[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and markers of renal function.
To examine the contribution of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio beyond that of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to classification of patient risk for cardiovascular and renal outcomes.
Prospective cohort study that pooled all patients of ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme-Inhibitor Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease).
27,620 patients older than 55 years with documented cardiovascular disease, who were followed for a mean of 4.6 years.
Baseline eGFR, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio, and cardiovascular risk factors. Outcomes were all-cause mortality; a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure; long-term dialysis; and a composite of long-term dialysis and doubling of serum creatinine level.
Lower eGFRs and higher urinary albumin-creatinine ratios were associated with the primary cardiovascular composite outcome (for example, an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.53 [95% CI, 1.61 to 3.99] for an eGFR <30 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) and a very high urinary albumin-creatinine ratio). However, adding information about eGFR and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio to the risk reclassification analyses led to no meaningful decrease in the proportion of patients assigned to the intermediate-risk category (31% without vs. 32% with renal information). In contrast, eGFR and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio were strongly associated with risk for long-term dialysis and greatly improved both model calibration and risk stratification capacity when added to traditional cardiovascular risk factors (65% assigned to intermediate-risk categories without renal information vs. 18% with renal information).
Creatinine levels were not standardized.
In patients with high vascular risk, eGFR and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio add little to traditional cardiovascular risk factors for stratifying cardiovascular risk but greatly improve risk stratification for renal outcomes.
Boehringer Ingelheim, Population Health Research Institute, and the European Commission.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Annals of internal medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global End Point Trial (ONTARGET), dual therapy did not reduce cardiovascular or renal outcomes compared with either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers alone. Previous controlled trials with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers have demonstrated greater cardiovascular and renal benefit in people with renal risk. We hypothesized that dual therapy would be more effective than monotherapy in patients with low glomerular filtration rate and elevated albuminuria.
Post hoc analysis was performed of renal subgroups of dual therapy versus monotherapy for the ONTARGET study and angiotensin receptor blocker versus placebo for the Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects With Cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND). The studies featured hazard ratios by subgroups and Cox regression models with factors for treatment, subgroup, and interactions. The main cardiovascular outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure, and the main renal outcome was the composite of chronic dialysis or doubling of creatinine. In ONTARGET, there was no cardiovascular or renal benefit from dual over monotherapy in any subgroup, even with low glomerular filtration rate and/or elevated albuminuria. In TRANSCEND, in the comparison of angiotensin receptor blocker with placebo, there was a significant interaction for the main renal outcome (P = 0.01) in the direction of harm for patients with normoalbuminuria (0.37 versus 0.16 events per 100 patient-years; hazard ratio, 2.35; confidence interval, 1.33 to 4.15) but a trend to benefit with microalbuminuria (0.52 versus 0.89 events per 100 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.60; confidence interval, 0.25 to 1.46) and macroalbuminuria (1.57 versus 2.60 events per 100 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.71; confidence interval, 0.21 to 2.44).
This post hoc analysis does not support dual therapy over monotherapy in high-vascular risk patients with low glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria. This observation is a post hoc comparison and should be interpreted appropriately.
URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00153101.