C. N. Tadhunter

The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England, United Kingdom

Are you C. N. Tadhunter?

Claim your profile

Publications (290)936 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present optical imaging and long slit spectroscopic observations of nine luminous type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGN) within the redshift range 0.3 < z < 0.6 based on Very Large Telescope Focal Reducer and Low Dispersion Spectrograph (VLT FORS2) data. Most objects (6/9) are high luminosity Seyfert 2, and three are type 2 quasars (QSO2), with our sample extending to lower luminosity than previous works. Seven out of nine objects (78 per cent) show morphological evidence for interactions or mergers in the form of disturbed morphologies and/or peculiar features such as tidal tails, amorphous haloes, or compact emission line knots. The detection rate of morphological evidence for interaction is consistent with those found during previous studies of QSO2 at similar z, suggesting that the merger rate is independent of AGN power at the high end of the AGN luminosity function. We find the emission line flux spatial profiles are often dominated by the often spatially unresolved central source. In addition, all but one of our samples is associated with much fainter, extended line emission. We find these extended emission line structures have a variety of origins and ionization mechanisms: star-forming companions, tidal features, or extended ionized nebulae. AGN related processes dominate the excitation of the nuclear gas. Stellar photoionization sometimes plays a role in extended structures often related to mergers/interactions.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Newly born and young radio sources are in a delicate phase of their life. Their jets are fighting their way through the surrounding gaseous medium, strongly experiencing this interaction while, at the same time, impacting and affecting the interstellar medium (ISM). Here we present the results from two studies of HI (in absorption) and molecular gas illustrating what can be learned from these phases of the gas. We first describe a statistical study with the WSRT. The study shows that the young radio sources not only have an higher detection rate of HI, but also systematically broader and more asymmetric HI profiles, most of them blueshifted. This supports the idea that we are looking at young radio jets making their way through the surrounding ISM, which also appears to be, on average, richer in gas than in evolved radio sources. Signatures of the impact of the jet are seen in the kinematics of the gas. However, even among the young sources, we identify a population that remains undetected in HI even after stacking their profiles. Orientation effects can only partly explain the result. These objects either are genuinely gas-poor or have different conditions of the medium, e.g. higher spin temperature. We further present the ALMA study of molecular gas in IC5063 to trace in detail the jet impacting the ISM. The kinematics of the cold, molecular gas co-spatial with the radio plasma shows this process in action. The ALMA data reveal a fast outflow of molecular gas extending along the entire radio jet (~1 kpc), with the highest outflow velocities at the location of the brighter hot-spot. We propose a scenario where the radio jet is expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that drives a lateral outflow into the ISM.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fast outflows of gas, driven by the interaction between the radio jets and interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy, are being observed in an increasing number of galaxies. One such example is the nearby radio galaxy 3C 293. In this paper we present integral field unit observations taken with OASIS on the William Herschel Telescope, enabling us to map the spatial extent of the ionized gas outflows across the central regions of the galaxy. The jet-driven outflow in 3C 293 is detected along the inner radio lobes with a mass outflow rate ranging from ∼0.05 to 0.17 M⊙ yr−1 (in ionized gas) and corresponding kinetic power of ∼0.5–3.5 × 1040 erg s−1. Investigating the kinematics of the gas surrounding the radio jets (i.e. not directly associated with the outflow), we find linewidths broader than 300 km s−1 up to 5 kpc in the radial direction from the nucleus (corresponding to 3.5 kpc in the direction perpendicular to the radio axis at maximum extent). Along the axis of the radio jet linewidths >400 km s−1 are detected out to 7 kpc from the nucleus and linewidths of >500 km s−1 at a distance of 12 kpc from the nucleus, indicating that the disturbed kinematics clearly extend well beyond the high surface brightness radio structures of the jets. This is suggestive of the cocoon structure seen in simulations of jet–ISM interaction and implies that the radio jets are capable of disturbing the gas throughout the central regions of the host galaxy in all directions.