[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Data are scarce on outcomes of pacemaker implantation in nonagenarians (age≥90 years).
Methods and results:
We identified patients >70 years of age (n=115 683) who underwent initial pacemaker implantation in the 2004 to 2008 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, complications, length of stay, and charges. Unadjusted outcomes were compared using χ(2) and Mantel-Haenszel tests. Multivariate hierarchical logistic models and stepwise linear regression models adjusted for case-mix variation and clustering. Eleven percent (12 917) were >90 years of age. Relative to patients aged 70 to 79 years, patients >90 years of age were more likely to have moderate/severe comorbidity (Charlson score >1; 43.2% versus 40.1%) and less likely to be admitted electively (17.5% versus 29.9%), all P<0.001. The unadjusted mortality and complication rates in patients aged 70 to 79 years were 0.60% (confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.67%) and 5.61% (CI, 5.40-5.82%), respectively, and in patients aged >90 years were 1.87% (CI, 1.63-2.11%) and 6.31% (CI, 5.89-6.72%). Length of stay and charges in patients aged 70 to 79 years were 3.22 days (CI, 3.20-3.24 days) and $38 871 (CI, $38 700-$39 043), and in patients aged >90 years, 4.27 days (CI, 4.25-4.30 days) and $41 373 (CI, $41 190-$41 556). Multivariable analysis revealed severe comorbidity (odds ratio, 5.00; 95% CI, 4.05-6.17) was a greater predictor of mortality than increasing age (odds ratio, 2.81 per decade; CI, 2.35-3.35), all P<0.001. Similarly, severe comorbidity (Charlson score >5) was more strongly associated with complications, length of stay, and charges than age.
Although increasing age predicts worsening outcomes in the elderly, the absolute rates are modest, even in nonagenarians, and comorbidity is a stronger predictor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the association between financial stress and health care outcomes. Our objective was to examine the association between self-reported financial stress during initial hospitalization and long-term outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
WE USED PROSPECTIVE REGISTRY EVALUATING MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: Event and Recovery (PREMIER) data, an observational, multicenter US study of AMI patients discharged between January 2003 and June 2004. Primary outcomes were disease-specific and generic health status outcomes at 1 year (symptoms, function, and quality of life (QoL)), assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ] and Short Form [SF]-12. Secondary outcomes included 1-year rehospitalization and 4-year mortality. Hierarchical regression models accounted for patient socio-demographic, clinical, and quality of care characteristics, and access and barriers to care.
Among 2344 AMI patients, 1241 (52.9%) reported no financial stress, 735 (31.4%) reported low financial stress, and 368 (15.7%) reported high financial stress. When comparing individuals reporting low financial stress to no financial stress, there were no significant differences in post-AMI outcomes. In contrast, individuals reporting high financial stress were more likely to have worse physical health (SF-12 PCS mean difference -3.24, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -4.82, -1.66), mental health (SF-12 MCS mean difference: -2.44, 95% CI: -3.83, -1.05), disease-specific QoL (SAQ QoL mean difference: -6.99, 95% CI: -9.59, -4.40), and be experiencing angina (SAQ Angina Relative Risk = 1.66, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.32) at 1 year post-AMI. While 1-year readmission rates were increased (Hazard Ratio = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.20, 1.86), 4-year mortality was no different.
High financial stress is common and an important risk factor for worse long-term outcomes post-AMI, independent of access and barriers to care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare in a population-based analysis the in-hospital mortality and complications following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) vs. open repair in patients transferred for the management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA).
Interrogation of the 2003-2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database identified 271 patients (205 men; mean age 71.7 years) who were transferred for RAAA treatment. Demographic, patient, and hospital characteristics were analyzed. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and complications; results are presented as the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
In comparison to open repair (n=207), endovascular repair (n=64) was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (36% vs. <18%, p<0.01) and a lower complication rate (78% vs. 66%, p<0.05). Transferred RAAA patients undergoing EVAR had lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.49, p<0.01) and fewer complications (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.95, p<0.05) than transferred patients having open repair.
