W. D. Cotton

National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States

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Publications (288)747.91 Total impact

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    F. Yusef-Zadeh · W. Cotton · M. Wardle · H. Intema
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sgr B2 is a well-known star forming molecular cloud complex in the Galactic center region showing evidence of high energy activity as traced by the K$\alpha$ neutral FeI line at 6.4 keV, as well as GeV and TeV $\gamma$-ray emission. Here we present VLA and GMRT observations with respective resolutions of $\approx3.5"\times1.2"$ and 25$"\times25"$ and report the detection of an OH(1720 MHz) maser, with no accompanying OH 1665, 1667 and 1612 MHz maser emission. The maser coincides with a 150 MHz nonthermal radio source in Sgr B2(M). This rare class of OH(1720 MHz) masers or the so-called supernova remnant (SNR) masers, with no main line transitions, trace shocked gas and signal the interaction of an expanding SNR with a molecular cloud. We interpret the 150 MHz radio source as either the site of a SNR -- molecular gas interaction or a wind-wind collision in a massive binary system. The interaction of the molecular cloud and the nonthermal source enhances the cosmic-ray ionization rate, allows the diffusion of cosmic rays into the cloud and produces the variable 6.4 keV line, GeV and TeV $\gamma$-ray emission from Sgr B2(M). The cosmic ray electron interaction with the gas in the Galactic center can not only explain the measured high values of cosmic ray ionization and heating rates but also contribute to nonthermal bremsstrahlung continuum emission, all of which are consistent with observations.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present high-resolution multiwavelength radio continuum images of the region within 150$"$ of Sgr A*, revealing a number of new extended features and stellar sources in this region. First, we detect a continuous 2" east-west ridge of radio emission, linking Sgr A* and a cluster of stars associated with IRS 13N and IRS 13E. The ridge suggests that an outflow of east-west blob-like structures is emerging from Sgr A*. We also find arc-like features within the ridge with morphologies suggestive of photoevaporative protoplanetary disks. We use near-IR fluxes to show that the emission has similar characteristics to those of a protoplanetary disk irradiated by the intense radiation field at the Galactic center. This suggests that star formation has taken place within the S cluster 2$"$ from Sgr A*. We suggest that the diffuse X-ray emission associated with Sgr A* is due to an expanding hot wind produced by the mass loss from B-type main sequence stars, and/or the disks of photoevaporation of low mass YSOs at a rate ~10^{-6} solar mass per year. The proposed model naturally reduces the inferred accretion rate and is an alternative to the inflow-outflow style models to explain the underluminous nature of Sgr A*. Second, we detect new cometary radio and nea-IR sources and a striking tower of radio emission suggesting that they are tracing interaction sites of a mildly relativistic jet from Sgr A* with the atmosphere of stars and the nonthermal Sgr A East shell at a PA$\sim50-60^\circ$ with ~10^{-7} solar mass per year, and opening angle 10 degrees.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present results of interferometric polarization observations of the recently discovered magnetar J1745−2900 in the vicinity of the Galactic center. The observations were made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) on 21 February 2014 in the range 40–48 GHz. The full polarization mode and A configuration of the array were used. The average total and linearly polarized flux density of the pulsar amounts to 2.3 ± 0.31 mJy beam−1 and 1.5 ± 0.2 mJy beam−1, respectively. Analysis shows a rotation measure (RM) of ( − 67 ± 3) × 103 rad m−2, which is in a good agreement with previous measurements at longer wavelengths. These high frequency observations are sensitive to RM values of up to ∼2 × 107 rad m−2. However, application of the Faraday synthesis technique did not reveal other significant RM components in the pulsar emission. This supports an external nature of a single thin Faraday-rotating screen which should be located close to the Galactic center. The Faraday corrected intrinsic electric vector position angle is 16±9 deg East of North, and coincides with the position angle of the pulsar's transverse velocity. All measurements of the pulsar's RM value to date, including the one presented here, well agree within errors, which points towards a steady nature of the Faraday-rotating medium.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    W. D. Cotton · E. Kravchenko · Y. Y. Kovalev · E. Fomalont
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetized plasmas traversed by linearly polarized light will reveal their presence by the frequency dependent Faraday rotation of the angle of polarization. The regions surrounding the black holes powering the jets in AGNs are expected to have dense magnetized plasmas, possibly giving rise to very large Faraday rotations. Compact steep spectrum (CSS) sources are good candidates to search for very large Faraday rotated components as they contain compact emission from close to the black hole and many are strongly depolarized at centimeter wavelengths as expected from strong Faraday effects. We present data on several CSS sources (3C48, 3C138 and 3C147) observed with the VLA at frequencies between 20 and 48 GHz in the most extended configuration. Large, but not excessive rotation measures are reported.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Astronomische Nachrichten
