[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For prosthetic treatment of strongly atrophic alveolar wall, some biometric methods have been developed. The measurements taken from plaster cast models of 230 edentulous, average 29.9 years, and 125 dentulous post-menopausal women were correlated. In the edentulous maxilla the sagittal position of canine teeth can be determined by the oral edge of incisive papilla. The transverse position of canine teeth was on the outer edge of the alveolar wall because of the extensive loss of buccal alveolar bone. On the incisor area the facial surfaces of the central incisors were determined by the oral edge of incisive papilla and the distance was about twice the length of the papilla. The sagittal position of the first premolars was one-third and the first molars two-thirds the length of the palate from the plane of the labial edge of incisive papilla. The transverse position of the premolars and molars was determined by the scar-line, which is a cord-like elevation or track on the alveolar mucosa after extractions of the teeth. According to the comparative method, the position of the scar-line differed from the lingual gingival margin line and was situated about half breadth of the tooth in a buccal direction from it. The transverse position of premolar and molar in the edentulous maxilla is about the middle of the scar-line in a facio-buccal direction. In the setting of the artificial teeth, the facial surfaces of these teeth should be on average 5.0-6.0 mm sideways from the scar-line, whilst the total bilateral breadth of the alveolar wall in the sulcus area was on average 1.0-2.0 mm larger.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of various groups of patients towards the appearance of their teeth.
A questionnaire was used which consisted of six background variables and 13 attitudinal statements concerning the appearance of the teeth. The number of responses obtained was 254. Multiple regression analysis was undertaken to reveal any statistical associations between the answers to the statements and the background variables.
According to the results, the appearance of the teeth was found to be more important to women than to men. For older patients, the appearance of teeth was not as important as for younger patients (r = -0.144, P = 0.012). Patients with limited education had a greater preference for white teeth than patients with a high level of education (r = 0.115, P = 0.037). The perception that very white teeth are beautiful decreased with increasing age (r = 0.112, P = 0.049), and younger patients expressed a greater preference for white teeth than older patients (r = 0.11, P = 0.50).
This study suggests that various groups of patients have different attitudes towards the appearance of their teeth.
No preview · Article · Oct 1996 · Journal of Dentistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether the location of the incisive papilla, the extent of the alveolar bone remaining on the facial side of the palatal-gingival margin in the canine region, and the height of the palatal vault in the molar region are associated with factors that may affect the volume of the residual ridges in an edentulous maxillae. Results suggest that duration of the edentulousness and skeletal mineral status are important factors in the resorption of the residual ridges in the maxillae. The location of the incisive papilla and the thickness of the ridge on the facial side of the palatal-gingival margin are associated with these two factors.
No preview · Article · Apr 1996 · Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compares four different notch shapes made on the anterior margin of the palatal plates of heat-cured acrylic resin test specimens as well as the effect of self-cured acrylic resin repair on the fatigue resistance of dentures. The test specimens had the shape of an upper partial denture (n = 25). The fatigue test applied was a constant-force fatigue test at a force of 150 N. The stress concentrations during loading the replicas of the test specimens were determined in the field of a circular polarized light. The results showed that the fatigue resistance of the test specimens decreased dramatically (P = 0.002) when there was a notch at the anterior margin of the palatal plate in the test specimen. A 90 degree notch decreased the fatigue resistance most effectively. The test specimens repaired with self-cured acrylic resin were also weaker than the original unnotched test specimens. Examination of the replicas in the field of polarized light showed that stresses occurred only very close to the notch. The highest stress concentrations were detected in the test specimen with a 90 degree notch, i.e. the test specimens with the lowest fatigue resistance. The results of this study suggest that the shape of the anterior margin of the palatal plate in the acrylic resin-based partial denture plays an important role in the fatigue resistance of the dentures.
No preview · Article · Mar 1996 · Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact strength of heat-cured acrylic resin test specimens that had been reinforced in various ways was compared in this study. Ten rectangular test specimens were fabricated for each test group. The strengtheners included 1.0-mm-diameter steel wire and continuous E-glass fibers. Both notched and unnotched test specimens were tested in a Charpy-type impact test. In a further analysis the concentration of glass fibers in the test specimens was determined and plotted against the impact strength of the test specimens. The results showed that, compared with the unreinforced specimens, both types of reinforcement increased the impact strength of the test specimens considerably (p < 0.001). There was no clear difference between the mean impact strength value of the test specimens reinforced with metal wire and that of the specimens reinforced with glass fiber. The correlation coefficient between the fiber concentration of the test specimens and their impact strength was 0.818 (p < 0.005). Specimens with fiber concentrations greater than 25 wt% yielded to the higher impact strength more readily than those with metal wire reinforcement did.