Compared to open repair, EVAR led to superior short-term clinical outcomes in transferred RAAA patients. In this clinical situation, transfer of stable RAAA patients to institutions capable of performing EVAR is recommended.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Endovascular Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the in-hospital mortality and complication rates after early and delayed initiation of plasma exchange (PLEX) in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG).
Our cohort was identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database for the years 2000 through 2005. Early treatment was defined as therapy with PLEX administered within the first 2 days from hospital admission. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed.
One thousand fifty-three patients were treated and included in the analysis. A delay in receiving PLEX was associated with higher mortality (6.56% vs. 1.15%, P < 0.001) and increased complications (29.51% vs. 15.29%, P < 0.001). Adjusted analysis showed increased mortality [odds ratio (OR) 2.812; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.119-7.069] and complications (OR 1.672; 95% CI 1.118-2.501) with delayed PLEX therapy.
Delaying PLEX therapy for MG by more than 2 days after admission may lead to higher mortality and complication rates, and thus prompt therapy is warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare clinical and economic outcomes following plasma exchange (PLEX) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in U.S. patients with primary diagnoses of myasthenia gravis (MG).
Our cohort was identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database for years 2000-2005 using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition. Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify predictors of mortality, complications, length of stay, and total inpatient cost.
Among 1,606 hospitalized patients, the unadjusted mortality rate of MG crisis remained higher than those without crisis (0.44% vs 4.44%, p < 0.001), as well as the unadjusted complication rate (26.36% vs 11.23%, p < 0.001). MG crisis patients receiving PLEX had significantly more complications than those receiving IVIG (30.06% vs 14.79%, p < 0.001). Among the whole cohort, adjusted mortality and complication rates were not significantly different between the treatment groups (p > 0.05). Acute respiratory failure, major cardiac complications, and acute renal failure were associated with an increased mortality rate (p < 0.001). Age and respiratory failure were associated with an increased complication rate (p < 0.001). Length of stay was significantly longer for MG (6 vs 4 days, p < 0.001) and MG crisis (10 vs 5 days, p < 0.001) patients receiving PLEX. Inpatient costs were higher for MG ($26,662 vs $21,124, p < 0.01) and MG crisis ($53,801 vs $33,924, p < 0.001) patients receiving PLEX.
Compared to PLEX, IVIG appears of similar clinical (mortality and complications) and perhaps of superior economic (length of stay and total inpatient charges) outcomes in the treatment of MG. Elderly and those with complex comorbid diseases including acute respiratory failure may be better treated with IVIG.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Annals of Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determine the comorbid conditions associated with syncope in women. In addition, we hypothesize a higher proportion of autonomic comorbid conditions during the female reproductive age.
We identified a cohort of patients admitted to US hospitals with the principal diagnosis of syncope. We compare patient demographics stratified by gender as well as syncope associated comorbidities. We compared these comorbidities in female of reproductive age (15-45) to men as control.
From a total sample of 305,932, females constituted 56.7% (n = 173,434). Females were slightly older (mean age 70.9 +/- 17.9 vs. 66.7 +/- 17.3; P < 0.0001); with similar racial distribution (white 57.8 vs. 57.5%), and similar length of hospital stay (mean 2.66 +/- 2.63 vs. 2.68 +/- 2.72 days; P > 0.05). Females had higher proportion of migraine (1.65 vs. 1.29%; odds ratio 'OR' 1.29; 95% confidence interval 'CI' 1.21, 1.36); chronic fatigue syndrome (1.73 vs. 1.3%; OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.25, 1.4); gastroparesis (0.2 vs. 0.12%; OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.35, 1.98); interstitial cystitis (0.07 vs. 0.01%; OR 7.44; 95% CI 4.10, 13.5); and postural tachycardia syndrome (0.49 vs. 0.44%; OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.001, 1.23). Orthostatic hypotension was not different between the groups (P = 0.24). When the sample was stratified by age category, the odds ratio for gastroparesis, orthostatic hypotension, and postural tachycardia syndrome was increased (P < 0.05).
A higher proportion of autonomic dysfunction was present in women compared to men. In addition, these comorbid autonomic conditions were especially prominent during the female reproductive age.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · Clinical Autonomic Research