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present radio continuum light curves of the magnetar SGR J1745$-$2900 and Sgr A* obtained with multi-frequency, multi-epoch Very Large Array observations between 2012 and 2014. During this period, a powerful X-ray outburst from SGR J1745$-$2900 occurred on 2013-04-24. Enhanced radio emission is delayed with respect to the X-ray peak by about seven months. In addition, the flux density of the emission from the magnetar fluctuates by a factor of 2 to 4 at frequencies between 21 and 41 GHz and its spectral index varies erratically. Here we argue that the excess fluctuating emission from the magnetar arises from the interaction of a shock generated from the X-ray outburst with the orbiting ionized gas at the Galactic center. In this picture, variable synchrotron emission is produced by ram pressure variations due to inhomogeneities in the dense ionized medium of the Sgr A West bar. The pulsar with its high transverse velocity is moving through a highly blue-shifted ionized medium. This implies that the magnetar is at a projected distance of $\sim0.1$ pc from Sgr A* and that the orbiting ionized gas is partially or largely responsible for a large rotation measure detected toward the magnetar. Despite the variability of Sgr A* expected to be induced by the passage of the G2 cloud, monitoring data shows a constant flux density and spectral index during this period
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent broad-band 34 and 44 GHz radio continuum observations of the Galactic center have revealed 41 massive stars identified with near-IR counterparts, as well as 44 proplyd candidates within 30" of Sgr A*. Radio observations obtained in 2011 and 2014 have been used to derive proper motions of eight young stars near Sgr A*. The accuracy of proper motion estimates based on near-IR observations by Lu et al. and Paumard et al. have been investigated by using their proper motions to predict the 2014 epoch positions of near-IR stars and comparing the predicted positions with those of radio counterparts in the 2014 radio observations. Predicted positions from Lu et al. show an rms scatter of 6 mas relative to the radio positions, while those from Paumard et al. show rms residuals of 20 mas, which is mainly due to uncertainties in the IR-based proper motions. Under the assumption of homogeneous ionized winds, we also determine the mass-loss rates of 11 radio stars, finding rates that are on average $\sim$2 times smaller than those determined from model atmosphere calculations and near-IR data. Clumpiness of ionized winds would reduce the mass loss rate of WR and O stars by additional factors of 3 and 10, respectively. One important implication of this is a reduction in the expected mass accretion rate onto Sgr A* from stellar winds by nearly an order of magnitude to a value of few$\times10^{-7}$ \msol\ yr$^{-1}$. Finally, we present the positions of 318 compact 34.5 GHz radio sources within 30\arcs\ of Sgr A*. At least 45 of these have stellar counterparts in the near-IR $K_s$ (2.18 $\mu$m) and $L'$ (3.8$\mu$m) bands.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present radio and infrared observations indicating on-going star formation activity inside the $\sim2-5$ pc circumnuclear ring at the Galactic center. Collectively these measurements suggest a continued disk-based mode of on-going star formation has taken place near Sgr A* over the last few million years. First, VLA observations with spatial resolution 2.17$"\times0.81"$ reveal 13 water masers, several of which have multiple velocity components. The presence of interstellar water masers suggests gas densities that are sufficient for self-gravity to overcome the tidal shear of the 4$\times10^6$ \msol\, black hole. Second, SED modeling of stellar sources indicate massive YSO candidates interior to the molecular ring, supporting in-situ star formation near Sgr A* and appear to show a distribution similar to that of the counter-rotating disks of $\sim$100 OB stars orbiting Sgr A*. Some YSO candidates (e.g., IRS~5) have bow shock structures suggesting that they have have gaseous disks that are phototoevaporated and photoionized by the strong radiation field. Third, we detect clumps of SiO (2-1) and (5-4) line emission in the ring based on CARMA and SMA observations. The FWHM and luminosity of the SiO emission is consistent with shocked protostellar outflows. Fourth, two linear ionized features with an extent of $\sim0.8$ pc show blue and redshifted velocities between $+50$ and $-40$ \kms, suggesting protostellar jet driven outflows with mass loss rates of $\sim5\times10^{-5}$ solar mass yr$^{-1}$. Finally, we present the imprint of radio dark clouds at 44 GHz, representing a reservoir of molecular gas that feeds star formation activity close to Sgr A*.