Bruce Budowle

King Abdulaziz University, Djidda, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

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Publications (509)1223.91 Total impact

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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: The DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) is reviewing factors that need to be considered ahead of the adoption by the forensic community of short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping by massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies. MPS produces sequence data that provide a precise description of the repeat allele structure of a STR marker and variants that may reside in the flanking areas of the repeat region. When a STR contains a complex arrangement of repeat motifs, the level of genetic polymorphism revealed by the sequence data can increase substantially. As repeat structures can be complex and include substitutions, insertions, deletions, variable tandem repeat arrangements of multiple nucleotide motifs, and flanking region SNPs, established capillary electrophoresis (CE) allele descriptions must be supplemented by a new system of STR allele nomenclature, which retains backward compatibility with the CE data that currently populate national DNA databases and that will continue to be produced for the coming years. Thus, there is a pressing need to produce a standardized framework for describing complex sequences that enable comparison with currently used repeat allele nomenclature derived from conventional CE systems. It is important to discern three levels of information in hierarchical order i) the sequence, ii) the alignment, and iii) the nomenclature of STR sequence data. We propose a sequence (text) string format the minimal requirement of data storage that laboratories should follow when adopting MPS of STRs. We further discuss the variant annotation and sequence comparison framework necessary to maintain compatibility among established and future data. This system must be easy to use and interpret by the DNA specialist, based on a universally accessible genome assembly, and in place before the uptake of MPS by the general forensic community starts to generate sequence data on a large scale. While the established nomenclature for CE-based STR analysis will remain unchanged in the future, the nomenclature of sequence-based STR genotypes will need to follow updated rules and be generated by expert systems that translate MPS sequences to match CE conventions in order to guarantee compatibility between the different generations of STR data.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Forensic Science International: Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Ancestry informative markers (AIMs) can be used to detect and adjust for population stratification and predict the ancestry of the source of an evidence sample. Autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the best candidates for AIMs. It is essential to identify the most informative AIM SNPs across relevant populations. Several informativeness measures for ancestry estimation have been used for AIMs selection: absolute allele frequency differences (δ), F statistics (F ST), and informativeness for assignment measure (In). However, their efficacy has not been compared objectively, particularly for determining affiliations of major US populations. In this study, these three measures were directly compared for AIMs selection among four major US populations, i.e., African American, Caucasian, East Asian, and Hispanic American. The results showed that the F ST panel performed slightly better for population resolution based on principal component analysis (PCA) clustering than did the δ panel and both performed better than the In panel. Therefore, the 23 AIMs selected by the F ST measure were used to characterize the four major American populations. Genotype data of nine sample populations were used to evaluate the efficiency of the 23-AIMs panel. The results indicated that individuals could be correctly assigned to the major population categories. Our AIMs panel could contribute to the candidate pool of AIMs for potential forensic identification purposes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin
  • Tamyra R. Moretti · Bruce Budowle · John S. Buckleton