No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the transverse strength of repaired test specimens of heat-cured acrylic resin. The repair surfaces of the specimens were wetted with methyl methacrylate for various amounts of time before the autopolymerizing acrylic resin was applied to the joint space. A three-point loading test was used to determine the transverse strength of the test specimens, and the morphologic changes in the methyl methacrylate-wetted repair surface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Visual inspection was used to determine whether the failures were adhesive or cohesive. The results revealed that repaired test specimens were weaker than those unrepaired (p < 0.001). The strength of the test specimens increased as the duration of methyl methacrylate wetting of the repair surfaces increased (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the number of adhesive failures was small if the repair surfaces were adequately wetted with methyl methacrylate. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that after 60- and 180-second wetting periods, the poly(methyl methacrylate) was noted to be dissolved with a smooth surface texture. This study suggests that proper wetting of the repair surface makes an important contribution to the strength of repaired acrylic resin.
No preview · Article · Jan 1995 · Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study the fatigue life of heat-cured acrylic resin test specimens shaped as maxillary partial dentures was examined. Ten test specimens were prepared from polymethyl methacrylate and were tested by a constant force fatigue test at 150 N immersed in +37 degrees C water. The fatigue-fracture surfaces of the test specimens were compared with a one-bend fracture surface of the control specimen by scanning electron microscopy. The correlation coefficient between the number of loading cycles required to cause fatigue failure in the midline section was calculated as was the concentration of residual methyl methacrylate. Results revealed that the fatigue life of the test specimens varied greatly (483 x 10(3) +/- 371 x 10(3) cycles) and that the correlation between the number of loading cycles and the midline section was poor (r -0.455). The correlation coefficient between the number of loading cycles and the concentration of residual methyl methacrylate was r 0.476 and p > 0.5. The fatigue-fracture surface of the test specimens was smoother in texture on the tension side than on the one-bend fracture surface.
No preview · Article · Sep 1994 · Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study tested the effect on the fracture resistance of acrylic resin test specimens when different amounts of fibers were incorporated in the resin matrix. The fibers used included glass, carbon, and aramid fibers, with 30 test specimens of each concentration of fibers. Transverse sections of the specimens were studied by scanning electron microscope to establish how the fibers behave in the polymerization process. The results indicated that an increase in the amount of fibers enhanced the fracture resistance of the test specimens (p < 0.001). The SEM micrographs of transverse sections of test polymerized specimens revealed void spaces of different sizes inside the fiber roving.
No preview · Article · Jun 1994 · Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this experiment were: 1) to test the effect of a high concentration of continuous glass fibers on the transverse strength of test specimens made of heat-cured acrylic resin; and 2) to determine the fatigue weakening of both unreinforced and continuous glass fiber-reinforced specimens of heat-cured acrylic resin shaped into upper complete dentures.
A three-point loading test was used to determine the transverse strength of test specimens (n = 30 per group). The fatigue test was the constant deflection test (n = 10 per group).
The results revealed that, compared to unreinforced specimens, continuous glass fibers at a concentration of 58 wt% enhanced the transverse strength of the test specimens up to 146% (p < 0.001) and increased the fatigue resistance (p < 0.001) during 5 x 10(5) loading cycles.
This study suggests that by incorporating glass fibers into PMMA denture bases, the strength of the denture can be increased.
No preview · Article · Mar 1994 · Dental Materials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mineral density of the cortical bone in four regions and the spongiosa distal from the mental foramen of the mandible was determined by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) for 77 postmenopausal, 48–56-yr-old women. Of these women, 42 were totally edentulous and 35 had teeth in region d35-d45. The bone mineral densities of different regions of these two groups were compared. Mineral density of the cortical bone on lingual and buccal sides, distal from the mental foramen, was significantly higher among those who had been edentate 12–23.yr than among dentate subjects. No differences were found between those who had been edentate less than 12 or over 23 yr and the dentate group. This study indicates that muscular activity during different phases of edentulousness regulates the density of bone in regions where muscles are attached.
