Publications (103)337.05 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Can high energy physics can be simulated by lowenergy, nonrelativistic, manybody systems, such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective, low energy, symmetry, or as an "exact" symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to new type of (tabletop) experiments, that shall be used to study various QCD phenomena, as the con?nement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions, and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing quantum simulation of Abelian and nonAbelian lattice gauge theories in 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present a physical (gedanken) implementation of a generalized remote state preparation of relativistic quantum field states for an arbitrary set of observers. The prepared states are created in regions which are outside the future lightcone of the generating region. The mechanism, which is based on utilizing the vacuum state of a relativistic quantum field as a resource, sheds new light on the well known ReehSchlieder theorem, indicating its strong connection with the mathematical phenomenon of superoscillations. 
Article: Relating Local Time Evolutions with Bipartite States: An Exact Map Manifested by Weak Measurements
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ABSTRACT: We suggest a natural mapping between bipartite states and quantum evolutions of local states, which is a Jamiolkowski map. It is shown that spatial correlations of weak measurements in bipartite systems precisely coincide with temporal correlations of local systems. This mapping has several practical and conceptual implications on the correspondence between Bell and LeggettGarg inequalities, the statistical properties of evolutions in large systems, temporal decoherence and computational gain, in evaluation of spatial correlations of large systems.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Laser cooled and trapped ions can crystallize and feature discrete solitons, that are nonlinear, topologicallyprotected configurations of the so called Coulomb crystal. Such solitons, as their continuum counterparts, can move within the crystal, while their discreteness leads to the existence of a gapseparated, spatiallylocalized motional mode of oscillation above the spectrum. We suggest that such unique properties of discrete solitons (kinks), can be used for the purpose of generating entanglement between different sites of the crystal. We study a detailed proposal in the context of stateoftheart methods and experiments with trapped ions, and find that a discrete soliton can be used to produce EPR and GHZtype states with high fidelity. The realization of our method requires Doppler cooling of the whole crystal, and sideband cooling of the soliton's localized modes. Since the gap separation of the latter is nearly independent of the crystal's size, the proposed approach could be particularly helpful for producing entanglement and studying systemenvironment interactions in large, quasi twodimensional systems.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We study discrete solitons (kinks) accessible in stateoftheart trapped ion experiments, considering zigzag crystals and quasi3D configurations, both theoretically and experimentally. We first extend the theoretical understanding of different phenomena predicted and recently experimentally observed in the structure and dynamics of these topological excitations. Employing tools from topological degree theory, we analyze bifurcations of crystal configurations in dependence on the trapping parameters, and investigate the formation of kink configurations and the transformations of kinks between different structures. This allows us to accurately define and calculate the effective potential experienced by solitons within the Wigner crystal, and study how this (socalled PeierlsNabarro) potential gets modified to a nonperiodic globally trapping potential in certain parameter regimes. The kinks' rest mass (energy) and spectrum of modes are computed and the dynamics of linear and nonlinear kink oscillations are analyzed. We also present novel, experimentally observed, configurations of kinks incorporating a largemass defect realized by an embedded molecular ion, and of pairs of interacting kinks stable for long times, offering the perspective for exploring and exploiting complex collective nonlinear excitations, controllable on the quantum level.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We study experimentally and theoretically structural defects which are formed during the transition from a laser cooled cloud to a Coulomb crystal, consisting of tens of ions in a linear radio frequency trap. We demonstrate the creation of predicted topological defects ("kinks") in purely twodimensional crystals and also find kinks which show novel dynamical features in a regime of parameters not considered before. The kinks are always observed at the center of the trap, showing a large nonlinear localized excitation, and the probability of their occurrence saturates at ∼0.5. Simulations reveal a strong anharmonicity of the kink's internal mode of vibration, due to the kink's extension into three dimensions. As a consequence, the periodic PeierlsNabarro potential experienced by a discrete kink becomes a globally confining potential, capable of trapping one cooled defect at the center of the crystal.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Quantum simulations of High Energy Physics, and especially of gauge theories, is an emerging and exciting direction in quantum simulations. However, simulations of such theories, compared to simulations of condensed matter physics, must satisfy extra restrictions, such as local gauge and Lorentz invariance. In this paper we discuss these special requirements, and present a new method for quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms. This method allows to include local gauge invariance as a fundamental symmetry of the atomic Hamiltonian, arising from natural atomic interactions and conservation laws (and not as a property of a low energy sector). This allows us to implement elementary gauge invariant interactions for three lattice gauge theories: compact QED (U(1)), SU(N) and Z_N, which can be used to build quantum simulators in 1+1 dimensions. We also present a new loop method, which uses the elementary interactions as building blocks in the effective construction of quantum simulations for d+1 dimensional lattice gauge theories (d>1), without having to use Gauss's law as a constraint, as in previous proposals. We discuss in detail the quantum simulation of 2+1 dimensional compact QED and provide a numerical proof of principle. The simplicity of the already gauge invariant elementary interactions of this model suggests it may be useful for future experimental realizations.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We suggest a method to simulate compact quantum electrodynamics using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, which includes dynamical Dirac fermions in 2+1 dimensions. This allows us to test the dynamical effects of confinement as well as the deformations and breaking of twodimensional flux loops, and to observe the Wilsonloop area law.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nonabelian gauge theories play an important role in the standard model of particle physics, and unfold a partially unexplored world of exciting physical phenomena. In this letter, we suggest a realization of a nonabelian lattice gauge theory  SU(2) YangMills in 1+1 dimensions, using ultracold atoms. Remarkably, and in contrast to previous proposals, in our model gauge invariance is a direct consequence of angular momentum conservation and thus is fundamental and robust. Our proposal may serve as well as a starting point for higher dimensional realizations. 
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ABSTRACT: We introduce a new topological effect involving interference of two meson loops, manifesting a pathindependent topological area dependence. The effect also draws a connection between quark confinement, Wilsonloops and topological interference effects. Although this is only a gedanken experiment in the context of particle physics, such an experiment may be realized and used as a tool to test confinement effects and phase transitions in quantum simulation of dynamic gauge theories.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We propose a new method for implementing process tomography that is based on the information extracted from temporal correlations between observables, rather than on state preparation and state tomography. As such, the approach is applicable to systems that are in a mixed state, and in particular to thermal states. We illustrate the method for an arbitrary evolution described by Kraus operators, as well as for simpler cases such as a general Gaussian channels, and qubit dynamics.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We examine the timedependent dynamics of ion crystals in radiofrequency traps. The problem of stable trapping of general threedimensional crystals is considered and the validity of the pseudopotential approximation is discussed. We derive analytically the micromotion amplitude of the ions, rigorously proving wellknown experimental observations. We use a method of infinite determinants to find the modes which diagonalize the linearized timedependent dynamical problem. This allows obtaining explicitly the ('FloquetLyapunov') transformation to coordinates of decoupled linear oscillators. We demonstrate the utility of the method by analyzing the modes of a small `peculiar' crystal in a linear Paul trap. The calculations can be readily generalized to multispecies ion crystals in general multipole traps, and timedependent quantum wavefunctions of ion oscillations in such traps can be obtained.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We propose a method for measuring the string tension in gauge theories, by considering an interference effect of mesons, which is governed by a spacetime area law, due to confinement. Although it is only a gedanken experiment for real elementary particles, in the context of quantum simulations of confining gauge theories such an experiment can be realized.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We expand the solutions of linearly coupled Mathieu equations in terms of infinitecontinued matrix inversions, and use it to find the modes which diagonalize the dynamical problem. This allows obtaining explicitly the ('FloquetLyapunov') transformation to coordinates in which the motion is that of decoupled linear oscillators. We use this transformation to solve the Heisenberg equations of the corresponding quantummechanical problem, and find the quantum wavefunctions for stable oscillations, expressed in configurationspace. The obtained transformation and quantum solutions can be applied to more general linear systems with periodic coefficients (coupled Hill equations, periodically driven parametric oscillators), and to nonlinear systems as a starting point for convenient perturbative treatment of the nonlinearity.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been much interest in simulating quantum field theory effects of matter and gauge fields. In a recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 275301 (2011)] a method for simulating compact Quantum Electrodynamics (cQED) using BoseEinstein condensates has been suggested. We suggest an alternative approach, which relies on single atoms in an optical lattice, carrying 2l+1 internal levels, which converges rapidly to cQED as l increases. That enables the simulation of cQED in 2+1 dimensions in both the weak and the strong coupling regimes, hence allowing to probe confinement as well as other nonperturbative effects of the theory. We provide an explicit construction for the case l=1 which is sufficient for simulating the effect of confinement between two external static charges. 
Article: Confinement and Lattice QuantumElectrodynamic Electric Flux Tubes Simulated with Ultracold Atoms
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ABSTRACT: We propose a method for simulating (2+1)D compact lattice quantumelectrodynamics, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices. In our model local BoseEinstein condensates' (BECs) phases correspond to the electromagnetic vector potential, and the local number operators represent the conjugate electric field. The wellknown gaugeinvariant KogutSusskind Hamiltonian is obtained as an effective lowenergy theory. The field is then coupled to external static charges. We show that in the strong coupling limit this gives rise to "electric flux tubes" and to confinement. This can be observed by measuring the local density deviations of the BECs, and is expected to hold even, to some extent, outside the perturbative calculable regime.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We propose a method for implementing remotely a generalized measurement (POVM). We show that remote generalized measurements consume less entanglement compared with remote projective measurements, and can be optimally performed using nonmaximally entangled states. We derive the entanglement cost of such measurements.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We propose a method for simulating 2+1d compact lattice quantumelectrodynamics (QED), using ultracold atoms in optical lattices. In our model local BoseEinstein condensates' phases correspond to the electromagnetic vectorpotential, and the fluctuations of the local number operators represent the conjugate electric field. The gauge invariant KogutSusskind Hamiltonian is obtained as an effective low energy theory. The field is then coupled to external static charges. We show that in the strong coupling limit this gives rise to 'electric fluxtubes' and to confinement. The effect can be observed by measuring the local density fluctuations of the BECs.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Hilbert space formalism of quantum theory manifests a map between bipartite states and time evolutions, known as Jamiolkowski isomorphism. We extend this map in a physical setting to prove the equality of spatial correlations in bipartite systems and temporal correlations in local systems. We show that these correlations can be observed using weak measurements. This result has several practical and conceptual implications such as manifestation of state independent decoherence, the correspondence between Bell and LeggettGarg inequalities, multipartite systems, the statistical properties of evolutions in large systems, and computational gain, in evaluation of spatial correlations in large systems.
Publication Stats
2k  Citations  
337.05  Total Impact Points  
Top Journals
Institutions

19902015

Tel Aviv University
 Department of Physics and Astronomy
Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel


19952007

Los Alamos National Laboratory
 Theoretical Division
Los Alamos, NM, United States


2000

University of Alberta
 Department of Physics
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada


19971999

University of South Carolina
 Department of Physics and Astronomy
Columbia, South Carolina, United States


19951996

University of British Columbia  Vancouver
 Department of Physics and Astronomy
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada


1994

Harvard University
Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
