- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microorganisms are able to survive and induce persistent infection in extraradicular areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between extraradicular biofilm and persistent periapical periodontitis. Thirty-five apical samples with different stages of pulp and periapical pathology (vital pulp, pulp necrosis without radiographically visible periapical lesions, chronic periapical periodontitis that had not received root canal therapy and persistent periapical periodontitis) were initially evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The same samples were then processed using Brown and Brenn-modified Gram staining. We detected extraradicular biofilm in all samples with persistent periapical periodontitis and in three samples with chronic periapical periodontitis. The extraradicular bacteria predominantly had rod and filament morphology and were surrounded by varying amounts of amorphous extracellular material. The surfaces outside the root of the apical samples with vital pulp and pulp necrosis were covered by fibers, and no extraradicular microorganisms were present, which suggests that extraradicular biofilm is closely associated with failed endodontic treatments, thus resulting in persistent infection. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AI-2-mediated quorum sensing has been identified in various bacteria, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species, and numerous phenotypes have been reported to be regulated by this mechanism, using the luxS-mutant strain. But the AI-2 production process confused this regulatory function; some considered this regulation as the result of a metabolic change, which refers to an important metabolic cycle named activated methyl cycle (AMC), caused by luxS-mutant simultaneously with the defect of AI-2. Herein we hypothesized that the quorum sensing system--not the metabolic aspect--is responsible for such a regulatory function. In this study, we constructed plasmids infused with sahH and induced protein expression in the luxS-mutant strain to make the quorum-sensing system and metabolic system independent. The biofilm-related genes were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the results demonstrated that the quorum-sensing completed strain restored the gene expression of the defective strain, but the metabolically completed one did not. This evidence supported our hypothesis that the autoinducer-2-mediated, quorum-sensing system, not the AMC, was responsible for luxS mutant regulation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microorganisms are able to survive and cause persistent infection in the extraradicular area. The aims of this study were to investigate the primary bacterial flora and the localization of extraradicular biofilm in persistent apical periodontitis lesions. Apical root samples from root-end surgery were collected from 23 root-filled teeth with apical periodontitis. Five samples were examined for the presence of biofilm by scanning electron microscopy. Another 5 samples were examined for the presence of biofilm by Brown and Brenn-modified Gram staining. The DNA from 13 samples was processed for amplification via polymerase chain reaction and separated with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Selected bands were excised from the gel and sequenced for identification. The extraradicular biofilm present on the external root surface of treated teeth consisted of abundant, amorphous extracellular material and multiple bacterial species. The following species were detected in the microbial community from the apical samples: Actinomyces sp. oral, Propionibacterium, Prevotella sp. oral, Streptococcus, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Burkholderia. The prevalence of Actinomyces sp. oral and Propionibacterium were highest (84.6% and 61.5%, respectively). Extraradicular biofilm was present on the external root surface of treated teeth with persistent periapical lesions. Actinomyces sp. oral and Propionibacterium are likely important contributors to extraradicular biofilm formation and persistent periapical infection.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streptococcus mutans is recognised as a major aetiological agent of dental caries. One of its important virulence factors is its ability to form biofilms on tooth surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the quorum sensing inhibitor furanone C-30 on biofilm formation by S. mutans and its luxS mutant strain. The effects of furanone C-30 on biofilms of both strains formed on 96-well microtitre plates at 37 °C were determined by a colorimetric technique (MTT assay). Different concentrations of furanone C-30 (0.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μg/mL) and different time points of biofilm formation (4, 14 and 24 h) were investigated. The structures and thickness of the biofilms were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Quorum sensing-related gene expression (ftf, smu630, brpA, gbpB, gtfB, vicR, comDE and relA) was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that synthetic furanone C-30 can inhibit biofilm formation by S. mutans and its luxS mutant strain, although it does not affect the bacterial growth rate itself. The quantities of biofilm formed by both strains significantly decreased (P<0.05) and the biofilms became thinner and looser as revealed by CLSM with increasing concentrations of furanone C-30. Expression of the genes tested was downregulated in the biofilms by the addition of furanone C-30. These results revealed that synthetic furanone C-30 can effectively inhibit biofilm formation by S. mutans and its luxS mutant strain.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DGGE of 16S rDNA is one of the most frequently used methods to study microbial communities. In this study, the DGGE profiles of different 16S rDNA regions of the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Prevotella nigrescens were investigated. The results suggested that V3-V5 and V6-V8 fragments may be suitable for community analysis of subgingival bacteria. Further analysis of subgingival samples with V3-V5 and V6-V8 regions as target fragments suggested that, in chronic periodontitis, re-colonization by periodontal bacteria with a population very similar to the baseline may occur by 6 weeks after mechanical debridement.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pathogen of chronic lung infections in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Traditionally, it has been regarded as living in planktonic form, and as being able to perform only simple physiological activities. Recent studies in biofilm infections in CF patients, however, show that P. aeruginosa can perform many social behaviors, like cooperation and cheating. Based on the theory of "survival of the fittest", it may be presumed that every individual will take advantage of cheating instead of cooperation to increase its fitness, at the cost of group survival. In reality, however, a bacterial society can remain stable, even though cheaters arise frequently in the population. It is therefore possible that there are anti-cheating mechanisms in a bacterial society. The cheaters of P. aeruginosa will cause the loss or the decrease of the pathogenesis of the microorganism in the cystic fibrosis host. These defects in pathogenesis will be disadvantageous to bacterial colonization and compromise the resistance to host immunity. We therefore propose the hypothesis that the pathogenesis in cystic fibrosis lung infections could be one of the anti-cheating mechanisms that contribute to the hidden costs of the cheater strains. To test this hypothesis, we designed an experiment in an animal model of CF. If this hypothesis can be confirmed, it will illustrate that nontrivial analogies exist between microbial social behaviors and the social traits that are observed in the more traditional model systems for sociobiology. This will not only provide a genetic model for sociobiology research, but also cast light on the social control of chronic bacterial infections.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to detect differences in the richness of total supragingival plaque microbiota as well as the species composition of oral streptococci involved in the different stages of dental caries. Forty-five plaque samples were collected from caries-moderate (CM, 4 ≤ dmfs ≤ 6), caries-susceptible (CS, dmfs ≥ 10), and age-matched caries-free children separately. Total DNA was isolated directly from each sample, and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses using universal and primers specific for oral streptococci were carried out. Using 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE, 34 different species of bacteria were identified in a culture-independent manner and classified into 11 genera according to phylogenetic analysis. Among them, Mitis group streptococci and Campylobacter, which were present in health status, no longer appeared in caries-susceptible samples. In addition, Capnocytophaga, Burkholderia, and Prevotella were found significantly less frequently in the CS group samples (P < 0.05), while there were no significant differences among the prevalence of Neisseria, Leptotrichia, Haemophilus, Mutans group streptococci, Corynebacterium, and Actinomyces in the three groups. Further DGGE analysis of rnpB gene amplicons obtained with oral streptococci species-specific primers showed that a total of 23 species of oral streptococci were identified. Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus oralis showed a significantly higher prevalence in healthy children (P < 0.05), while that of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus did not vary among the three groups. Overall, these results suggest that supragingival plaque microbiota as a whole undergoes a more complicated shift in the caries process.