    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Forensic Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Forensic and ancient DNA samples often are damaged and in limited quantity as a result of exposure to harsh environments and the passage of time. Several strategies have been proposed to address the challenges posed by degraded and low copy templates, including a PCR based whole genome amplification method called degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR). This study assessed the efficacy of four modified versions of the original DOP-PCR primer that retain at least a portion of the 5′ defined sequence and alter the number of bases on the 3′ end. The use of each of the four modified primers resulted in improved STR profiles from environmentally-damaged bloodstains, contemporary human skeletal remains, American Civil War era bone samples, and skeletal remains of WWII soldiers over those obtained by previously described DOP-PCR methods and routine STR typing. Additionally, the modified DOP-PCR procedure allows for a larger volume of DNA extract to be used, reducing the need to concentrate the sample and thus mitigating the effects of concurrent concentration of inhibitors.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology is capable of determining the sizes of short tandem repeat (STR) alleles as well as their individual nucleotide sequences. Thus, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the repeat regions of STRs and variations in the pattern of repeat units in a given repeat motif can be used to differentiate alleles of the same length. In this study, MPS was used to sequence 28 forensically-relevant Y-chromosome STRs in a set of 41 DNA samples from the 3 major U.S. population groups (African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics). The resulting sequence data, which were analyzed with STRait Razor v2.0, revealed 37 unique allele sequence variants that have not been previously reported. Of these, 19 sequences were variations of documented sequences resulting from the presence of intra-repeat SNPs or alternative repeat unit patterns. Despite a limited sampling, two of the most frequently-observed variants were found only in African American samples. The remaining 18 variants represented allele sequences for which there were no published data with which to compare. These findings illustrate the great potential of MPS with regard to increasing the resolving power of STR typing and emphasize the need for sample population characterization of STR alleles.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: While capillary electrophoresis-based technologies have been the mainstay for human identity typing applications, there are limitations with this methodology's resolution, scalability, and throughput. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers the capability to multiplex multiple types of forensically-relevant markers and multiple samples together in one run all at an overall lower cost per nucleotide than traditional capillary electrophoresis-based methods; thus, addressing some of these limitations. MPS also is poised to expand forensic typing capabilities by providing new strategies for mixture deconvolution with the identification of intra-STR allele sequence variants and the potential to generate new types of investigative leads with an increase in the overall number and types of genetic markers being analyzed. The beta version of the Illumina ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit is a MPS library preparation method with a streamlined workflow that allows for targeted amplification and sequencing of 63 STRs and 95 identity SNPs, with the option to include an additional 56 ancestry SNPs and 22 phenotypic SNPs depending on the primer mix chosen for amplification, on the MiSeq desktop sequencer (Illumina). This study was divided into a series of experiments that evaluated reliability, sensitivity of detection, mixture analysis, concordance, and the ability to analyze challenged samples. Genotype accuracy, depth of coverage, and allele balance were used as informative metrics for the quality of the data produced. The ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit produced reliable, reproducible results and obtained full profiles with DNA input amounts of 1 ng. Data were found to be concordant with current capillary electrophoresis methods, and mixtures at a 1:19 ratio were resolved accurately. Data from the challenged samples showed concordant results with current DNA typing methods with markers in common and minimal allele drop out from the large number of markers typed on these samples. This set of experiments indicates the beta version of the ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit is a valid tool for forensic DNA typing and warrants full validation studies of this MPS technology.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Forensic Science International: Genetics
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Croatian Medical Journal
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    Sarah E. Schmedes · Jonathan L. King · Bruce Budowle
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    ABSTRACT: Whole-genome data are invaluable for large-scale comparative genomic studies. Current sequencing technologies have made it feasible to sequence entire bacterial genomes with relative ease and time with a substantially reduced cost per nucleotide, hence cost per genome. More than 3,000 bacterial genomes have been sequenced and are available at the finished status. Publically available genomes can be readily downloaded; however, there are challenges to verify the specific supporting data contained within the download and to identify errors and inconsistencies that may be present within the organizational data content and metadata. AutoCurE, an automated tool for bacterial genome database curation in Excel, was developed to facilitate local database curation of supporting data that accompany downloaded genomes from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. AutoCurE provides an automated approach to curate local genomic databases by flagging inconsistencies or errors by comparing the downloaded supporting data to the genome reports to verify genome name, RefSeq accession numbers, the presence of archaea, BioProject/UIDs, and sequence file descriptions. Flags are generated for nine metadata fields if there are inconsistencies between the downloaded genomes and genomes reports and if erroneous or missing data are evident. AutoCurE is an easy-to-use tool for local database curation for large-scale genome data prior to downstream analyses.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA is a useful marker for population studies, human identification, and forensic analysis. Commonly used hypervariable regions I and II (HVI/HVII) were reported to contain as little as 25 % of mitochondrial DNA variants and therefore the majority of power of discrimination of mitochondrial DNA resides in the coding region. Massively parallel sequencing technology enables entire mitochondrial genome sequencing. In this study, buccal swabs were collected from 114 unrelated Estonians and whole mitochondrial genome sequences were generated using the Illumina MiSeq system. The results are concordant with previous mtDNA control region reports of high haplogroup HV and U frequencies (47.4 and 23.7 % in this study, respectively) in the Estonian population. One sample with the Northern Asian haplogroup D was detected. The genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample was estimated to be 99.67 and 95.85 %, for mtGenome and HVI/HVII data, respectively. The random match probability for mtGenome data was 1.20 versus 4.99 % for HVI/HVII. The nucleotide mean pairwise difference was 27 ± 11 for mtGenome and 7 ± 3 for HVI/HVII data. These data describe the genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample and emphasize the power of discrimination of the entire mitochondrial genome over the hypervariable regions.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin
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    ABSTRACT: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and multiplex amplification with fluorescent tagging have been routinely used for STR typing in forensic genetics. However, CE-based methods restrict the number of markers that can be multiplexed simultaneously and cannot detect any intra-repeat variations within STRs. Several studies already have indicated that massively parallel sequencing (MPS) may be another potential technology for STR typing. In this study, the prototype PowerSeq™ Auto System (Promega) containing the 23 STR loci and amelogenin was evaluated using Illumina MiSeq. Results showed that single source complete profiles could be obtained using as little as 62pg of input DNA. The reproducibility study showed that the profiles generated were consistent among multiple typing experiments for a given individual. The mixture study indicated that partial STR profiles of the minor contributor could be detected up to 19:1 mixture. The mock forensic casework study showed that full or partial profiles could be obtained from different types of single source and mixture samples. These studies indicate that the PowerSeq Auto System and the Illumina MiSeq can generate concordant results with current CE-based methods. In addition, MPS-based systems can facilitate mixture deconvolution with the detection of intra-repeat variations within length-based STR alleles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Human physical performance is a complex multifactorial trait. Historically, environmental factors (e.g., diet, training) alone have been unable to explain the basis of all prominent phenotypes for physical performance. Therefore, there has been an interest in the study of the contribution of genetic factors to the development of these phenotypes. Support for a genetic component is found with studies that shown that monozygotic twins were more similar than were dizygotic twins for many physiological traits. The evolution of molecular techniques and the ability to scan the entire human genome enabled association of several genetic polymorphisms with performance. However, some biases related to the selection of cohorts and inadequate definition of the study variables have complicated the already difficult task of studying such a large and polymorphic genome, often resulting in inconsistent results about the influence of candidate genes. This review aims to provide a critical overview of heritable genetic aspects. Novel molecular technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, are discussed and how they can contribute to improving understanding of the molecular basis for athletic performance. It is important to ensure that the large amount of data that can be generated using these tools will be used effectively by ensuring well-designed studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports
  • T.R. Moretti · B. Budowle · J.S. Buckleton