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ~15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from September to late November 2014, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ~350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work we present a polarization analysis at radio frequencies of Markarian 421, one of the closest (z=0.03) TeV blazars. The observations were obtained, both in total and in polarized intensity, with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 15, 24, and 43 GHz throughout 2011, with one observation per month (for a total of twelve epochs). We investigate the magnetic field topology and the polarization structure on parsec scale and their evolution with time. We detect polarized emission both in the core and in the jet region, and it varies with frequency, location and time. In the core region we measure a mean fractional polarization of about 1-2%, with a peak of about 4% in March at 43 GHz; the polarization angle is almost stable at 43 GHz, but it shows significant variability in the range 114-173 deg at 15 GHz. In the jet region the polarization properties show a more stable behavior; the fractional polarization is about 16% and the polarization angle is nearly perpendicular to the jet axis. The higher EVPA variability observed at 15 GHz is due both to a variable Faraday rotation effect and to opacity. The residual variability observed in the intrinsic polarization angle, together with the low degree of polarization in the core region, could be explained with the presence of a blend of variable cross-polarized subcomponents within the beam.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
  • G. Perrin · W. D. Cotton · R. Millan-Gabet · B. Mennesson
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims. We present the results of observations with interferometers of a sample of pulsating asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the infrared and at radio wavelengths. The goal of these observations is to explore the extended stellar atmospheres and to establish links between the spatial scales of molecular envelopes and of the dust shell. This is the key to better understand the process of dust formation and therefore of mass loss. Methods. We used the ESO VLTI/MIDI interferometer in the N band, the Keck Interferometer in the K band, and NRAO VLBA observations of SiO masers at 7 mm wavelength of a sample of AGB stars: U Ari, W Cnc, RX Tau, RT Tau, RT Aql, S Ser, and V Mon. The various instruments probe different altitudes of the atmosphere of the AGB stars. They are sensitive to regions below the silicate dust condensation distance and provide the opportunity of finding hints about how dust and its precursors form in the extended atmosphere of an AGB star. The K-band observations are sensitive to water and carbon-monoxyde vapors. Unfortunately, we were only able to observe S Ser in this wavelength range. Results. We find a ratio of 2.2 between the molecular envelope radius and the photospheric size, which is consistent with previous results. The N-band observations are mostly sensitive to vapors of SiO and water and to dust (alumina and silicate). The silicate dust shell is fully resolved, and no precise parameters can be deduced from the N-band observations other than a spatial extension of at least 12–16 R⋆ for our sample. The sizes found for the SiO region are consistent with the radii of the SiO maser rings provided by the VLBA observations. The sizes of the alumina and water vapor regions are systematically found to be larger. There is clear evidence that SiO is absent from regions farther from the star where silicate dust condenses. Conclusions. These observations support a possible scenario in which SiO is adsorbed by species such as corundum. An alternative explanation could be that SiO has chemically disappeared at this range of distances.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ~15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from September to late November 2014, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ~350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present radio images within 30$''$ of Sgr A* based on recent VLA observations at 34 GHz with 7.8 microJy sensitivity and resolution $\sim88\times46$ milliarcseconds (mas). We report 44 partially resolved compact sources clustered in two regions in the E arm of ionized gas that orbits Sgr A*. These sources have size scales ranging between ~50 and 200 mas (400 to 1600 AUs), and a bow-shock appearance facing the direction of Sgr A*. Unlike the bow-shock sources previously identified in the near-IR but associated with massive stars, these 34 GHz sources do not appear to have near-IR counterparts at 3.8 $\mu$m. We interpret these sources as a candidate population of photoevaporative protoplanetary disks (proplyds) that are associated with newly formed low mass stars with mass loss rates ~10^{-7} - 10^{-6} solar mass per year and are located at the edge of a molecular cloud outlined by ionized gas. The disks are externally illuminated by strong Lyman continuum radiation from the ~100 OB and WR massive stars distributed within 10'' of Sgr A*. The presence of proplyds implies current in-situ star formation activity near Sgr A* and opens a window for the first time to study low mass star, planetary and brown dwarf formations near a supermassive black hole.