[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, with limited therapeutic options. Here we report on a study of >12 million variants, including 163,714 directly genotyped, mostly rare, protein-altering variants. Analyzing 16,144 patients and 17,832 controls, we identify 52 independently associated common and rare variants (P < 5 [times] 10-8) distributed across 34 loci. Although wet and dry AMD subtypes exhibit predominantly shared genetics, we identify the first genetic association signal specific to wet AMD, near MMP9 (difference P value = 4.1 [times] 10-10). Very rare coding variants (frequency <0.1%) in CFH, CFI and TIMP3 suggest causal roles for these genes, as does a splice variant in SLC16A8. Our results support the hypothesis that rare coding variants can pinpoint causal genes within known genetic loci and illustrate that applying the approach systematically to detect new loci requires extremely large sample sizes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact of visual outcomes in European populations (including temporal trends and European subregions), identification of risk factors and pathways for eye diseases (lifestyle, vascular and metabolic factors, genetics, epigenetics and biomarkers) and development and validation of prediction models for eye diseases. Coordinating these existing data will allow a detailed study of the risk factors and consequences of eye diseases and visual impairment, including study of international geographical variation which is not possible in individual studies. It is expected that collaborative work on these existing data will provide additional knowledge, despite the fact that the risk factors and the methods for collecting them differ somewhat among the participating studies. Most studies also include biobanks of various biological samples, which will enable identification of biomarkers to detect and predict occurrence and progression of eye diseases. This article outlines the rationale of the consortium, its design and presents a summary of the methodology.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · European Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To derive macular thickness measures and their associations by performing rapid, automated segmentation of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) images collected and stored as part of the UK Biobank (UKBB) study.
Large, multisite cohort study in the United Kingdom. Analysis of cross-sectional data.
Adults from the United Kingdom aged 40 to 69 years.
Participants had nonmydriatic SD OCT (Topcon 3D OCT-1000 Mark II; Topcon GB, Newberry, Berkshire, UK) performed as part of the ocular assessment module. Rapid, remote, automated segmentation of the images was performed using custom optical coherence tomography (OCT) image analysis software (Topcon Advanced Boundary Segmentation [TABS]; Topcon GB) to generate macular thickness values. We excluded people with a history of ocular or systemic disease (diabetes or neurodegenerative diseases) and eyes with reduced vision (<0.1 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) or with low SD OCT signal-to-noise ratio and low segmentation success certainty.
Main outcome measures:
Macular thickness values across 9 Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) subfields.
The SD OCT scans of 67 321 subjects were available for analysis, with 32 062 people with at least 1 eye meeting the inclusion criteria. There were 17 274 women and 14 788 men, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 55.2 (8.2) years. The mean (SD) logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity was -0.075 (0.087), and the refractive error was -0.071 (+1.91) diopters (D). The mean (SD) central macular thickness (CMT) in the central 1-mm ETDRS subfield was 264.5 (22.9) μm, with 95% confidence limits of 220.8 and 311.5 μm. After adjusting for covariates, CMT was positively correlated with older age, female gender, greater myopia, smoking, body mass index (BMI), and white ethnicity (all P < 0.001). Of note, macular thickness in other subfields was negatively correlated with older age and greater myopia.
We report macular thickness data derived from SD OCT images collected as part of the UKBB study and found novel associations among older age, ethnicity, BMI, smoking, and macular thickness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Aflibercept has the potential advantage of reducing capacity problems by allowing 2 monthly visits for patients with neovascular macular degeneration (nAMD) compared with monthly pro re nata regimens that are the most commonly used in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to report the visual outcomes achieved in routine clinical practice using the VEGF Trap-Eye: Investigation of Efficacy and Safety in Wet AMD (VIEW) protocol at 1 year and compare with trials data and other real-world reports.
Retrospective data analysis from an electronic medical record.
Consecutive series of treatment-naïve patients initiated on aflibercept for nAMD at least 1 year before data extraction.
Data were anonymized and remotely extracted from 16 centers in the United Kingdom that use the same electronic medical record (EMR) system (Medisoft Ophthalmology; Medisoft Limited, Leeds, UK).
Main outcome measures:
The minimum data set defined before first data entry and mandated by the EMR included age, gender, visual acuity, injection episodes, and complications.