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Allele distributions for 13 tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci, CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, and D21S11, were determined in African American, United States Caucasian, Hispanic, Bahamian, Jamaican, and Trinidadian sample populations. There was little evidence for departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (HWE) in any of the populations. Based on the exact test, the loci that departed significantly from HWE are: D21S11 (p = 0.010, Bahamians); CSF1PO (p = 0.014, Trinidadians); TPOX (p = 0.011, Jamaicans and p = 0.035, U.S. Caucasians); and D16S539 (p = 0.043, Bahamians). After employing the Bonferroni correction for the number of loci analyzed (i.e., 13 loci per database), these observations are not likely to be significant. There is little evidence for association of alleles between the loci in these databases. The allelic frequency data are similar to other comparable data within the same major population group.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Forensic Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: To perform a blind study to assess the capability of the Ion Personal Genome Machine® (PGM™) system to sequence forensically relevant genetic marker panels and to characterize unknown individuals for ancestry and possible relatedness. Twelve genomic samples were provided by a third party for blinded genetic analysis. For these 12 samples, the mitochondrial genome and three PGM™ panels containing human identity single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), ancestry informative SNPs, and short tandem repeats (STRs) were sequenced on the PGM™ system and analyzed. All four genetic systems were run and analyzed on the PGM™ system in a reasonably quick time frame. Completeness of genetic profiles, depth of coverage, strand balance, and allele balance were informative metrics that illustrated the quality and reliability of the data produced. SNP genotypes allowed for identification of sex, paternal lineage, and population ancestry. STR genotypes were shown to be in complete concordance with genotypes generated by standard capillary electrophoresis-based technologies. Variants in the mitochondrial genome data provided information on population background and maternal relationships. All results from analysis of the 12 genomic samples were consistent with sample information provided by the sample providers at the end of the blinded study. The relatively easy identification of intra-STR allele SNPs offered the potential for increased discrimination power. The promising nature of these results warrants full validation studies of this massively parallel sequencing technology and its further development for forensic data analysis.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Croatian Medical Journal
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    DESCRIPTION: National Institute of Justice report (January 2015), Office of Investigative and Forensic Sciences; in collaboration with the Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCOE)
    Full-text · Research · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: STR typing in forensic genetics has been performed traditionally using capillary electrophoresis (CE). However, CE-based method has some limitations: a small number of STR loci can be used; stutter products, dye artifacts and low level alleles. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has been considered a viable technology in recent years allowing high-throughput coverage at a relatively-affordable price. Some of the CE-based limitations may be overcome with the application of MPS. In this study, a prototype multiplex STR System (Promega) was amplified and prepared using the TruSeq DNA LT Sample Preparation Kit (Illumina) in 24 samples. Results showed that the MinElute PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen) was a better size selection method compared with recommended diluted bead mixtures. The library input sensitivity study showed that a wide range of amplicon product (6–200 ng) could be used for library preparation without apparent differences in the STR profile. PCR sensitivity study indicated that 62 pg may be minimum input amount for generating complete profiles. Reliability study results on 24 different individuals showed that high depth of coverage (DoC) and balanced heterozygote allele coverage ratios (ACRs) could be obtained with 250 pg of input DNA, and 62 pg could generate complete or nearly complete profiles. These studies indicate that this STR multiplex system and the Illumina MiSeq can generate reliable STR profiles at a sensitivity level that competes with current widely used CE-based method.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Forensic Science International: Genetics