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed data in polarized intensity obtained with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at twelve epochs (one observation per month from January to December 2011) at 15, 24, and 43 GHz. For the absolute orientation of the electric vector position angles (EVPA) we used the D-terms method. We also used gamma-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope on weekly time bins throughout 2011. The source shows polarized emission, and its properties vary with time, frequency, and location along the jet. The core mean polarization fraction is generally between 1% and 2%, with a 4% peak at 43 GHz in March; the polarization angle is variable, mainly at 15 GHz, where it changes frequently, and less so at 43 GHz, where it oscillates in the range 114 - 173 deg. The jet polarization properties are more stable, with a fractional polarization of around 16% and a polarization angle nearly perpendicular to the jet axis. The average flux and photon index at gamma-ray energies are (17.7+-0.5)x10^8 ph cm^-2 s^-1 and the photon index is 1.77+-0.02. The gamma-ray light curve shows variability, with a main peak that appears to be associated with the peak in the core polarized emission at 43 GHz, as well as with the total intensity light curve. A discrete correlation function analysis yields a correlation coefficient of 0.54 at zero delay, with a significance level above 99.7%. We accurately determine the polarization properties of Mrk 421, both in the core and in the jet region. The radio and gamma-ray light curves are correlated. The observed EVPA variability at 15 GHz is partly due to opacity and partly to a variable Faraday rotation effect. To explain the residual variability of the intrinsic polarization angle and the low degree of polarization in the core region, we invoke a blend of variable cross-polarized subcomponents with different polarization properties within the beam.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Very Large Array observations of the Galactic center at 7 mm have produced an image of the 30'' surrounding Sgr A* with a resolution of ~82 × 42 milliarcseconds (mas). A comparison with IR images taken simultaneously with the Very Large Telescope identifies 41 radio sources with L-band (3.8 μm) stellar counterparts. The well-known young, massive stars in the central Sgr A* cluster (e.g., IRS 16C, IRS 16NE, IRS 16SE2, IRS 16NW, IRS 16SW, AF, AFNW, IRS 34W, and IRS 33E) are detected with peak flux densities between ~0.2 and 1.3 mJy. The origin of the stellar radio emission in the central cluster is discussed in terms of ionized stellar winds with mass-loss rates in the range ~0.8-5 × 10–5M ☉ yr–1. Radio emission from eight massive stars is used as a tool for registration between the radio and infrared frames with mas precision within a few arcseconds of Sgr A* . This is similar to the established technique of aligning SiO masers and evolved stars except that radio stars lie within a few arcseconds of Sgr A*. Our data show a scatter of ~6.5 mas in the positions of the eight radio sources that appear in both the L-band and 7 mm images. Last, we use the radio and IR data to argue that members of IRS 13N are young stellar objects rather than dust clumps, supporting the hypothesis that recent star formation has occurred near Sgr A*.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Very Large Array observations of the Galactic Center at 7 mm have produced an image of the 30 arcseconds surrounding Sgr A* with a resolution of 82x42 milliarcseconds (mas). A comparison with IR images taken simultaneously with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) identifies 41 radio sources with L-band (3.8 microns) stellar counterparts. The well-known young, massive stars in the central Sgr A* cluster (e.g., IRS 16C, IRS 16NE, IRS 16SE2, IRS 16NW, IRS 16SW, AF, AFNW, IRS 34W and IRS 33E) are detected with peak flux densities between 0.2 and 1.3 mJy. The origin of the stellar radio emission in the central cluster is discussed in terms of ionized stellar winds with mass-loss rates in the range 0.8-5x10^{-5} solar mass per year. Radio emission from eight massive stars is used as a tool for registration between the radio and infrared frames with mas precision within a few arcseconds of Sgr A*. This is similar to the established technique of aligning SiO masers and evolved stars except that radio stars lie within a few arcseconds of Sgr A*. Our data show a scatter of ~6.5 mas in the positions of the eight radio sources that appear in both the L-band and 7 mm images. Lastly, we use the radio and IR data to argue that members of IRS 13N are Young Stellar Objects rather than dust clumps, supporting the hypothesis that recent star formation has occurred near Sgr A*.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report observations using the Swift/XRT, NuSTAR, and Chandra X-ray telescopes of the transient X-ray source CXOGC J174540.0-290005, during its 2013 outburst. Due to its location in the field of multiple observing campaigns targeting Sgr A*, this is one of the best-studied outbursts of a very faint X-ray binary (VFXB; peak LX < 1036 erg/s) yet recorded, with detections in 173 ks of X-ray observations over 50 days. VFXBs are of particular interest, due to their unusually low outburst luminosities and time-averaged mass transfer rates, which are hard to explain within standard accretion physics and binary evolution. The 2013 outburst of CXOGC J174540.0-290005 peaked at Lx (2-10 keV)=5.0 × 1035 erg/s, and all data above 1034 ergs/s were well-fit by an absorbed power-law of photon index ∼ 1.7, extending from 2 keV out to ~70 keV. We discuss the implications of these observations for the accretion state of CXOGC J174540.0-290005.