The mean age was 80.0 years (median, 81.0 years) and 63.7% were women. During the first year of treatment with aflibercept, 1840 treatment-naïve eyes of 1682 patients received a median of 8 (mean, 7.0) injections at a median of 8 (mean, 7.3) visits. The mean baseline visual acuity was 53.7 letters, improving to 58.8 letters (+5.1-letter gain) at 1 year. In first-treated eyes, the respective figures were 52.7 letters at baseline and 58.2 letters at 1 year, a gain of +5.5 letters. The proportion achieving 70 letters or more increased from 16.4% at baseline to 33.7% at 1 year, and 92% avoided moderate visual loss at 1 year.
The visual acuity outcomes are comparable to randomized trials and better than many previous real-world data collections, with a mean +5.1-letter gain at 1 year compared with +8.4 letters in the integrated analysis of the VIEW 1 and VIEW 2 studies. Early visual gains were maintained through the year. Collection of outcomes beyond clinical trials can have limitations but better reflect the full pool of patients actually treated and are important to determine whether a particular treatment is performing as expected. Such data also have the potential to improve services by setting up a mechanism to compare sites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) 'inflammation model', local inflammation plus complement activation contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. Multiple genetic associations have now been established correlating the risk of development or progression of AMD. Stratifying patients by their AMD genetic profile may facilitate future AMD therapeutic trials resulting in meaningful clinical trial end points with smaller sample sizes and study duration.Eye advance online publication, 23 October 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.203.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Eye (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeTo perform a genotype-phenotype correlation for three patients heterozygous for a missense mutation in the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) gene.Methods
Retrospective, observational case series. The medical records and photographs were reviewed for three patients diagnosed at the time with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). All were later found to carry a predicted C113G mutation in the TIMP3 gene, other known mutations in which are associated with Sorsby's fundus dystrophy.ResultsAll three patients developed drusen and bilateral choroidal neovascularisation with subsequent disciform scarring and atrophy. Visual acuity rapidly deteriorated to <6/60 in both eyes. The age of onset varied from 56 to 64 years and the interval to contralateral eye involvement varied from 4 to 6 years. Two of the three patients had a family history of AMD. All three patients were heterozygous for the C113G nucleotide change, resulting in a Ser38Cys change at the N terminus of the TIMP3 protein.Conclusion
This case series suggests the C113G TIMP3 variant may represent a novel highly penetrant mutation causing choroidal neovascularisation of relatively late onset for Sorsby's fundus dystrophy, mimicking early onset AMD.Eye advance online publication, 23 October 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.204.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Eye (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Bevacizumab (Avastin(®), Roche), which is used in cancer therapy, is the 'parent' molecule from which ranibizumab (Lucentis(®), Novartis) was derived for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). There were reports in the literature on the effectiveness of bevacizumab in treating nAMD, but no trials. The cost per dose of bevacizumab is about 5-10% that of ranibizumab. This trial was a head-to-head comparison of these two drugs.
To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab and bevacizumab, and two treatment regimens, for nAMD.
Multicentre, factorial randomised controlled trial with within-trial cost-utility and cost-minimisation analyses from the perspective of the UK NHS. Participants, health professionals and researchers were masked to allocation of drug but not regimen. Computer-generated random allocations to combinations of ranibizumab or bevacizumab, and continuous or discontinuous regimen, were stratified by centre, blocked and concealed.
Twenty-three ophthalmology departments in NHS hospitals.
Patients ≥ 50 years old with active nAMD in the study eye with best corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA) ≥ 25 letters measured on a Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Previous treatment for nAMD, long-standing disease, lesion diameter > 6000 µm, thick blood at the fovea and any other confounding ocular disease were exclusion criteria. One eye per participant was studied; the fellow eye was treated according to usual care, if required.
Ranibizumab and bevacizumab were procured commercially. Doses were ranibizumab 0.5 mg or bevacizumab 1.25 mg. The repackaged bevacizumab was quality assured. All participants were treated at visits 0, 1 and 2. Participants randomised to the continuous regimen were treated monthly thereafter. Participants randomised to the discontinuous regimen were not retreated after visit 2 unless pre-specified criteria for active disease were met. If retreatment was needed, monthly injections over 3 months were mandated.
Main outcome measures:
The primary outcome was BCVA. The non-inferiority margin was 3.5 letters. Secondary outcomes were contrast sensitivity; near visual acuity; reading index; neovascular lesion morphology; generic and disease-specific patient-reported outcomes, including macular disease-specific quality of life; survival free from treatment failure; resource use; quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs); and development of new geographic atrophy (GA) (outcome added during the trial). Results are reported for the study eye, except for patient-reported outcomes.
Between 27 March 2008 and 15 October 2010, 610 participants were allocated and treated (314 ranibizumab, 296 bevacizumab; at 3 months, 305 continuous, 300 discontinuous). After 2 years, bevacizumab was neither non-inferior nor inferior to ranibizumab [-1.37 letters, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.75 to +1.01 letters] and discontinuous treatment was neither non-inferior nor inferior to continuous treatment (-1.63 letters, 95% CI -4.01 to +0.75 letters). Lesion thickness at the fovea was similar by drug [geometric mean ratio (GMR) 0.96, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.03; p = 0.24] but 9% less with continuous treatment (GMR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.97; p = 0.004). Odds of developing new GA during the trial were similar by drug [odds ratio (OR) 0.87, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.25; p = 0.46] but significantly higher with continuous treatment (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.11; p = 0.033). Safety outcomes did not differ by drug but mortality was lower with continuous treatment (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.03; p = 0.05). Continuous ranibizumab cost £3.5M per QALY compared with continuous bevacizumab; continuous bevacizumab cost £30,220 per QALY compared with discontinuous bevacizumab. These results were robust in sensitivity analyses.
Ranibizumab and bevacizumab have similar efficacy. Discontinuing treatment and restarting when required results in slightly worse efficacy. Safety was worse with discontinuous treatment, although new GA developed more often with continuous treatment. Ranibizumab is not cost-effective, although it remains uncertain whether or not continuous bevacizumab is cost-effective compared with discontinuous bevacizumab at £20,000 per QALY threshold. Future studies should focus on the ocular safety of the two drugs, further optimisation of treatment regimens and criteria for stopping treatment.
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN92166560.
This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 19, No. 78. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eye is the official journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It aims to provide the practising ophthalmologist with information on the latest clinical and laboratory-based research.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Eye (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
elective cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in developed countries. However, it is unclear whether cataract surgery on the second eye provides enough incremental benefit to be considered cost-effective. This study conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of second-eye cataract surgery in the UK.
a cost-effectiveness analysis.
a decision-analytical model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of second-eye cataract surgery, based on a comprehensive epidemiological and economic review to develop the parameters for the model. The model followed the clinical pathway of cohorts of patients receiving second-eye cataract surgery and included costs and health benefits associated with post-surgical complications.
in the model, second-eye surgery generated 0.68 additional quality-adjusted life years (QALY) with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £1,964 per QALY gained. In sensitivity analyses, model results were most sensitive to changes in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) gain associated with second-eye surgery, but otherwise robust to changes in parameter values. The probability that second-eye surgery is cost-effective at willingness to pay thresholds of £10,000 and £20,000 was 100%.
second-eye cataract surgery is generally cost-effective based on the best available data and under most assumptions. However, there are only a small number of clinical trials for second-eye cataract surgery, and these have not been conducted in recent years.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in developed countries. The role of complement in the development of AMD is now well-established. While some studies show evidence of complement dysregulation within the eye, others have demonstrated elevated systemic complement activation in association with AMD. It is unclear which one is the primary driver of disease. This has important implications for designing novel complement-based AMD therapies. We present a summary of the current literature and suggest that intraocular rather than systemic modulation of complement may prove more effective.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Clinical Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This supplement has been sponsored by Bayer HealthCare. Please see acknowledgements for full disclaimer. Prescribing Information can be found in the appendices.
L.GB.COM.05.2015.11280. Date of preparation: June 2015
This paper provides expert recommendations on administration of aflibercept in wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) after Year 1 (Y1), based on a roundtable discussion held in London, UK in November 2014. The goals of treatment after Y1 are to maintain visual and anatomical gains whilst minimising treatment burden and using resources effectively. The treatment decision should be made at the seventh injection visit (assuming the label has been followed) in Y1, and three approaches are proposed: (a) eyes with active disease on imaging/examination but with stable visual acuity (VA) at the end of Y1 should continue with fixed 8-weekly dosing; (b) eyes with inactive disease on imaging/examination and stable VA should be managed using a ‘treat and extend' (T&E) regimen. T&E involves treating and then extending the interval until the next treatment, by 2-week intervals, to a maximum of 12 weeks, provided the disease remains inactive. If there is new evidence of disease activity, treatment is administered and the interval to the next treatment shortened; and (c) if there has been no disease activity for ≥3 consecutive visits, a trial of monitoring without treatment may be appropriate, initiated at the end of Y1 or at any time during Y2. Where possible, VA testing, OCT imaging and injection should be performed at the same visit. The second eye should be monitored to detect fellow eye involvement. In bilateral disease, the re-treatment interval should be driven by the better-seeing eye or, if the VA is similar, the eye with the more active disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeDiabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a leading cause of blindness in working-age adults. Slow-release, nonbioerodible fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) implants have shown efficacy in the treatment of DMO; however, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommends that FAc should be used in patients with chronic DMO considered insufficiently responsive to other available therapies only if the eye to be treated is pseudophakic. The goal of this analysis was to examine treatment outcomes in phakic patients who received 0.2 μg/day FAc implant.Methods
This analysis of the phase 3 FAME (Fluocinolone Acetonide in Diabetic Macular Edema) data examines the safety and efficacy of FAc implants in patients who underwent cataract extraction before (cataract before implant (CBI) group) or after (cataract after implant (CAI) group) receiving the implant. The data were further examined by DMO duration.ResultsBest corrected visual acuity (BCVA) after 36 months was comparable in the CAI and CBI groups. Both the percentage of patients gaining ≥3 lines of vision and mean change in BCVA letter score were numerically greater in the CAI group. In addition, most patients who underwent cataract surgery experienced a net gain in BCVA from presurgery baseline as well as from original study baseline.Conclusions
These data support the use of 0.2 μg/day FAc implants in phakic as well as in pseudophakic patients. These findings will serve as a pilot for design of future studies to evaluate the potential protective effect of FAc implants before cataract surgery in patients with DMO and cataract.Eye advance online publication, 26 June 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.98.
Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Eye (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the most common causes of irreversible blindness affecting nearly 50 million individuals globally. The disease is characterised by progressive loss of central vision, which has significant implications for quality of life concerns in an increasingly ageing population. AMD pathology manifests in the macula, a specialised region of the retina, which is responsible for central vision and perception of fine details. The underlying pathology of this complex degenerative disease is incompletely understood but includes both genetic as well as epigenetic risk factors. The recent discovery that amyloid beta (Aβ), a highly toxic and aggregate-prone family of peptides, is elevated in the ageing retina and is associated with AMD has opened up new perspectives on the aetiology of this debilitating blinding disease. Multiple studies now link Aβ with key stages of AMD progression, which is both exciting and potentially insightful, as this identifies a well-established toxic agent that aggressively targets cells in degenerative brains. Here, we review the most recent findings supporting the hypothesis that Aβ may be a key factor in AMD pathology. We describe how multiple Aβ reservoirs, now reported in the ageing eye, may target the cellular physiology of the retina as well as associated layers, and propose a mechanistic pathway of Aβ-mediated degenerative change leading to AMD.Eye advance online publication, 19 June 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.100.
Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Eye (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a single layer of cells that supports the light-sensitive photoreceptor cells that are essential for retinal function. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment, and the primary pathogenic mechanism is thought to arise in the RPE layer. RPE cell structure and function are well understood, the cells are readily sustainable in laboratory culture and, unlike other cell types within the retina, RPE cells do not require synaptic connections to perform their role. These factors, together with the relative ease of outer retinal imaging, make RPE cells an attractive target for cell transplantation compared with other cell types in the retina or central nervous system. Seminal experiments in rats with an inherited RPE dystrophy have demonstrated that RPE transplantation can prevent photoreceptor loss and maintain visual function. This review provides an update on the progress made so far on RPE transplantation in human eyes, outlines potential sources of donor cells, and describes the technical and surgical challenges faced by the transplanting surgeon. Recent advances in the understanding of pluripotent stem cells, combined with novel surgical instrumentation, hold considerable promise, and support the concept of RPE transplantation as a regenerative strategy in AMD.Eye advance online publication, 5 June 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2015.89.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Eye (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ranibizumab for the Treatment of Choroidal Neovascularisation (CNV) Secondary to Pathological Myopia (PM): an Individualized Regimen (REPAIR) trial was a prospective study exploring the efficacy and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab 0.5 mg using an individualized treatment regimen over 12 months. The current study investigated the impact of treatment with ranibizumab as needed (pro re nata [PRN]) on individuals with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) in the REPAIR study, using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for treatment satisfaction and well-being. This study included 65 adults with mCNV and a best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) letter score of 24-78 in the study eye. Patients completed the Macular Disease Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (MacTSQ) at months 1, 6 and 12, and the 12-item Well-Being Questionnaire (W-BQ12) at baseline and months 1, 6 and 12. Subgroup analyses investigated the relationship between PROM scores and treatment in the better- or worse-seeing eye (BSE/WSE), number of injections received, baseline BCVA, BCVA improvement and age. Pearson correlations between change in BCVA, MacTSQ scores and W-BQ12 scores were calculated. The main outcome measures were treatment satisfaction measured with the MacTSQ (score 0-72) and well-being measured with the W-BQ12 (score 0-36). Treatment satisfaction significantly increased over the study period (p = 0.0001). Mean MacTSQ scores increased by 9.7 and 10.0 in patients treated in their WSE and BSE, respectively. Treatment satisfaction was highest in individuals receiving only one injection at month 1; however, by month 12, scores were similar across injection subgroups. Patients aged 68 years or older had the highest MacTSQ scores. Well-being scores also significantly increased over the study period (p = 0.03). Mean W-BQ12 scores increased by 1.7 in patients treated in their WSE and by 2.1 in patients treated in their BSE. Individuals aged 40 years or younger had the greatest increases in general well-being. Patients who experienced stable or improved BCVA at month 12 had greater increases in W-BQ12 scores than those who experienced a decrease. Correlations between BCVA, MacTSQ scores and W-BQ12 scores were largely non-significant. In conclusion, treatment satisfaction and well-being increased during treatment with ranibizumab PRN. Although directly comparable data are limited for the MacTSQ and W-BQ12 in mCNV, these results complement PROM outcomes reported in related studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The introduction of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) has made significant impact on the reduction of the visual loss due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (n-AMD). There are significant inter-individual differences in response to an anti-VEGF agent, made more complex by the availability of multiple anti-VEGF agents with different molecular configurations. The response to anti-VEGF therapy have been found to be dependent on a variety of factors including patient’s age, lesion characteristics, lesion duration, baseline visual acuity (VA) and the presence of particular genotype risk alleles. Furthermore, a proportion of eyes with n-AMD show a decline in acuity or morphology, despite therapy or require very frequent re-treatment. There is currently no consensus as to how to classify optimal response, or lack of it, with these therapies. There is, in particular, confusion over terms such as ‘responder status’ after treatment for n-AMD, ‘tachyphylaxis’ and ‘recalcitrant’ n-AMD. This document aims to provide a consensus on definition/categorisation of the response of n-AMD to anti-VEGF therapies and on the time points at which response to treatment should be determined. Primary response is best determined at 1 month following the last initiation dose, while maintained treatment (secondary) response is determined any time after the 4th visit. In a particular eye, secondary responses do not mirror and cannot be predicted from that in the primary phase. Morphological and functional responses to anti-VEGF treatments, do not necessarily correlate, and may be dissociated in an individual eye. Furthermore, there is a ceiling effect that can negate the currently used functional metrics such as >5 letters improvement when the baseline VA is good (ETDRS>70 letters). It is therefore important to use a combination of both the parameters in determining the response.The following are proposed definitions: optimal (good) response is defined as when there is resolution of fluid (intraretinal fluid; IRF, subretinal fluid; SRF and retinal thickening), and/or improvement of >5 letters, subject to the ceiling effect of good starting VA. Poor response is defined as <25% reduction from the baseline in the central retinal thickness (CRT), with persistent or new IRF, SRF or minimal or change in VA (that is, change in VA of 0+4 letters). Non-response is defined as an increase in fluid (IRF, SRF and CRT), or increasing haemorrhage compared with the baseline and/or loss of >5 letters compared with the baseline or best corrected vision subsequently. Poor or non-response to anti-VEGF may be due to clinical factors including suboptimal dosing than that required by a particular patient, increased dosing intervals, treatment initiation when disease is already at an advanced or chronic stage), cellular mechanisms, lesion type, genetic variation and potential tachyphylaxis); non-clinical factors including poor access to clinics or delayed appointments may also result in poor treatment outcomes. In eyes classified as good responders, treatment should be continued with the same agent when disease activity is present or reactivation occurs following temporary dose holding. In eyes that show partial response, treatment may be continued, although re-evaluation with further imaging may be required to exclude confounding factors. Where there is persistent, unchanging accumulated fluid following three consecutive injections at monthly intervals, treatment may be withheld temporarily, but recommenced with the same or alternative anti-VEGF if the fluid subsequently increases (lesion considered active). Poor or non-response to anti-VEGF treatments requires re-evaluation of diagnosis and if necessary switch to alternative therapies including other anti-VEGF agents and/or with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Idiopathic polypoidal choroidopathy may require treatment with PDT monotherapy or combination with anti-VEGF. A committee comprised of retinal specialists with experience of managing patients with n-AMD similar to that which developed the Royal College of Ophthalmologists Guidelines to Ranibizumab was assembled. Individual aspects of the guidelines were proposed by the committee lead (WMA) based on relevant reference to published evidence base following a search of Medline and circulated to all committee members for discussion before approval or modification. Each draft was modified according to feedback from committee members until unanimous approval was obtained in the final draft. A system for categorising the range of responsiveness of n-AMD lesions to anti-VEGF therapy is proposed. The proposal is based primarily on morphological criteria but functional criteria have been included. Recommendations have been made on when to consider discontinuation of therapy either because of success or futility. These guidelines should help clinical decision-making and may prevent over and/or undertreatment with anti-VEGF therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments ranibizumab and aflibercept have proven efficacy in clinical trials, but their real world usage in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) has not been assessed. We therefore evaluated the treatment patterns of both drugs in a US claims database.Methods
The IMS Integrated Data Warehouse was used to identify the patients with CRVO in the USA with claims for ranibizumab or aflibercept between 24 September 2012 and 31 March 2014 with at least 12 months follow-up. Patients were required to have had no anti-VEGF treatment code for 6 months before index ('treatment-naive'). Mean numbers of injections and non-injection visits to a treating physician were compared with patients receiving these treatments.ResultsPatient characteristics were similar for patients receiving ranibizumab (n=206) or aflibercept (n=79) at index. The mean (±SD) numbers of injections received by patients treated with ranibizumab or aflibercept were 4.4±2.8 and 4.7±2.9 (P=0.38), respectively; the total number of patient visits to their treating physician was 7.3±3.7 and 7.0±2.9 (P=0.52), respectively. For patients receiving one or more injections (n=238), the mean interval between injections was 55.1 days (ranibizumab) and 54.2 days (aflibercept; P=0.44).Conclusions
Our results suggest that, in routine clinical practice, patients receive a comparable number of injections in the first year of treatment with ranibizumab or aflibercept. This may have implications for commissioning and service development of CRVO care pathways.Eye advance online publication, 9 January 2015; doi:10.1038/eye.2014.308.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Eye (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results: Three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of clinical effectiveness, three studies of cost-effectiveness and 10 studies of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) met the inclusion criteria for the systematic reviews and, where possible, were used to inform the economic analysis. Heterogeneity of studies precluded meta-analyses, and instead data were synthesised narratively. The RCTs assessed visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis and several measures of HRQoL. Improvements in binocular visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were small and unlikely to be of clinical significance, but stereopsis was improved to a clinically meaningful extent following second-eye surgery. Studies did not provide evidence that second-eye surgery significantly affected HRQoL, apart from an improvement in the mental health component of HRQoL in one RCT. In the model, second-eye surgery generated 0.68 incremental quality-adjusted life-years with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £1964. Model results were most sensitive to changes in the utility gain associated with second-eye surgery, but otherwise robust to changes in parameter values. The probability that second-eye surgery is cost-effective at willingness-to-pay thresholds of £10,000 and £20,000 is 100%.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Health technology assessment (Winchester, England)