[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Systemic delivery of anti-sense oligonucleotides to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients to induce de novo dystrophin protein expression in muscle (exon skipping) is a promising therapy. Treatment with Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO) lead to shorter de novo dystrophin protein in both animal models and DMD boys who otherwise lack dystrophin; however, restoration of dystrophin has been observed to be highly variable. Understanding the factors causing highly variable induction of dystrophin expression in pre-clinical models would likely lead to more effective means of exon skipping in both pre-clinical studies and human clinical trials.
In the present study, we investigated possible factors that might lead to the variable success of exon skipping using morpholino drugs in the mdx mouse model. We tested whether specific muscle groups or fiber types showed better success than others and also correlated residual PMO concentration in muscle with the amount of de novo dystrophin protein 1 month after a single high-dose morpholino injection (800 mg/kg). We compared the results from six muscle groups using three different methods of dystrophin quantification: immunostaining, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry assays.
The triceps muscle showed the greatest degree of rescue (average 38±28 % by immunostaining). All three dystrophin detection methods were generally concordant for all muscles. We show that dystrophin rescue occurs in a sporadic patchy pattern with high geographic variability across muscle sections. We did not find a correlation between residual morpholino drug in muscle tissue and the degree of dystrophin expression.
While we found some evidence of muscle group enhancement and successful rescue, our data also suggest that other yet-undefined factors may underlie the observed variability in the success of exon skipping. Our study highlights the challenges associated with quantifying dystrophin in clinical trials where a single small muscle biopsy is taken from a DMD patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMO) are used as a promising exon-skipping gene therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). One potential complication of high dose PMO therapy is its transient accumulation in the kidneys. Therefore new urinary biomarkers are needed to monitor this treatment. Here, we carried out a pilot proteomic profiling study using stable isotope labeling in mammals (SILAM) strategy to identify new biomarkers to monitor the effect of PMO on the kidneys of the dystrophin deficient mouse model for DMD (mdx-23). We first assessed the baseline renal status of the mdx-23 mouse compared to the wild type (C57BL10) mouse, and then followed the renal outcome of mdx-23 mouse treated with a single high dose intravenous PMO injection (800 mg/kg). Surprisingly, untreated mdx-23 mice showed evidence of renal injury at baseline, which was manifested by albuminuria, increased urine output, and changes in established urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI). The PMO treatment induced further transient renal injury, which peaked at 7 days, and returned to almost the baseline status at 30 days post-treatment. In the kidney, the SILAM approach followed by western blot validation identified changes in Meprin A subunit alpha at day 2, then returned to normal levels at day 7 and 30 after PMO injection. In the urine, SILAM approach identified an increase in Clusterin and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 as potential candidates to monitor the transient renal accumulation of PMO. These results, which were confirmed by Western blots or ELISA, demonstrate the value of the SILAM approach to identify new candidate biomarkers of renal injury in mdx-23 mice treated with high dose PMO.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Toxicology Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is expected that serum protein biomarkers in DMD will reflect disease pathogenesis, progression and aid future therapy developments. Here, we describe use of quantitative in vivo stable isotope labeling in mammals to accurately compare serum proteomes of wild type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Biomarkers identified in serum from two independent dystrophin deficient mouse models (mdx-Δ52 and mdx-23), were concordant with those identified in sera samples of DMD patients. Of the 355 mouse sera proteins, 23 were significantly elevated and 4 significantly lower in mdx relative to wild type mice (p value<0.001). Elevated proteins were mostly of muscle origin: including myofibrillar proteins (titin, myosin light chain 1/3, myomesin 3, filamin-C), glycolytic enzymes (aldolase, phosphoglycerate mutase 2, beta enolase, and glycogen phosphorylase), transport proteins (fatty acid binding protein, myoglobin and somatic cytochrome-C), and others (creatine kinase M, malate dehydrogenase cytosolic, fibrinogen and parvalbumin). Decreased proteins, mostly of extracellular origin, included adiponectin, lumican, plasminogen and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor. Analysis of sera from 1 week to 7 months old mdx mice revealed age dependent changes in the level of these biomarkers with most biomarkers acutely elevated at 3 weeks of age. Serum analysis of DMD patients, with ages ranging from 4 to 15 years old, confirmed elevation of 20 of the murine biomarkers in DMD, with similar age-related changes. This study provides a panel of biomarkers that reflect muscle-activity and pathogenesis and should prove valuable tool to complement natural history studies and to monitor treatment efficacy in future clinical trials.