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present optical imaging and long slit spectroscopic observations of 9 luminous type 2 AGNs within the redshift range 0.3<z<0.6 based on VLT-FORS2 data. Most objects (6/9) are high luminosity Seyfert 2, and three are type 2 quasars (QSO2), with our sample extending to lower luminosity than previous works. Seven out of nine objects (78%) show morphological evidence for interactions or mergers in the form of disturbed morphologies and/or peculiar features such as tidal tails, amorphous halos, or compact emission line knots. The detection rate of morphological evidence for interaction is consistent with those found during previous studies of QSO2 at similar z, suggesting that the merger rate is independent of AGN power at the high end of the AGN luminosity function. We find the emission line flux spatial profiles are often dominated by the often spatially unresolved central source. In addition, all but one of our sample is associated with much fainter, extended line emission. We find these extended emission line structures have a variety of origins and ionization mechanisms: star forming companions, tidal features, or extended ionized nebulae. AGN related processes dominate the excitation of the nuclear gas. Stellar photoionization sometimes plays a role in extended structures often related to mergers/interactions.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We study the physical and kinematic properties of the narrow-line region (NLR) of the nearest obscured quasar MRK 477 (z = 0.037), using optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. About 100 emission lines are identified in the optical+NIR spectrum (90 in the optical), including several narrow optical Fe+ lines. To our knowledge, this is the first type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) with such a detection. The Fe+ lines can be explained as the natural emission from the NLR photoionized by the AGN. Coronal line emission can only be confirmed in the NIR spectrum. As in many other AGNs, a significant correlation is found between the lines’ full width at half-maximum and the critical density log(ncrit). We propose that it is caused by the outflow. This could be the case in other AGNs. The nuclear jet-induced ionized outflow has been kinematically isolated in many emission lines covering a broad range of ionization potentials and critical densities. It is concentrated within R ∼few×100 pc from the central engine. The outflowing gas is denser (n ≳ 8000 cm−3) than the ambient non-perturbed gas (n ∼ 400–630 cm−3). This could be due to the compression effect of the jet-induced shocks. Alternatively, we propose that the outflow has been triggered by the jet at R ≲ 220 pc (possibly at ≲ 30 pc), and we trace how the impact weakens as it propagates outwards following the radiation-pressure-dominated density gradient. The different kinematic behaviour of [Fe ii] λ1.644 μm suggests that its emission is enhanced by shocks induced by the nuclear outflow/jet and is preferentially emitted at a different, less reddened spatial location.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The tight correlations observed between galaxies and their SMBH provides compelling evidence that the evolution of the galaxy and its central black hole are strongly linked. This is generally attributed to feedback mechanisms which, according to simulations, often take the form of outflows of gas, quenching star formation in the host galaxy and halting accretion onto the central black hole. While there are a number of plausible ways that outflows could be produced, recent results have shown that in some cases radio jets could be responsible for driving fast outflows of gas. One such example is seen in the nearby radio galaxy 3C293. In this talk I will present results from JVLA radio observations where we detect fast outflows (~1200 km/s) of neutral gas which are being driven by the radio-jet approximately 0.5 kpc from the central core, providing direct evidence for jet-ISM interaction. This is accompanied with recent IFU observations showing that ionised gas outflows are also being driven by the radio jet. Pinpointing the location of these outflows enables us to derive crucial parameters, such as the mass outflow rates and kinetic energy involved, which we can compare to predictions from galaxy evolution simulations.