No preview · Article · Jan 1994 · European Journal Of Oral Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The number of damaged dentures and type of damage to removable dentures repaired in dental laboratories was investigated using a questionnaire sent to 24 dental laboratories in Finland. Eight variables were examined for each damaged denture. The results showed that the type of dentures most commonly needing repair was the complete upper denture (49%). The most frequent type of damage was breakdown of the acrylic base and loosening of an artificial tooth. The chi-square test established a statistical dependence (p < 0.005) between damaged dentures and their age. Damaged upper partial dentures most frequently had natural teeth or fixed prostheses as antagonist teeth. Damaged lower skeletal dentures and acrylic partial dentures had a complete denture as the antagonist (p < 0.05). Removable dentures made of acrylic resin material seemed to break despite strengtheners, such as clasp wire.
No preview · Article · Dec 1993 · Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mineral density of the cortical bone of the mandible was determined by single-energy QCT (quantitative computed tomography) for 77 menopausal women. Bone mineral densities (BMD) were measured in the buccal and lingual layers of the cortex, distally from the foramen mentale, on both sides of the mandible. All the women were edentulous in that region, and the alveolar processes were far resorbed. These results were compared with the BMD values of the femoral neck, lumbar spine, and trabecular portion of the mandible between the detected layers of cortex. The BMD of the buccal cortex correlated remarkably well with all values, except those of the trabecular portion. Of the women tested, the correlations were lowest in the least osteoporotic group. The values for the lingual cortex did not correlate with other variables as well as did those for the buccal cortex, but in the most osteoporotic part of the sample the lingual cortex values correlated significantly with the BMD of the trabecular portion. The BMD values for the buccal cortex were significantly higher than those for the lingual cortex.
Full-text · Article · Sep 1993 · Scandinavian journal of dental research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mineral density of the trabecular bone of the mandible was determined by single-energy QCT (quantitative computed tomography) for 74 totally or nearly edentulous menopausal women. These results were compared with the bone mineral densities (BMD) of their lumbar area (L2-L4) and femoral collum, measured by dual-energy x-ray transmission, Lunar DPX. The remaining height of the residual ridge at the symphysis of the mandible was measured on computed tomography (CT) lateral projection view, and an index of the residual ridge status was introduced. To determine whether general osteoporosis status affects the remaining height of the residual ridges, we compared these values with all results for bone mineral density. The BMD of the lumbar area and that of the femoral collum correlated well with each other, but the BMD of the trabecular bone of the mandible did not correlate with either of the other two BMD measurements. Measurements of residual ridge height did not correlate with any BMD values. The effect of possible bone loss earlier in life is no longer apparent in mandibular height or trabecular BMD over 20 yr after tooth extractions.
Full-text · Article · Jul 1993 · Scandinavian journal of dental research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The panoramic mandibular index was used in a group of postmenopausal women to determine whether it correlates with bone mineral densities of the femoral neck, lumbar area, and the trabecular and cortical parts of the mandible. The bone mineral density values were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the femoral neck and lumbar area and by quantitative computed tomography of the mandible. Linear correlation of the panoramic mandibular index with all bone mineral density values was weak. However, the low and high index subgroup means were clearly dependent on the bone mineral density variables.
Full-text · Article · Jul 1993 · Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the surface roughness of various metal wires on the fracture resistance of the acrylic test specimens. The number of test groups compared were 16, and there were 30 test specimens in each group. The investigation showed that the surface roughening of the metal wires used to reinforce acrylic resin denture base material increased the fracture resistance of the test specimens. The best results were achieved by sandblasting. The differences in resistance were also statistically significant.
No preview · Article · Aug 1992 · Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of different metal and fibre strengtheners on the fracture resistance of polymethylmethacrylate was tested. Different types of commonly used metal wire and glass fibre, as well as carbon and aramid fibres, were used as strengtheners in test specimens. There were 21 groups, and each group contained 12 test specimens. Each metal strengthener had a beneficial effect on the fracture resistance of the polymethylmethacrylate (P less than 0.001-0.01). Some fibres, which were silanized for better adhesion, also had strengthening properties.
No preview · Article · Jun 1992 · Journal of Oral Rehabilitation