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Podocyte injury has a critical role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). The HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat), combined with fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), can induce the dedifferentiation and proliferation of cultured human podocytes. Cellular internalization of Tat requires interactions with heparan sulfate proteoglycans and cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts (LRs). However, the specific distribution of Tat in human podocytes and its ability to associate with LRs have not been documented. Here, we found that Tat is preferentially recruited to LRs in podocytes isolated from children with HIVAN. Furthermore, we identified arginines in the basic domain (RKKRRQRRR) of Tat as essential for (1) targeting Tat to LRs, (2) Tat-mediated increases in the expression of Rho-A and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in LRs, and (3) Tat-mediated enhancement of FGF-2 signaling in human podocytes and HIV-transgenic mouse kidneys and the exacerbation of renal lesions in these mice. Tat carrying alanine substitutions in the basic domain (AKKAAQAAA) remained localized in the cytosol and did not associate with LRs or enhance FGF-2 signaling in cultured podocytes. These results show the specific association of Tat with LRs in podocytes isolated from children with HIVAN, confirm Tat as a regulator of FGF-2 signaling in LRs, and identify the key domain of Tat responsible for promoting these effects and aggravating renal injury in HIV-transgenic mice. Moreover, these results provide a molecular framework for developing novel therapies to improve the clinical outcome of children with HIVAN.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes the UL37 exon 1 protein (pUL37x1), which is the potent viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA), to increase survival of infected cells. HCMV vMIA traffics from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to ER subdomains, which are physically linked to mitochondria known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), and to mitochondria. The antiapoptotic function of vMIA is thought to primarily result from its ability to inhibit Bax-mediated permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we establish that vMIA retargets Bax to the MAM as well as to the OMM from immediate early through late times of infection. However, MAM localization of Bax results in its increased ubiquitination and proteasomal-mediated degradation. Surprisingly, HCMV infection does not increase OMM-associated degradation (OMMAD) of Bax even though the ER and mitochondria are physically connected at the MAM. It was recently found that lipid rafts at the plasma membrane can connect extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways and can serve as sites of apoptosome assembly. In transfected permissive human fibroblasts, vMIA mediates, through its cholesterol affinity, association of Bax and apoptosome components to MAM lipid rafts. While Bax association with MAM lipid rafts was detected in HCMV-infected cells, association of apoptosome components was not. These results establish that Bax recruitment to the MAM and its MAM associated degradation (MAMAD) is a newly described antiapoptotic mechanism used by HCMV infection to increase cell survival for its growth.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can cause severe brain abnormalities. Apoptotic HCMV-infected brain cells have been detected in a congenitally infected infant. In biologically relevant human neural precursor cells (hNPCs), cultured in physiological oxygen tensions, HCMV infection (m.o.i. of 1 or 3) induced cell death within 3 days post-infection (p.i.) and increased thereafter. Surprisingly, its known anti-apoptotic genes, including the potent UL37 exon 1 protein (pUL37x1) or viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA), which protects infected human fibroblasts (HFFs) from apoptosis and from caspase-independent, mitochondrial serine protease-mediated cell death, were expressed by 2 days p.i. Consistent with this finding, an HCMV UL37x1 mutant, BADsubstitutionUL37x1 (BADsubUL37x1) induced cell death in hNPCs (m.o.i. = 1) to level which were indistinguishable from parental virus (BADwild-type)-infected hNPCs. Surprisingly, although BADsubUL37x1 is growth defective in permissive HFFs, it produced infectious progeny in hNPCs with similar kinetics and to levels comparable to BADwild-type-infected hNPCs (m.o.i. = 1). While delayed at a lower multiplicity (m.o.i. = 0.3), the BADsubUL37x1 mutant reached similar levels to revertant within 12 days, in contrast to its phenotype in HFFs. The inability of pUL37x1/vMIA to protect hNPCs from HCMV-induced cell death did not result from impaired trafficking as pUL37x1/vMIA trafficked efficiently to mitochondria in transfected hNPCs and in HCMV-infected hNPCs. These results establish that pUL37x1/vMIA, although protective in permissive HFFs, does not protect HCMV-infected hNPCs from cell death under physiologically relevant oxygen tensions. They further suggest that pUL37x1/vMIA is not essential for HCMV growth in hNPCs and has different cell type-specific roles.