[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
As there are no biological markers for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), screening must focus on behaviour and the presence of a markedly abnormal development or a deficiency in verbal and non-verbal social interaction and communication.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Anales de Pediatría
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As there are no biological markers for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), screening must focus on behaviour and the presence of a markedly abnormal development or a deficiency in verbal and non-verbal social interaction and communication.
To evaluate the psychometric attributes of a Spanish version of the autism domain of the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities Inventory (A-TAC) scale for ASD screening.
A total of 140 subjects (43% male, 57% female) aged 6-16, with ASD (n=15), Mental Retardation (n=40), Psychiatric Illness (n=22), Tics (n=12) and controls (n=51), were included for ASD screening. The predictive validity, acceptability, scale assumptions, internal consistency, and precision were analysed.
The internal consistency was high (α=0.93), and the standard error was adequate (1.13 [95% CI, -1.08 a 3.34]). The mean scores of the Autism module were higher in patients diagnosed with ASD and mental disability compared to the rest of the patients (P<.001). The area under the curve was 0.96 for the ASD group.
The autism domain of the A-TAC scale seems to be a reliable, valid and precise tool for ASD screening in the Spanish school population.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Anales de Pediatría
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main purpose was to validate a multistage protocol to screen tic disorders in mainstream and special education centers and to investigate whether telephone-based interviews were accurate to diagnose tic disorders when compared with in-person neurological interviews.
A school-based survey of children and adolescents (6-16 years). A proxy report questionnaire for tic disorders was completed by teachers, observers, and parents. The diagnosis was confirmed by the neurologist based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-IV TR) criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, the likelihood ratio for a positive result (LR+), and the Kappa coefficients (k) for telephone-based interviews reliability were calculated.
One hundred twenty subjects, 57 from special education center and 63 from a mainstream school were studied. The sensitivity of the proxy report questionnaire was 58% and 36% when completed by the observers (mainstream and special education center, respectively), 40 and 73% when completed by the teachers, and 58 and 36% when completed by the parents. Using any of these 3 screening sources, the sensitivity was 92%, the positive predictive value was 38%, and negative predictive value was 97% (mainstream schools), whereas the sensitivity was 82%, the positive predictive value was 20%, and negative predictive value was 82% (special education centers). Parents (mainstream schools) and teachers (special education center) produced the highest LR+ (7.25 and 1.26, respectively) and the intraobserver reliability of the telephone-based interviews versus in-person neurological interviews gave a k coefficient of 0.83.
The efficiency of different screening instruments for tic disorders seems to vary in different settings. Telephone-based interviews may be a valid and convenient backup to ascertain the diagnosis of tic disorders when face-to-face neurological examination is not possible.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Movement Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the psychometric attributes and screening efficiency of a Spanish version of the Children Predictive Scales (DPS) against the Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV).
This pilot cross-sectional study included 61 children aged 9 to 14 years in a mainstream school. The following psychometric attributes were analyzed: acceptability, scale assumptions, internal consistency, and precision, as well the predictive validity (AUC).
The scale did not show ceiling or floor effects (6.4%, 1.3%, respectively). The internal consistency was high (α=0.92), and the standard error of measurement was adequate (SEM=1.54). The overall DPS AUC was 0.72 against DISC IV corresponding diagnosis.
The Spanish version of the DPS-4.32 seems to be a reliable and precise tool for screening mental health disorders in a school-age population.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health