[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To find an effective way for quantitative evaluation on wall thickness (BWT) variation of human bladder with/without bladder tumor, a novel pipeline of thickness measurement and analysis for magnetic resonance (MR) cystography is proposed.
After the acquisition of volumetric bladder images with a high-resolution T2-weighted 3D sequence, the inner and outer borders of the bladder wall were segmented simultaneously by a coupled directional level-set method. Then the BWT was estimated using the Laplacian method. To reducing the influence of individual variation and urine filling on wall thickness, a thickness normalization using Z-score is performed. Finally a parametric surface mapping strategy was applied to map thickness distribution onto a unified sphere surface, for quantitative intra- and inter-subject comparison between bladders of different shapes.
The proposed pipeline was tested with a database composed of MR bladder images acquired from 20 volunteers and 20 patients with bladder cancer. The results indicate that the thickness normalization step using Z-score makes the quantitative comparison of wall thickness quite possible and there is a significant difference on BWT between patients and volunteers. Using the proposed pipeline, we established a thickness template for a normal bladder wall based on dataset of all volunteers.
As a first attempt to establish a general pipeline for bladder wall analysis, the presented work provides an effective way to achieve the goal of evaluating the entire bladder wall for detection and diagnosis of abnormality. In addition, it can be easily extended to quantitative analyses of other bladder features, such as intensity-based or texture features.
Full-text available · Article · May 2015 · IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine textural features that show a significant difference between carcinomatous tissue and the bladder wall on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and explore the feasibility of using them to differentiate malignancy from the normal bladder wall as an initial step for establishing MRI as a screening modality for the noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer.
Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually placed on foci of bladder cancer and uninvolved bladder wall in 22 patients and on the normal bladder wall of 23 volunteers to calculate 40 known textural features. Statistical analysis was applied to determine the difference in these features in bladder cancer versus uninvolved bladder wall versus normal bladder wall of volunteers. The significantly different features were then analyzed using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to determine their accuracy in differentiating malignancy from the bladder wall.
Thirty-three of 40 features show significant differences between bladder cancer and the bladder wall. Nine of 40 features were significantly different in uninvolved bladder wall of patients versus normal bladder wall of volunteers. Further study indicates that seven of these 33 features were significantly different between uninvolved bladder wall of patients with early cancer and that of volunteers, whereas 15 of 33 features were different between that of patients with advanced cancer and normal wall. With the testing dataset consisting of ROIs acquired from patients, the classification accuracy using 33 textural features fed into the SVM classifier was 86.97%.
The initial experience demonstrates that texture features are sensitive to reveal the differences between bladder cancer and the bladder wall on MRI. The different features can be used to develop a computer-aided system for the evaluation of the entire bladder wall.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: One water-soluble polysaccharide (PEPw), with an average molecular weight of 2.5×10(4)Da, was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eryngii and subjected to composition analysis and evaluated for the antitumor and immunomodulatory activity. PEPw was composed of arabinose, mannose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.2:2.3:6.2 and had a backbone mainly consisting of 1,6-linked-Galp, 1,2,6-linked-Galp and 1,4-linked-Manp residues, which was occasionally terminated with terminal-Araf attached to O-2 of 1,2,6-linked-Galp residue. The animal experiment results showed that PEPw significantly increased relative thymus and spleen indices, promoted the spleen lymphocytes proliferation induced by ConA or LPS, elevated the activities of NK cell and CTL in spleen, and increased the serum concentration of TNF-α and IL-2 in Renca tumor-bearing mice. As a result, the tumor growth was significantly inhibited by PEPw treatment at the doses of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicated that the anti-tumor activity of PEPw may be related to the activation of the immune response in tumor-bearing mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: There is no consensus on the association between the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene promoter -308 A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. To obtain a more precise estimation of this correlation, we conducted a meta-analysis. The PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched for relevant published studies. Seven case-control studies with a total of 1,311 cases and 1,436 controls were identified and analyzed. A notable correlation was observed between the TNF-α genotype and bladder cancer grade (AA+GA vs. GG; odds ratio 1.96, 95% confidence interval 1.37-2.80, p = 0.0002). In summary, this meta-analysis demonstrates that the TNF-α -308 AA+GA genotype may be a marker to the tumor-invasive stage of bladder cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, as a common and clinically important problem, starts with direct damage caused by chemokines and inflammatory cytokines, which is aggravated by specific and nonspecific immune reactions. Recently, IL-17A has been considered to be in a uniquely powerful position between adaptive and innate immunity. The present study investigated the role of IL-17A in renal I/R injury in mice.
We measured the time-course of changes in plasma and renal IL-17A levels using a murine model of renal I/R injury. Then, the protective effect of monoclonal anti-IL-17A antibody, given intravenously at 30 min before or after renal I/R operation, on renal I/R injury was investigated. In addition, the levels of plasma and renal pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were assessed.
IL-17A was significantly increased in plasma and kidneys after renal I/R injury in mice. Furthermore, intravenous administration of neutralizing monoclonal anti-IL-17A antibody attenuated renal I/R injury by evaluating renal function and histopathology. In addition, administration of anti-IL-17A antibody substantially reduced the plasma and renal levels of many pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), IL-1β, IL-17A, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), as well as increased the plasma and renal levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β).