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the results of a recent re-reduction of the data from the Very Large Array (VLA) Low-frequency Sky Survey (VLSS). We used the VLSS catalogue as a sky model to correct the ionospheric distortions in the data and create a new set of sky maps and corresponding catalogue at 73.8 MHz. The VLSS Redux (VLSSr) has a resolution of 75 arcsec, and an average map rms noise level of σ ∼ 0.1 Jy beam−1. The clean bias is 0.66 × σ and the theoretical largest angular size is 36 arcmin. Six previously unimaged fields are included in the VLSSr, which has an unbroken sky coverage over 9.3 sr above an irregular southern boundary. The final catalogue includes 92 964 sources. The VLSSr improves upon the original VLSS in a number of areas including imaging of large sources, image sensitivity, and clean bias; however the most critical improvement is the replacement of an inaccurate primary beam correction which caused source flux errors which vary as a function of radius to nearest pointing centre in the VLSS.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report observations using the Swift/XRT, NuSTAR, and Chandra X-ray telescopes of the transient X-ray source CXOGC J174540.0-290005 during its 2013 outburst. Due to its location in the field of multiple observing campaigns targeting Sgr A*, this is one of the best-studied outbursts of a very faint X-ray binary (VFXB; peak LX < 10^(36) erg s^(−1)) yet recorded, with detections in 173 ks of X-ray observations over 50 d. VFXBs are of particular interest, due to their unusually low outburst luminosities and time-averaged mass transfer rates, which are hard to explain within standard accretion physics and binary evolution. The 2013 outburst of CXOGC J174540.0-290005 peaked at L_X(2–10 keV) = 5.0 × 10^(35) erg s^(−1), and all data above 10^(34) erg s^(−1) were well fitted by an absorbed power law of photon index ∼1.7, extending from 2 keV out to ≳ 70 keV. We discuss the implications of these observations for the accretion state of CXOGC J174540.0-290005.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent discovery of a dense, cold cloud (dubbed "G2") approaching Sgr A* offers an opportunity to test models of black hole accretion and its associated feedback. G2's orbit is eccentric and the cloud shows signs of tidal disruption by the black hole. High-energy emission from the Sgr A*/G2 encounter may rise toward pericenter (mid-to-late 2013, or early 2014) and continue over the next several years as the material circularizes. This encounter is also likely to enhance Sgr A*'s flare activity across the electromagnetic spectrum. We present preliminary results from our 2013 joint Chandra/XMM/VLA monitoring campaigns. Our programs aim to study the radiation properties of Sgr A* as G2 breaks up and feeds the accretion flow, to constrain the rates and emission mechanisms of faint X-ray flares, and to detect G2 itself as it is shocked and heated. We discuss the constraints these data place on theoretical models for the Sgr A*/G2 encounter and outline plans for continued monitoring with Chandra, XMM, HST, and VLA in 2014.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
  • Wendy M. Peters · W. D. Cotton · N. E. Kassim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the Very Large Array (VLA) Low-frequency Sky Survey Redux (VLSSr), which covers the sky above declinations δ > -30 degrees at a frequency of 74 MHz with 75" resolution and an average RMS noise of 0.1 Jy/beam. The theoretical largest angular size imaged is 36', and there are approximately 95,000 cataloged sources. We have completely re-imaged all data from the original VLSS survey leading to improvements in a number of areas. These include the application of a more accurate primary beam correction which removes substantial radially dependent flux errors present in the VLSS, and smart-windowing to reduce the clean bias by half. We look ahead to the possibility of an expanded, "VLSS generation 2", made by piggybacking observations of the planned VLA Sky Survey (VLASS) using a proposed 24/7 commensal system, called the LOw Band Observatory (LOBO). Catalogs and images for the VLSSr are available at <http://www.cv.nrao.edu/vlss/VLSSlist.shtml>.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014

Publication Stats

7k Citations
747.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1979-2015
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      • Very Large Array (VLA)
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2013
    • Indian Institute of Astrophysics
      Bengalūru, Karnataka, India
  • 2007-2008
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy DIFA
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
    • Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Dwingelo, Drenthe, Netherlands
  • 2000
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1997
    • Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
      Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 1978-1984
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1982
    • Cornell University
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 1980
    • NASA
      • Goddard Space Flight Centre
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
  • 1975-1976
    • University of Texas at Austin
      Austin, Texas, United States