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We use high-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with ALMA to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy IC5063. A fast outflow of molecular gas extends along the entire radio jet, with the highest outflow velocities about 0.5kpc from the nucleus, at the location of the brighter hot-spot in the W lobe. The data show that a massive, fast outflow with velocities up to 650 km/s of cold molecular gas is present, in addition to one detected earlier in warm H2, HI and ionised gas. Both the central AGN and the radio jet could energetically drive the outflow. However, the characteristics of the outflowing gas point to the radio jet being the main driver. This is important, because IC5063, although one of the most powerful Seyfert galaxies, is a relatively weak radio source (P = 3x10^23 W/Hz). All the observed characteristics can be described by a scenario of a radio plasma jet expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that drives a lateral outflow into the interstellar medium. This model is consistent with results obtained by recent simulations such as those of Wagner et al.. A stronger, direct interaction between the jet and a gas cloud is present at the location of the brighter W lobe. Even assuming the most conservative values for the conversion factor CO-to-H2, the mass of the outflowing gas is between 1.9 and 4.8x10^7 Msun. These amounts are much larger than those of the outflow of warm gas (molecular and ionized) and somewhat larger than of the HI outflow. This suggests that most of the observed cold molecular outflow is due to fast cooling after being shocked. This gas is the end product of the cooling process. Our CO observations demonstrate that fast outflows of molecular gas can be driven by relativistic jets.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array have been used to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy{IC~5063}. Although one of the most radio-loud Seyfert galaxy, IC~5063 is a relatively weak radio source (P_1.4GHz = 3 x 10^23 W Hz^-1). The data reveal that the kinematics of the gas is very complex. A fast outflow of molecular gas extends along the entire radio jet (~ 1 kpc), with the highest outflow velocities about 0.5 kpc from the nucleus, at the location of the brighter hot-spot in the W lobe. All the observed characteristics can be described by a scenario of a radio plasma jet expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that drives a lateral outflow into the interstellar medium. This suggests that most of the observed cold molecular outflow is due to fast cooling of the gas after the passage of a shock and that it is the end product of the cooling process.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present results from a fifteen-month campaign of high-cadence (~ 3 days) mid-infrared Spitzer and optical (B and V ) monitoring of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6418, with the objective of determining the characteristic size of the dusty torus in this active galactic nucleus (AGN). We find that the 3.6 $\mu$m and 4.5 $\mu$m flux variations lag behind those of the optical continuum by $37.2^{+2.4}_{-2.2}$ days and $47.1^{+3.1}_{-3.1}$ days, respectively. We report a cross-correlation time lag between the 4.5 $\mu$m and 3.6 $\mu$m flux of $13.9^{+0.5}_{-0.1}$ days. The lags indicate that the dust emitting at 3.6 $\mu$m and 4.5 $\mu$m is located at a distance of approximately 1 light-month (~ 0.03 pc) from the source of the AGN UV-optical continuum. The reverberation radii are consistent with the inferred lower limit to the sublimation radius for pure graphite grains at 1800 K, but smaller by a factor of ~ 2 than the corresponding lower limit for silicate grains; this is similar to what has been found for near-infrared (K-band) lags in other AGN. The 3.6 and 4.5 $\mu$m reverberation radii fall above the K-band $\tau \propto L^{0.5}$ size-luminosity relationship by factors $\lesssim 2.7$ and $\lesssim 3.4$, respectively, while the 4.5 $\mu$m reverberation radius is only 27% larger than the 3.6 $\mu$m radius. This is broadly consistent with clumpy torus models, in which individual optically thick clouds emit strongly over a broad wavelength range.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    Marvin Rose · Martin Elvis · Clive N. Tadhunter
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We introduce Coronal-Line Forest active galactic nuclei (CLiF AGN), AGN which have a rich spectrum of forbidden high-ionization lines (FHILs, e.g. [Fe vii], [Fe x] and [Ne v]), as well as relatively strong narrow (∼300 km s−1) Hα emission when compared to the other Balmer transition lines. We find that the kinematics of the CLiF emitting region are similar to those of the forbidden low-ionization emission-line (FLIL) region. We compare emission line strengths of both FHILs and FLILs to cloudy photoionization results and find that the CLiF emitting region has higher densities (104.5 < nH < 107.5 cm−3) when compared to the FLIL emitting region (103.0 < nH < 104.5 cm−3). We use the photoionization results to calculate the CLiF regions radial distances (0.04 < RCLiF < 32.5 pc) and find that they are comparable to the dust grain sublimation distances (0.10 < RSUB < 4.3 pc). As a result, we suggest that the inner torus wall is the most likely location of the CLiF region, and the unusual strength of the FHILs is due to a specific viewing angle giving a maximal view of the far wall of the torus without the continuum being revealed.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • E.A. Ramírez · C.N. Tadhunter · D. Dicken · M. Rose · D. Axon · W. Sparks