The above data suggest that IL-17A has a detrimental effect on renal I/R injury via facilitating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as hampering the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is demonstrated to be involved in the pathophysiological mechanism of erectile dysfunction (ED). Quercetin, a potent bioflavonoid, has been reported to have the antioxidant role. In the present study, we examined the effect of quercetin on ED and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with a single intravenous injection of STZ. The diabetic rats were then randomized to diabetic group and quercetin therapy groups which were treated with quercetin at different doses of 5, 20 and 50mg/kg per day respectively. At the end of the 8th week, erectile function was assessed by measuring the rise in intracavernous pressure (ICP) following cavernous nerve electrostimulation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance (TBARS) and nitrite and nitrate (NOx) levels were measured in cavernosum tissue. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression was determined using Western blot method. ICP in diabetic rats was significantly decreased than that in controls. After treatment with quercetin at the doses of 20 and 50mg/kg, ICP was significantly increased compared to that in untreated diabetic rats. Decreased levels of SOD activity, NOx and eNOS expression, as well as elevated levels of TBARS were found in diabetic group compared with control group. Treatment with 20 and 50mg/kg quercetin improved SOD activity, NOx and TBARS levels in corpus cavernosum of diabetic rats. Decreased expression of eNOS in diabetic rats was only ameliorated by 50mg/kg quercetin treatment. Quercetin could ameliorate ED in diabetic rats by inhibiting oxidative stress.
Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cardiac surgery with cardioplegic cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with severe stress response, systemic inflammatory response, and injury. This study was designed to investigate the effects of intensive insulin therapy on patients undergoing valve replacement with CPB.
One hundred nondiabetic inpatients undergoing valve replacement were randomly assigned to a control group or an intensive insulin therapy (IT) group. Plasma cytokine and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels were monitored perioperatively.
Compared with the control group, the IT group had smaller increases in plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and cTnI, and had a more pronounced increase in IL-10 levels after the initiation of CPB. After surgery, the required inotropes were reduced in the IT group. In the IT group, the time of artificial ventilation and the postoperative length of stay in the hospital were markedly shortened; however, there were no significant differences between the IT and control groups in mortality and the rate of nosocomial infections of deep sternal wounds.
IT can significantly attenuate the systemic inflammatory response and improve a damaged cardiac function, but it does not reduce the in-hospital mortality rate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A20 is a TNF-inducible primary response gene, which has been found to have antiapoptotic function in several cancer cells. This study investigates A20 expression in human glioma tissues and four glioma cell lines, and its effect on tumorigenesis of glioma cells and a mouse tumor model.
Human glioma tissue samples and cells were subject to reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Glioma cells was tested by flow cytometry. A xenograft tumor model in mice was utilized to examine the knock-down effect of specific A20 siRNAs on tumorigenesis.
A20 was overexpressed in clinical glioma tissue samples (63.9%) and correlated with clinical staging. All four human glioma cell lines expressed A20, among which U87 displayed the strongest expression signals. Inhibiting A20 expression by siRNAs in vitro reduced the growth rates of glioma cells and resulted in G1/S arrest and increased apoptosis. In a mouse tumor model, local administration of siRNA significantly suppressed solid tumor growth.
A20 was overexpressed both in human glioma tissues and cell lines, and inhibiting A20 expression greatly slowed tumor cell growth in culture and in mice. These findings indicated that A20 is involved in tumorigenesis of human glioma, and may serve as a future therapeutic target.
Article · Aug 2009 · Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Using wet digested method and ICP mass spectrometer, we analyzed the concentration of five trace elements (Cd, Mn, P, Zn and
Pb) for the tree rings from both urban and suburbs of Xi’an. At the urban sampling site, one Chinese mahogany (Toona sinensis) disc and one phoenix tree (Firmiana simplex) disc were sampled from a steelworks in Xi’an City. At the suburb site, a Chinese mahogany disc was collected from a village
in the south of the City. In addition, some soils near the roots of the sampled trees were collected. The analysis results
indicate that the concentration of each of the five elements in annual rings has a positive correlation with the production
of the steelworks. Statistical calculations show that Pb and Mn elements were stable without lag effects. That means these
two elements do not move between rings. Cd displayed one year moving, P two years and Zn three years. These results are quite
similar to those found by other methods.
Article · Apr 2009 · Science in China Series D Earth Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective: To distinguish bladder wall tissue from bladder cancer tissue using the texture analysis in MR images. Method: with collected MRI scans for bladder imaging, the ROI (region of interest) area was first selected manually. Second, the texture features of bladder cancer and bladder wall tissue, such as entropy, uniformity et al, were calculated within the ROI. Third, statistical analysis was applied to these features to reflect their significance. Results: All the texture features were analyzed by t-test. Entropy, uniformity, smoothness, relation and contrast show significant differences between the two groups, while the differences for others are not significant. Conclusion: The preliminary results demonstrate significant differences in some texture features of bladder cancer compared to normal wall tissue. Additionally, more properties of bladder cancer might be obtained directly from patient's MRI scanning.