Abstract: We performed an extensive study on mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic periodontitis (CP). Electron microscopic analysis of gingival cells revealed abnormal mitochondria in 60% of the patients. Mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption of gingival cells were reduced by 4 fold and 5.8 fold, respectively; whereas ROS production was increased by 18%. The genetic analysis by complete mitochondrial DNA sequencing revealed the identification of 14 novel mutations only in periodontal... Show More
Full-text available · Article · Feb 2011 · Mitochondrion
The term "oxidative stress" describes conditions involving increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels . Apart from being implicated in periodontitis [2-4], concepts of oxidative stress are being applied to explain the relationship between periodontitis and various systemic conditions such as metabolic syndrome , mitochondrial dysfunction , diabetes mellitus , and rheumatoid arthritis . Interestingly, all of the associated systemic conditions have therapies focusing on the use of antioxidants to modulate or eliminate the disease [9,10].
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study has two aims; firstly, it attempts to verify the presence of oxidative stress by estimating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in periodontal pockets ≥5 mm as compared to controls. The second aim is to evaluate the effect of lycopene as a locally delivered antioxidant gel on periodontal health and on the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative injury.
Thirty-one subjects participated in this study. In the pretreatment phase, the ROS levels in pockets ≥5 mm were measured by flow cytometry. Three sites in each subject were randomly assigned into each of the following experimental groups: sham group, only scaling and root planing (SRP) was done; placebo group, local delivery of placebo gel after SRP; and lycopene group, local delivery of lycopene gel after SRP. Clinical parameters included recording site-specific measures of GCF 8-OHdG, plaque, gingivitis, probing depth, and clinical attachment level.
The gel, when delivered to the sites with oxidative stress, was effective in increasing clinical attachment and in reducing gingival inflammation, probing depth, and 8-OHdG levels as compared to the placebo and sham sites.
From this trial conducted over a period of 6 months, it was found that locally delivered lycopene seems to be effective in reducing the measures of oxidative stress and periodontal disease.