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the analysis of infrared HST and Spitzer data for a sample of 13 FRII powerful radio galaxies at 0.03 < z < 0.11 that are optically classified as narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRG). Under the context of the unified schemes of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), the direct view of the AGN in NLRG is impeded by a parsec-scale toroidal structure when this is viewed edge-on (Barthel 1989; Antonucci 1993). Our high resolution infrared observations provide new information about the optical extinction, orientation, and direct AGN detection of the inner kpc-scale region of the AGN.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We use deep Herschel Space Observatory observations of a 90 per cent complete sample of 32 intermediate-redshift 2Jy radio galaxies (0.05 < z < 0.7) with strong emission lines to estimate the dust masses of their host galaxies and thereby investigate the triggering mechanisms for their quasar-like AGN. The dust masses derived for the radio galaxies (7.2 × 105 < Md < 2.6 × 108 M⊙) are intermediate between those of quiescent elliptical galaxies on the one hand, and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) on the other. Consistent with simple models for the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, these results suggest that most radio galaxies represent the late time re-triggering of AGN activity via mergers between the host giant elliptical galaxies and companion galaxies with relatively low gas masses. However, a minority of the radio galaxies in our sample (∼20 per cent) have high, ULIRG-like dust masses, along with evidence for prodigious star formation activity. The latter objects are more likely to have been triggered in major, gas-rich mergers that represent a rapid growth phase for both their host galaxies and their supermassive black holes.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present new HST ACS medium- and narrow-band images and long-slit, optical (4000 - 7200A) spectra obtained using the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) on La Palma, of the merging system Mrk273. The HST observations sample the [OIII]4959,5007 emission from the galaxy and the nearby continuum. The images show that the morphologies of the extended continuum and the ionised gas emission from the galaxy are decoupled, extending almost perpendicular to each other. In particular, we detect for the first time a spectacular structure of ionised gas in the form of filaments extending ~23 kpc to the east of the nuclear region. The quiescent ionised gas kinematics at these locations suggests that these filaments are tidal debris left over from a secondary merger event that are illuminated by an AGN in the nuclear regions. The images also reveal a complex morphology in the nuclear region of the galaxy for both the continuum and the [OIII] emission. Kinematic disturbance, in the form of broad (FWHM > 500 km s-1) and/or strongly shifted (abs(\DeltaV) >150 km s-1) emission line components, is found at almost all locations within a radius of ~4 kpc to the east and west of the northern nucleus. We fit the profiles of all the emission lines of different ionisation with a kinematic model using up to 3 Gaussian components. From these fits we derive diagnostic line ratios that are used to investigate the ionisation mechanisms at the different locations in the galaxy. We show that, in general, the line ratios are consistent with photoionization by an AGN as the main ionisation mechanism. Finally, the highest surface brightness [OIII] emission is found in a compact region that is coincident with the so-called SE nuclear component. The compactness, kinematics and emission line ratios of this component suggest that it is a separate nucleus with its own AGN.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present high-angular (~0.4") resolution mid-infrared (MIR) polarimetric observations in the 8.7 ${\mu}$m and 11.6 ${\mu}$m filters of Cygnus A using CanariCam on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. A highly polarized nucleus is observed with a degree of polarization of 11${\pm}$3% and 12${\pm}$3% and position angle of polarization of 27${\pm}$8 degrees and 35${\pm}$8 degrees in a 0.38" (~380 pc) aperture for each filter. The observed rising of the polarized flux density with increasing wavelength is consistent with synchrotron radiation from the pc-scale jet close to the core of Cygnus A. Based on our polarization model, the synchrotron emission from the pc-scale jet is estimated to be 14% and 17% of the total flux density in the 8.7 ${\mu}$m and 11.6 ${\mu}$m filters, respectively. A blackbody component with a characteristic temperature of 220 K accounts for >75% of the observed MIR total flux density. The blackbody emission arises from a combination of (1) dust emission in the torus; and (2) diffuse dust emission around the nuclear region, but the contributions of the two components cannot be well constrained in these observations.