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,223.91 Total Impact Points


  • 2013-2015
    • King Abdulaziz University
      • Center of Excellence In Genomic Medicine Research
      Djidda, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
  • 2009-2015
    • University of North Texas HSC at Fort Worth
      • Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics
      Fort Worth, Texas, United States
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Anthropology
      Davis, CA, United States
    • Fort Worth Nature Center & Refuge
      Fort Worth, Texas, United States
  • 1991-2015
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2009-2012
    • University of North Texas
      • • Department of Forensic and Investigative Genetics
      • • Health Science Center
      Denton, Texas, United States
  • 2010
    • Bond University
      • Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine
      Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
  • 2008
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
  • 2007
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Genetics
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005-2006
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • • Department of Medicine (RWJ Medical School)
      • • Department of Medicine
      Newark, NJ, United States
    • Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara
      Freidorf, Timiş, Romania
  • 2003
    • University of Oviedo
      Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Environmental Health
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 1994-2003
    • University of Granada
      • • Facultad de Medicina
      • • Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Psychiatry
      Granada, Andalusia, Spain
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • Human Genetics Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2000
    • Ministrstvo za notranje zadeve
      Lubliano, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 1998
    • University of Oslo
      • Institute of Medical Informatics (IMI)
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 1997
    • University of Innsbruck
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
    • University of Münster
      • Institute of Legal Medicine
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany