[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter that confers resistance to a wide range of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells by active efflux of the drugs from cells. P-gp also plays a key role in limiting oral absorption and brain penetration and in facilitating biliary and renal elimination of structurally diverse drugs. Thus, identification of drugs or new molecular entities to be P-gp substrates is of vital importance for predicting the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, or tissue levels of drugs or drug candidates. At present, publicly available, reliable in silico models predicting P-gp substrates are scarce. In this study, a support vector machine (SVM) method was developed to predict P-gp substrates and P-gp-substrate interactions, based on a training data set of 197 known P-gp substrates and non-substrates collected from the literature. We showed that the SVM method had a prediction accuracy of approximately 80% on an independent external validation data set of 32 compounds. A homology model of human P-gp based on the X-ray structure of mouse P-gp as a template has been constructed. We showed that molecular docking to the P-gp structures successfully predicted the geometry of P-gp-ligand complexes. Our SVM prediction and the molecular docking methods have been integrated into a free web server (http://pgp.althotas.com), which allows the users to predict whether a given compound is a P-gp substrate and how it binds to and interacts with P-gp. Utilization of such a web server may prove valuable for both rational drug design and screening.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) confers multidrug resistance and mediates the active efflux of drugs and xenobiotics. BCRP contains one nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) followed by one membrane-spanning domain (MSD). We investigated whether prolines in or near the transmembrane helices are essential for BCRP function. Six proline residues were substituted with alanine individually, and the mutants were stably expressed in Flp-In(TM)-293 cells at levels comparable to that of wild-type BCRP and predominantly localized on the plasma membrane of the cells. While P392A showed a significant reduction (35-50%) in the efflux activity of mitoxantrone, BODIPY-prazosin, and Hoechst 33342, P485A exhibited a significant decrease of approximately 70% in the efflux activity of only BODIPY-prazosin. Other mutants had no significant changes in the efflux activities of these substrates. Drug resistance profiles of the cells expressing the mutants correlated well with the efflux data. ATPase activity was not substantially affected for P392A or P485A compared to that of wild-type BCRP. These results strongly suggest Pro(392) and Pro(485) are important in determining the overall transport activity and substrate selectivity of BCRP, respectively. Prazosin differentially affected the binding of 5D3, a conformation-sensitive antibody, to wild-type BCRP, P392A, or P485A in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, mitoxantrone had no significant effect on 5D3 binding. Homology modeling indicates that Pro(392) may play an important role in the communication between the MSD and NBD as it is predicted to be located at the interface between the two functional domains, and Pro(485) induces flexible hinges that may be essential for the broad substrate specificity of BCRP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) mediates efflux of drugs and xenobiotics. In this study, we investigated the role of polar residues within or near the predicted transmembrane α-helices 1 and 6 of BCRP in drug transport. We substituted Asn(387), Gln(398), Asn(629), and Thr(642) with Ala, Thr(402) with Ala and Arg, and Tyr(645) with Phe, and the mutants were stably expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 or Flp-In-293 cells. Immunoblotting and confocal microscopy analysis revealed that all of the mutants were well expressed and predominantly targeted to the plasma membrane. While T402A and T402R showed a significant global reduction in the efflux of mitoxantrone, Hoechst 33342, and BODIPY-prazosin, N629A exhibited significantly increased efflux activities for all of the substrates. N387A and Q398A displayed significantly impaired efflux for mitoxantrone and Hoechst 33342, but not for BODIPY-prazosin. In contrast, T642A and Y645F showed a moderate reduction in Hoechst 33342 efflux only. Drug resistance profiles of human embryonic kidney-293 cells expressing the mutants generally correlated with the efflux data. Furthermore, N629A was associated with a marked increase, and N387A and T402A with a significant reduction, in BCRP ATPase activity. Mutations of some of the polar residues may cause conformational changes, as manifested by the altered binding of the 5D3 antibody to BCRP in the presence of prazosin. The inward-facing homology model of BCRP indicated that Thr(402) within transmembrane 1 may be important for helical interactions, and Asn(629) may be involved in BCRP-substrate interaction. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the functional importance of some of these polar residues in BCRP activity.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · AJP Cell Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregnant women are often complicated with diseases including viral or bacterial infections, epilepsy, hypertension, or pregnancy-induced conditions such as depression and gestational diabetes that require treatment with medication. In addition, substance abuse during pregnancy remains a major public health problem. Many drugs used by pregnant women are off label without the necessary dose, efficacy, and safety data required for rational dosing regimens of these drugs. Thus, a major concern arising from the widespread use of drugs by pregnant women is the transfer of drugs across the placental barrier, leading to potential toxicity to the developing fetus. Knowledge regarding the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters, which play an important role in drug transfer across the placental barrier, is absolutely critical for optimizing the therapeutic strategy to treat the mother while protecting the fetus during pregnancy. Such transporters include P-glycoprotein (P-gp, gene symbol ABCB1), the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, gene symbol ABCG2), and the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs, gene symbol ABCCs). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge with respect to developmental expression and regulation, membrane localization, functional significance, and genetic polymorphisms of these ABC transporters in the placenta and their relevance to fetal drug exposure and toxicity.
Preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Current pharmaceutical biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is the second member of the G subfamily of the large ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. BCRP was initially discovered in multidrug resistant breast cancer cell lines where it confers resistance to chemotherapeutic agents such as mitoxantrone, topotecan and methotrexate by extruding these compounds out of the cell. BCRP is capable of transporting non-chemotherapy drugs and xenobiotiocs as well, including nitrofurantoin, prazosin, glyburide, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. BCRP is frequently detected at high levels in stem cells, likely providing xenobiotic protection. BCRP is also highly expressed in normal human tissues including the small intestine, liver, brain endothelium, and placenta. Therefore, BCRP has been increasingly recognized for its important role in the absorption, elimination, and tissue distribution of drugs and xenobiotics. At present, little is known about the transport mechanism of BCRP, particularly how it recognizes and transports a large number of structurally and chemically unrelated drugs and xenobiotics. Here, we review current knowledge of structure and function of this medically important ABC efflux drug transporter.
Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Current Drug Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BCRP/ABCG2 mediates efflux of drugs and xenobiotics. BCRP was expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified to > 90% homogeneity, and subjected to two-dimensional (2D) crystallization. The 2D crystals showed a p12(1) symmetry and projection maps were determined at 5 A resolution by cryo-electron microscopy. Two crystal forms with and without mitoxantrone were observed with unit cell dimensions of a = 55.4 A, b = 81.4 A, gamma = 89.8 degrees , and a = 57.3 A, b = 88.0 A, gamma = 89.7 degrees , respectively. The projection map without mitoxantrone revealed an asymmetric structure with ring-shaped density features probably corresponding to a bundle of transmembrane alpha helices, and appeared more open and less symmetric than the map with mitroxantrone. The open and closed inward-facing forms of BCRP were generated by homology modeling, representing the substrate-free and substrate-bound conformations in the absence of nucleotide, respectively. These models are consistent with the experimentally observed conformational change upon substrate binding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) mediates efflux of drugs and xenobiotics out of cells. In this study, we investigated the role of five basic residues within or near transmembrane (TM) 2 of BCRP in transport activity. Lys(452), Lys(453), His(457), Arg(465), and Lys(473) were replaced with Ala or Asp. K452A, K453D, H457A, R465A, and K473A were stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, and their plasma membrane expression and transport activities were examined. All of the mutants were expressed predominantly on the plasma membrane of HEK cells. After normalization to BCRP levels, the activities of K452A and H457A in effluxing mitoxantrone, boron-dipyrromethene-prazosin, and Hoechst33342 were increased approximately 2- to 6-fold compared with those of wild-type BCRP, whereas the activities of K453D and R465A were decreased by 40 to 60%. Likewise, K452A and H457A conferred increased resistance to mitoxantrone and 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38), and K453D and R465A exhibited lower resistance. The transport activities and drug-resistance profiles of K473A were not changed. These mutations also differentially affected BCRP ATPase activities with a 2- to 4-fold increase in V(max)/K(m) for K452A and H457A and a 40 to 70% decrease for K453D and R465A. These mutations may induce conformational changes as manifested by the altered binding of the 5D3 antibody to BCRP in the presence of prazosin and altered trypsin digestion. Molecular modeling and docking calculations indicated that His(457) and Arg(465) might be directly involved in substrate binding. In conclusion, we have identified several basic residues within or near TM2 that may be important for interaction of substrates with BCRP.
Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is a half ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporter that plays an important role in drug resistance and disposition. Although BCRP is believed to function as a homodimer or homooligomer, this has not been demonstrated in vivo in intact cells. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated dimer/oligmer formation of BCRP in intact cells. Wild-type BCRP and the mutant C603A were attached to cyan or yellow fluorescence protein and expressed in HEK293 cells by transient transfection. Protein levels, cell surface expression, and efflux activities of wild-type and mutant BCRP were determined by immunoblotting, 5D3 antibody binding, and flow cytometric efflux assay, respectively. Dimer/oligomer formation of BCRP in intact cells was analyzed using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. Wild-type BCRP and C603A were expressed in HEK293 cells at comparable levels. C603A was predominantly expressed in the plasma membrane as was wild-type protein. Furthermore, C603A retained the same mitoxantrone efflux activity and the ability of dimer/oligmer formation as wild-type BCRP. Finally, cross-linking experiments yielded data consistent with the FRET analysis. In conclusion, we have, for the first time, demonstrated that BCRP can form a dimer/oligomer in vivo in intact cells using the FRET technique. We have also shown that Cys(603) alone does not seem to be essential for dimer/oligomer formation of BCRP.
Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) mediates efflux of drugs and organic anions across the plasma membrane. Hydropathy analysis suggests that BCRP consists of a nucleotide-binding domain (residues approximately 1-395) and a membrane-spanning domain (MSD) (residues approximately 396-655); however, its exact topology structure remains unknown. In this study, we determined the topology structure of BCRP by inserting hemagglutinin (HA) tags in its predicted hydrophilic regions of the MSD. HA-tagged BCRP mutants were expressed in HEK cells and tested for their ability to efflux mitoxantrone and BODIPY-prazosin. Polarity of the inserted tags with respect to the plasma membrane was determined by immunofluorescence. All of the mutants were expressed at levels comparable to wild-type BCRP as revealed by immunoblotting with specific antibodies against BCRP and the HA tag. Insertions at residues 423, 454, 462, 499, 529, 532, and 651 produced functional mutants, whereas insertions at residues 560, 594, and 623 resulted in mutants with significantly reduced activity and insertions at residues 387, 420, 474, and 502 completely abrogated the activity. HA tags inserted at residues 387, 474, 529, 532, 560, and 651 were localized intracellularly, whereas those inserted at residues 420, 423, 454, 499, 502, 594, and 623 revealed an extracellular location. Residue 462 was localized in a transmembrane (TM) segment. These results provide the first direct experimental evidence in support of a 6-TM model for BCRP with the amino and carboxyl termini of the MSD located intracellularly. These data may have important implications for understanding the transport mechanism of BCRP.