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of 2.05 μm Hubble Space Telescope polarimetric data for a sample of 13 nearby Fanaroff–Riley type II (FRII) 3CR radio sources (0.03 < z < 0.11) that are classified as narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRG) at optical wavelengths. We find that the compact cores of the NLRG in our sample are intrinsically highly polarized in the near-infrared (near-IR) (6 < P2.05 μm < 60 per cent), with the electric vector (E-vector) perpendicular to the radio axis in 54 per cent of the sources. The levels of extinction required to produce near-IR polarization by the dichroic extinction mechanism are consistent with the measured values recently reported in Ramírez et al., provided that this mechanism has its maximum efficiency. This consistency suggests that the nuclear polarization could be due to dichroic extinction. In this case, toroidal magnetic fields that are highly coherent would be required in the circumnuclear tori to align the elongated dust grains responsible for the dichroic extinction. However, it is not entirely possible to rule out other polarization mechanisms (e.g. scattering, synchrotron emission) with our observations at only one near-IR wavelength. Therefore, further polarimetry observations at mid-IR and radio wavelengths will be required to test whether all the near-IR polarization is due to dichroic extinction.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    C. Tadhunter · R. Morganti · M. Rose · J. B. R. Oonk · T. Oosterloo
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Massive outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are widely recognised to play a key role in the evolution of galaxies, heating the ambient gas, expelling it from the nuclear regions, and thereby affecting the star formation histories of the galaxy bulges. It has been proposed that the powerful jets of relativistic particles launched by some AGN can both accelerate and heat the molecular gas, which often dominates the mass budgets of the outflows. However, clear evidence for this mechanism in the form of detailed associations between the molecular gas kinematics and features in the radio-emitting jets has been lacking. Here we show that the warm molecular hydrogen gas in the western radio lobe of the Seyfert galaxy IC5063 is moving at high velocities - up to 600 km/s - relative to the galaxy disk. This suggests that the molecules have been accelerated by fast shocks driven into the interstellar medium (ISM) by the expanding radio jets. These results demonstrate the general feasibility of accelerating molecular outflows in fast shocks driven by AGN.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Nature
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It remains uncertain which continuum and emission line diagnostics best indicate the bolometric powers of active galactic nuclei (AGN), especially given the attenuation caused by the circum-nuclear material, and the possible contamination by components related to star formation. Here we use mid-IR spectra along with the multi-wavelength data to investigate the merit of various diagnostics of AGN radiative power, including the mid-IR [NeIII]25.89 micron and [OIV]25.89 micron fine structure lines, the optical [OIII]5007 forbidden line, and mid-IR 24 micron, 5GHz radio, and X-ray continuum emission, for complete samples of 46 2Jy radio galaxies (0.05<z<0.7) and 17 3CRR FRII radio galaxies (z<0.1). We find that the mid-IR [OIV] line is the most reliable indicator of AGN power for powerful radio-loud AGN. By assuming that the [OIV] is emitted isotropically, and comparing the [OIII] and 24 micron luminosities of the broad- and narrow-line AGN in our samples at fixed [OIV] luminosity, we show that the [OIII] and 24 micron emission are both mildly attenuated in the narrow-line compared to the broad-line objects by a factor 2. However, despite this attenuation, the [OIII] and 24 micron luminosities are better AGN power indicators for our sample than either the 5 GHz radio or the X-ray continuum luminosities. We also detect the mid-IR 9.7 micron silicate feature in the spectra of many objects but not ubiquitously: at least 40% of the sample show no clear evidence for these features. We conclude that, for the majority of powerful radio galaxies, the mid-IR lines are powered by AGN photoionisation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It remains uncertain which continuum and emission line diagnostics best indicate the bolometric powers of active galactic nuclei (AGN), especially given the attenuation caused by the circum-nuclear material, and the possible contamination by components related to star formation. Here we use mid-IR spectra along with the multi-wavelength data to investigate the merit of various diagnostics of AGN radiative power, including the mid-IR [NeIII]25.89 micron and [OIV]25.89 micron fine structure lines, the optical [OIII]5007 forbidden line, and mid-IR 24 micron, 5GHz radio, and X-ray continuum emission, for complete samples of 46 2Jy radio galaxies (0.05