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of General Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts, known as mitochondria-associated membranes, regulate important cellular functions including calcium signaling, bioenergetics, and apoptosis. Human cytomegalovirus is a medically important herpesvirus whose growth increases energy demand and depends upon continued cell survival. To gain insight into how human cytomegalovirus infection affects endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts, we undertook quantitative proteomics of mitochondria-associated membranes using differential stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture strategy and liquid chromatography-tandem MS analysis. This is the first reported quantitative proteomic analyses of a suborganelle during permissive human cytomegalovirus infection. Human fibroblasts were uninfected or human cytomegalovirus-infected for 72 h. Heavy mitochondria-associated membranes were isolated from paired unlabeled, uninfected cells and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture-labeled, infected cells and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem MS analysis. The results were verified by a reverse labeling experiment. Human cytomegalovirus infection dramatically altered endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts by late times. Notable is the increased abundance of several fundamental networks in the mitochondria-associated membrane fraction of human cytomegalovirus-infected fibroblasts. Chaperones, including HSP60 and BiP, which is required for human cytomegalovirus assembly, were prominently increased at endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts after infection. Minimal translational and translocation machineries were also associated with endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts and increased after human cytomegalovirus infection as were glucose regulated protein 75 and the voltage dependent anion channel, which can form an endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial calcium signaling complex. Surprisingly, mitochondrial metabolic enzymes and cytosolic glycolytic enzymes were confidently detected in the mitochondria-associated membrane fraction and increased therein after infection. Finally, proapoptotic regulatory proteins, including Bax, cytochrome c, and Opa1, were augmented in endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts after infection, suggesting attenuation of proapoptotic signaling by their increased presence therein. Together, these results suggest that human cytomegalovirus infection restructures the proteome of endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts to bolster protein translation at these junctions, calcium signaling to mitochondria, cell survival, and bioenergetics and, thereby, allow for enhanced progeny production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protein UL37 exon 1 (pUL37x1), also known as viral mitochondrion-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA), sequentially traffics from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through mitochondrion-associated membranes (MAMs) to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), where it robustly inhibits apoptosis. Here, we report the association of pUL37x1/vMIA with internal lipid rafts (LRs) in the ER/MAM. The MAM, which serves as a site for lipid transfer and calcium signaling to mitochondria, is enriched in detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)-forming lipids, including cholesterol and ceramide, which are found in lower concentrations in the bulk ER. Sigma 1 receptor (Sig-1R), a MAM chaperone affecting calcium signaling to mitochondria, is anchored in the MAM by its LR association. Because of its trafficking through the MAM and partial colocalization with Sig-1R, we tested whether pUL37x1/vMIA associates with MAM LRs. Extraction with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) removed pUL37x1/vMIA from lysed but not intact cells, indicating its association with internal LRs. Furthermore, the isolation of DRMs from purified intracellular organelles independently verified the localization of pUL37x1/vMIA within ER/MAM LRs. However, pUL37x1/vMIA was not detected in DRMs from mitochondria. pUL37x1/vMIA associated with LRs during all temporal phases of HCMV infection, indicating the likely importance of this location for HCMV growth. Although detected during its sequential trafficking to the OMM, the pUL37x1/vMIA LR association was independent of its mitochondrial targeting signals. Rather, it was dependent upon cholesterol binding. These studies suggest a conserved ability of UL37 proteins to interact with cholesterol and LRs, which is functionally distinguishable from their sequential trafficking to mitochondria.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Virology