported by children 8-12years on physical functioning and by children 13-17years on total and psychosocial functioning. Furthermore, adult patients reported significantly lower (thus worse) scores in the TAAQOL cognitive domain. 10 patients proved to be responsive to BH4 treatment; however improvement in their HRQoL after relaxation of diet could not be demonstrated.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Newborn screening (NBS) for long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency does not discriminate between isolated LCHAD deficiency, isolated long-chain keto acyl-CoA (LCKAT) deficiency and general mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiency. Therefore, screening for LCHAD deficiency inevitably comprises screening for MTP deficiency, which is much less amenable to treatment. Furthermore, absence of a clear classification system for these disorders is still lacking.
Materials and methods:
Two newborns screened positive for LCHAD deficiency died at the age of 10 and 31 days, respectively. One due to severe necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), cardiomyopathy and multiorgan failure and the other due to severe infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (Keto)-acylcarnitine concentration and enzymatic analysis of LCHAD and LCKAT suggested MTP deficiency in both patients. Mutation analysis revealed a homozygous HADHB c.357+5delG mutation in one patient and a homozygous splice-site HADHB mutation c.212+1G>C in the other patient.Data on enzymatic and mutation analysis of 40 patients with presumed LCHAD, LCKAT or MTP deficiency were used to design a classification to distinguish between these disorders.
NEC as presenting symptom in MTP deficiency has not been reported previously. High expression of long-chain fatty acid oxidation enzymes reported in lungs and gut of human foetuses suggests that the severe NEC and IRDS observed in our patients are related to the enzymatic deficiency in these organs during crucial stages of development.Furthermore, as illustrated by the cases we propose a classification system to discriminate LCHAD, LCKAT and MTP deficiency based on enzymatic analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 24- and 48-hour tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) loading test (BLT) performed at a minimum baseline phenylalanine concentration of 400 μmol/l is commonly used to test phenylketonuria patients for BH4 responsiveness. This study aimed to analyze differences between the 24- and 48-hour BLT and the necessity of the 400 μmol/l minimum baseline phenylalanine concentration.
Data on 186 phenylketonuria patients were collected. Patients were supplemented with phenylalanine if phenylalanine was <400 μmol/l. BH4 20mg/kg was administered at T = 0 and T = 24. Blood samples were taken at T=0, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h. Responsiveness was defined as ≥ 30% reduction in phenylalanine concentration at ≥ 1 time point.
Eighty-six (46.2%) patients were responsive. Among responders 84% showed a ≥ 30% response at T = 48. Fifty-three percent had their maximal decrease at T = 48. Fourteen patients had ≥ 30% phenylalanine decrease not before T = 48. A ≥ 30% decrease was also seen in patients with phenylalanine concentrations <400 μmol/l.
In the 48-hour BLT, T = 48 seems more informative than T = 24. Sampling at T = 32, and T = 40 may have additional value. BH4 responsiveness can also be predicted with baseline blood phenylalanine <400 μmol/l, when the BLT is positive. Therefore, if these results are confirmed by data on long-term BH4 responsiveness, we advise to first perform a BLT without phenylalanine loading and re-test at higher phenylalanine concentrations when no response is seen. Most likely, the 48-hour BLT is a good indicator for BH4 responsiveness, but comparison with long term responsiveness is necessary.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parents of children with chronic disorders have an impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to parents of healthy children. Remarkably, parents of children with a metabolic disorder reported an even lower HRQoL than parents of children with other chronic disorders. Possibly, the uncertainty about the course of the disease and the limited life expectancy in many metabolic disorders are important factors in the low parental HRQoL. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional study in parents of children with phenylketonuria (PKU, OMIM #261600) and galactosemia (OMIM #230400), metabolic disorders not affecting life expectancy, in order to investigate their HRQoL compared to parents of healthy children and to parents of children with other metabolic disorders. A total of 185 parents of children with PKU and galactosemia aged 1-19 years completed two questionnaires. Parents of children with PKU or galactosemia reported a HRQoL comparable to parents of healthy children and a significantly better HRQoL than parents of children with other metabolic disorders. Important predictors for parental mental HRQoL were the psychosocial factors emotional support and loss of friendship. As parental mental functioning influences the health, development and adjustment of their children, it is important that treating physicians also pay attention to the wellbeing of the parents. The insight that emotional support and loss of friendship influence the HRQoL of the parents enables treating physicians to provide better support for these parents.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) deficiencies are disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO). In fatty acid oxidation, long-chain fatty acids need the carnitine cycle to be transported from the cytosol to the mitochondria. In CPT II deficiency, long-chain acylcarnitines cannot be metabolised to carnitine and acyl-CoA, leading to accumulation of toxic long-chain acylcarnitines. Three clinical presentations of CPT II deficiency have been identified: the adult form, the infantile form and the neonatal form. The neonatal form of CPT II is the most severe and all reported patients died within a few days to 6 weeks after birth. The first case of a patient with neonatal CPT II deficiency surviving beyond the neonatal period is described. Unfortunately, the infant died at the age of 6 months due to untreatable cardiac arrhythmias.