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
  • E. A. Ramírez · C. N. Tadhunter · D. Dicken · M. Rose · D. Axon · W. Sparks · C. Packham
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of infrared Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Spitzer data for a sample of 13 Fanaroff-Riley II (FRII) radio galaxies at 0.03 < z < 0.11 that are classified as narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs). In the context of unified schemes for active galactic nuclei (AGNs), our direct view of AGNs in NLRGs is impeded by a parsec-scale dusty torus structure. Our high-resolution infrared observations provide new information about the degree of extinction resulting from the torus, and about the incidence of obscured AGNs in NLRGs.We find that the point-like nucleus detection rate increases from 25 per cent at 1.025 μm, to 80 per cent at 2.05 μm, and to 100 per cent at 8.0 μm. This supports the idea that most NLRG host an obscured AGN in their centre. We estimate the extinction from the obscuring structures using X-ray, near-IR and mid-IR data. We find that the optical extinction derived from the 9.7 μm silicate absorption feature is consistently lower than the extinction derived using other techniques. This discrepancy challenges the assumption that all the mid-infrared emission of NLRG is extinguished by a simple screen of dust at larger radii. This disagreement can be explained in terms of either weakening of the silicate absorption feature by (i) thermal mid-IR emission from the narrow-line region, (ii) non-thermal emission from the base of the radio jets, or (iii) by direct warm dust emission that leaks through a clumpy torus without suffering major attenuation.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We carry out a systematic study of the X-ray emission from the active nuclei of the 0.02 < z < 0.7 2 Jy sample, using Chandra and XMM–Newton observations. We combine our results with those from mid-infrared, optical emission-line and radio observations, and add them to those of the 3CRR sources. We show that the low-excitation objects in our samples show signs of radiatively inefficient accretion. We study the effect of the jet-related emission on the various luminosities, confirming that it is the main source of soft X-ray emission for our sources. We also find strong correlations between the accretion-related luminosities, and identify several sources whose optical classification is incompatible with their accretion properties. We derive the bolometric and jet kinetic luminosities for the samples and find a difference in the total Eddington rate between the low- and high-excitation populations, with the former peaking at ∼1 per cent and the latter at ∼20 per cent Eddington. Our results are consistent with a simple Eddington switch when the effects of environment on radio luminosity and black hole mass calculations are considered. The apparent independence of jet kinetic power and radiative luminosity in the high-excitation population in our plots supports a model in which jet production and radiatively efficient accretion are not strongly correlated in high-excitation objects, though they have a common underlying mechanism.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Publication Stats

4k Citations
936.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995-2015
    • The University of Sheffield
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • University of Tasmania
      • School of Mathematics & Physics
      Hobart Town, Tasmania, Australia
  • 1990-1993
    • Durham University
      • Department of Physics
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
    • European Space Agency
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1992
    • National Research Council
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1989
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1988
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1987
    • University of St Andrews
      Saint Andrews, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • University of Sussex
      • Astronomy Centre
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom
  • 1986
    • University of Brighton
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom