Young Do Jung

Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea

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Publications (31)87.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: To evaluate a new monoclonal antibody for Helicobacter pylori urease in gastric tissue. Methods: A total of 107 volunteers were enrolled. All subjects underwent a 13C-urea breath test and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Gastric aspirates were analyzed for pH and ammonia. Six biopsy specimens in the gastric antrum and body were obtained for a rapid urease test and histology. The new monoclonal antibody-based H. pylori urease test (HPU) was performed to rapidly and qualitatively detect urease in two biopsy specimens. Results: H. pylori infection was diagnosed in 73 subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of the HPU was 89% and 74%, respectively. The subjects were divided into two groups: one with true-positive and true-negative HPU results (n = 90) and the other with false-positive and false-negative HPU results (n = 17). Across all subjects, ammonia levels were 900.5 ± 646.7 and 604.3 ± 594.3 μmol/L (p > 0.05), and pH was 3.37 ± 1.64 and 2.82 ± 1.51 (p > 0.05). Sensitivity was higher in the presence of atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia. Conclusions: HPU detected H. pylori in approximately 10 min. Gastric aspirate ammonia and pH levels did not affect the test results. Sensitivity was good in the presence of atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The role of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in gastric cancer invasion has not yet been determined. In this study, we examined the effects of SB203580, a specific P38 MAPK inhibitor, on the in vitro invasion of gastric cancer and upon the molecules involved in this process. Materials and methods: Human gastric cancer SNU-638 cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FBS. BIOCOAT matrigel invasion chambers were used to examine in vitro invasiveness, zymography for gelatinase activity, CAT assay for uPA promoter activity and Western and Northern blotting to determine protein and mRNA levels, respectively. Results: Treatment of SNU-638 cells with SB203580, a specific P38 MAPK inhibitor, reduced in vitro invasiveness, dose-dependently. SB203580 treatment was found to decrease both mRNA expression and uPA promoter activity in gastric SNU-638 cells. In vitro invasion of SNU-638 cells was partially abrogated by uPA-neutralizing antibodies. The activities of MMPs were not significantly altered by SB203580. Conclusion: Our results suggest that P38 MAPK is a potential therapeutic target for inhibiting uPA-dependent gastric tumor invasiveness and metastasis.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cancer Research and Treatment
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: MMP-2, 72 kDa-type IV collagenase, plays a major role in the migration and growth of tumor cells, a process that requires the disintegration of basement membrane. Activation of MMP-2 is correlated with the invasiveness of various tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the sequence-specific phosphorothioated oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) inhibiting the translation of MMP-2 mRNA and the subsequent invasiveness of tumor cells. Materials and methods: Eight types of antisense ODNs were designed and each (8micro gram/ml) were transfected into HT1080 cells. The effects of these antisense ODNs on MMP expression were examined by gelatin zymography, Western blot, Northern blot and matrigel assay. Results: Antisense-5 (+904~923), antisense-6 (+1274~+1293) and antisense-7 (+1646~+1665) reduced the MMP-2 activity of the culture supernatant in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Treatment with antisense-6 showed inhibition of MMP-2 mRNA and protein, and in vitro invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Antisense-6 might be one of the therapeutic candidates for tumor invasion and metastasis.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cancer Research and Treatment
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd), a widespread cumulative pollutant, is a known human carcinogen, associated with inflammation and tumors. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a pivotal role in tumor metastasis; however, the mechanisms underlying the MMP-9 expression induced by Cd remain obscure in human endothelial cells. Here, Cd elevated MMP-9 expression in dose- and time-dependent manners in human endothelial cells. Cd increased ROS production and the ROS-producing NADPH oxidase. Cd translocates p47(phox), a key subunit of NADPH oxidase, to the cell membrane. Cd also activated the phosphorylation of EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2, and JNK1/2 in addition to promoting NF-кB and AP-1 binding activities. Specific inhibitor and mutagenesis studies showed that EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2, JNK1/2 and transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 were related to Cd-induced MMP-9 expression in endothelial cells. Akt, Erk1/2, and JNK1/2 functioned as upstream signals in the activation of NF-κB and AP-1, respectively. In addition, N-acetyl-L-cystein (NAC), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) and apocynin (APO) inhibited the Cd-induced activation of EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK, indicating that ROS production by NADPH oxidase is the furthest upstream signal in MMP-9 expression. At present, it states that Cd displayed marked invasiveness in ECV304 cells, which was partially abrogated by MMP-9 neutralizing antibodies. These results demonstrated that Cd induces MMP-9 expression via ROS-dependent EGFR->Erk1/2, JNK1/2->AP-1 and EGFR->Akt->NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human endothelial cells.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Cell invasion is a crucial mechanism of cancer metastasis and malignancy. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an important proteolytic enzyme involved in the cancer cell invasion process. High expression levels of MMP-9 in gastric cancer positively correlate with tumor aggressiveness and have a significant negative correlation with patients' survival times. Recently, mechanisms suppressing MMP-9 by phytochemicals have become increasingly investigated. Chrysin, a naturally occurring chemical in plants, has been reported to suppress tumor metastasis. However, the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression in gastric cancer have not been well studied. In the present study, we tested the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression in gastric cancer cells, and determined its underlying mechanism. We examined the effects of chrysin on MMP-9 expression and activity via RT-PCR, zymography, promoter study, and western blotting in human gastric cancer AGS cells. Chrysin inhibited phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Using AP-1 decoy oligodeoxynucleotides, we confirmed that AP-1 was the crucial transcriptional factor for MMP-9 expression. Chrysin blocked AP-1 via suppression of the phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos through blocking the JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 pathways. Furthermore, AGS cells pretreated with PMA showed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by chrysin and MMP-9 antibody. Our results suggest that chrysin may exert at least part of its anticancer effect by controlling MMP-9 expression through suppression of AP-1 activity via a block of the JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in gastric cancer AGS cells.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Cell invasion is one of crucial reasons for cancer metastasis and malignancy. Recepteur d'origine Nantais (RON) has been reported to play an important role in the cancer cell invasion process. High accumulation and activation of RON has been implicated in gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells. Chrysin is a naturally occurring phytochemical, a type of flavonoid, which has been reported to suppress tumor metastasis. However, the effects of chrysin on RON expression in gastric cancer are not well studied. In the present study, we examined whether chrysin affects RON expression in gastric cancer, and if so, its underlying mechanism. We examined the effect of chrysin on RON expression and activity, via RT-PCR, promoter study, and western blotting in human gastric cancer AGS cells. Chrysin significantly inhibited endogenous and inducible RON expression in a dose-dependent manner. After demonstrating that Egr-1 and NF-κB are the critically required transcription factors for RON expression, we discovered that chrysin suppressed Egr-1 and NF-κB transcription factor activities. Additionally, the phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate- (PMA) induced cell invasion was partially abrogated by chrysin and an RON antibody. Our results suggest that chrysin has anticancer effects at least by suppressing RON expression through blocking Egr-1 and NF-κB in gastric cancer AGS cells.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Piperine, a kind of natural alkaloid found in peppers, has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-tumor activities, both in vitro and in vivo. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important cytokine that activates the signal transduction, promotes tumor cell metastasis, and induces malignancy, including in gastric cancer. However, the effects of piperine on IL-6 expression in gastric cancer cells have not yet been well defined. In this study, we investigated the effects of piperine on the IL-6 expression, and examined the underlying signaling pathways via RT-PCR, promoter studies and Western blotting in human gastric cancer TMK-1 cells. Our results showed that piperine inhibited interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced IL-6 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, piperine also inhibited IL-6 promoter activity. Experiments with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors and dominant negative mutant p38 MAPK indicated that p38 MAPK was essential for IL-6 expression in the TMK-1 cells. Additionally, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was also involved in the IL-1β-induced IL-6 expression in gastric cancer cells. Piperine inhibited IL-1β-induced p38 MAPK and STAT3 activation and, in turn, blocked the IL-1β-induced IL-6 expression. Furthermore, gastric cancer cells pretreated with IL-1β showed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by treatment with IL-6 siRNA, piperine, and inhibitors of p38 MAPK and STAT3. These results suggest that piperine may exert at least part of its anti-cancer effect by controlling IL-6 expression through the suppression of p38 MAPK and STAT3.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium exposure has been linked to human cancers, including stomach cancer. In this study, the effects of cadmium on urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression in human gastric cancer cells and the underlying signal transduction pathways were investigated. Cadmium induced uPAR expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cadmium also induced uPAR promoter activity. Additionally, cadmium induced the activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the activation of c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK). A specific inhibitor of MEK-1 (PD98059) inhibited cadmium-induced uPAR expression, while JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant-negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) also prevented cadmium-induced uPAR promoter activity. Site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift studies showed that sites for the transcription factors nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) were involved in cadmium-induced uPAR transcription. Suppression of the cadmium-induced uPAR promoter activity by a mutated-type NF-κB-inducing kinase and I-κB and an AP-1 decoy oligonucleotide confirmed that the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 are essential for cadmium-induced uPAR upregulation. Cells pretreated with cadmium showed markedly enhanced invasiveness and this effect was partially abrogated by uPAR-neutralizing antibodies and by inhibitors of ERK-1/2, NF-κB, and AP-1. These results suggest that cadmium induces uPAR expression via ERK-1/2, NF-κB, and AP-1 signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates cell invasiveness in human gastric cancer AGS cells.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are increasingly implicated in the modulation of the progression of various cancers. We previously observed that KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin) is highly expressed in sporadic human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and that the functional KITENIN complex acts to promote progression of CRC. However, it remains unknown which microRNAs target KITENIN and whether KITENIN-targeting microRNAs modulate CRC cell motility and colorectal tumorigenesis. Here, through bioinformatic analyses and functional studies, we showed that miR-124, miR-27a, and miR-30b negatively regulate KITENIN expression and suppress the migration and invasion of several CRC cell lines via modulation of KITENIN expression. Through in vitro and in vivo induction of mature microRNAs using a tetracycline-inducible system, miR-124 was found to effectively inhibit the invasion of CT-26 colon adenocarcinoma cells and tumor growth in a syngeneic mouse xenograft model. Constitutive overexpression of precursor miR-124 in CT-26 cells suppressed in vivo tumorigenicity and resulted in decreased expression of KITENIN as well as that of MYH9 and SOX9, which are targets of miR-124. Thus, our findings identify that KITENIN-targeting miR-124, miR-27a, and miR-30b function as endogenous inhibitors of CRC cell motility and demonstrate that miR-124 among KITENIN-targeting microRNAs plays a suppressor role in colorectal tumorigenesis.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.105.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Molecular Therapy
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of an orally administered aqueous extract of glutinous rice (GRE) to protect against acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by ethanol, indomethacin, and water immersion restraint stress in rats and to characterize the active substances responsible for the protection. GRE was shown to dose-dependently prevent the gastric lesions induced by the above ulcerogenic treatments at doses of 30 to 300 mg/kg. GRE treatment increased the gastric mucin content and partially blocked the ethanol-induced depletion of the gastric mucus layer. Also, it increased the nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration in the gastric mucosa. The gastroprotective action of GRE was markedly enhanced by co-treatment with 4-8 mg/kg tea extracts. The activity of GRE was completely lost by heat treatment at 80℃ for 3 min or treatment with 0.01% pepsin at 37℃ for 1 h. Protein extraction studies indicated that prolamins are involved in the gastroprotective activity of GRE. Our results suggest that glutinous rice proteins are useful for the prevention and treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Chonnam Medical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major etiological factor in the development of gastric cancer. Large-scale epidemiological studies have confirmed the strong association between H. pylori infection and both cancer development and progression. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is overexpressed in gastric mucosa exposed to H. pylori. The expression of IL-8 directly correlates with a poor prognosis in gastric cancer. IL-8 is multifunctional. In addition to its potent chemotactic activity, it can induce proliferation and migration of cancer cells. In this review, we focus on recent insights into the mechanisms of IL-8 signaling associated with gastric cancer. The relationship between IL-8 and H. pylori is discussed. We also summarize the current therapeutics against IL-8 in gastric cancer.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke, specifically the nicotine contained within, has been shown to correlate closely with cell invasion and strategies to downregulate their expression may ultimately be of clinical utility. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is critically involved in the cell invasion and metastasis processes. Since nicotine plays a crucial role in the regulation of MMP-9 expression, the investigation of plant-derived compounds capable of modulating nicotine-induced signaling is an issue of concern. In this study, the effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major green tea catechin, on nicotine-induced cell invasion and MMP-9 activity in ECV304 human endothelial cells were examined. EGCG treatment was found to reduce the MMP-9 expression and transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG inhibited nicotine-activated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are known as important signaling molecules to activate MMP-9. To further study the mechanisms for the EGCG-mediated regulation of MMP-9, the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 activities were examined. EGCG suppressed the nicotine-induced NF-κB and AP-1 activation. Studies with expression vectors encoding mutated NF-κB signaling molecules and AP-1 decoy confirmed that NF-κB and AP-1 were essential for the nicotine-stimulated MMP-9 expression. EGCG also abrogated the nicotine-induced activation of AP-1 subunits c-fos and c-jun. The above studies demonstrate that EGCG may exert at least part of its anti-invasive effect in ECV304 human endothelial cells by controlling MMP-9 expression through the suppression of ROS, NF-κB and AP-1.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · International Journal of Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) and its receptor, recepteur d'origine nantais (RON), play an important role in cell proliferation and migration. We have investigated the role of MSP in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced renal tubular apoptosis. Human renal proximal tubular (HK-2) cells were incubated with H2O2 for 24h in the presence of different concentrations of MSP, and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The protein expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was determined by semiquantitative immunoblotting. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry analysis after HK-2 cells were stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated annexin V protein and propidium iodide. H2O2 treatment decreased cell viability in HK-2 cells; this was counteracted by MSP pretreatment. H2O2 treatment induced an increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, and the number of condensed nuclei, which was also counteracted by MSP. Flow cytometry analysis showed H2O2-induced apoptosis, and its prevention by MSP treatment. Increased protein expression of phospho-p38 MAPK was attenuated by MSP, while phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase were not affected. H2O2 induced NF-κB activation and IκB-α degradation, but the increased nuclear NF-κB activation was counteracted by MSP or by a p38 MAPK inhibitor. H2O2 treatment decreased expression of phospho-PI3K and phospho-Akt, which was reversed by MSP pretreatment. These findings suggest that MSP attenuates H2O2-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells by modulating the p38 and NF-κB, as well as PI3K/Akt, signaling pathways.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · European journal of pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Many improvements have been made in the understanding of functional and structural characteristics of proteins in a denaturant-based microenvironment. This study reports the chemical denaturation of methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH, EC 3.1.8.1) using 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE). MPH is an important enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of organophosphorus agents. However, the regulation of MPH activity and structural changes during unfolding are not well studied, particularly for TFE unfolding. We investigated MPH unfolding with TFE for the first time. In this study, changes in enzymatic activity and unfolding of MPH at different TFE concentrations were investigated by enzyme activity measurements, intrinsic fluorescence and by 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) fluorescence emission spectral scans. The results showed TFE inactivated MPH in a dose-dependent manner. A Lineweaver–Burk plot analysis revealed that the type of inhibition was reversible noncompetitive inhibition. Intrinsic fluorescence and ANS-binding fluorescence showed that TFE induced obvious tertiary structural changes in MPH by exposing hydrophobic groups. Furthermore, we conducted a docking simulation between MPH and TFE. The computer simulation successfully showed the binding structure and we estimated stability by calculating the binding energy (lowest binding energy: -3.18 kcal/mol). The results demonstrate that MPH can be inactivated by TFE, and provide new insights into the mechanism of TFE-induced unfolding of MPH and inhibition of ligand binding.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY
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    ABSTRACT: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the unintentional byproduct of various industrial processes, is classified as human carcinogen and could disrupt reproductive, developmental and endocrine systems. Induction of cyp1a1 is used as an indicator of TCDD exposure. We sought to determine tissues that are vulnerable to TCDD toxicity using a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. We inserted a nuclear enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (EGFP) into the start codon of a zebrafish cyp1a gene in a fosmid clone using DNA recombineering. The resulting recombineered fosmid was then used to generate cyp1a reporter zebrafish, embryos of which were exposed to TCDD. Expression pattern of EGFP in the reporter zebrafish mirrored that of endogenous cyp1a mRNA. In addition, exposure of the embryos to TCDD at as low as 10pM for 72h, which does not elicit morphological abnormalities of embryos, markedly increased GFP expression. Furthermore, the reporter embryos responded to other AhR ligands as well. Exposure of the embryos to TCDD revealed previously reported (the cardiovascular system, liver, pancreas, kidney, swim bladder and skin) and unreported target tissues (retinal bipolar cells, otic vesicle, lateral line, cloaca and pectoral fin bud) for TCDD. Transgenic cyp1a reporter zebrafish we have developed can further understanding of ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks by TCDD. In addition, they could be used to identify agonists of AhR and antidotes to TCDD toxicity.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal accumulation and activation of the recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) has been implicated in epithelial tumor carcinogenesis. In the present study, we examined the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major green tea catechin, on the induction of RON and tumor growth in human gastric cancer. EGCG inhibited phorbol 12‑myristate 13‑acetate (PMA)‑induced RON expression and reduced RON transcriptional activity. However, (-)‑epigalloca-techin (EGC), (-)‑epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)‑epicatechin (EC) did not affect RON expression. Experiments with deleted and site‑directed mutagenesis of the RON promoter indicated that Egr-1 binding sites in the RON promoter may be the EGCG‑response element acting as a cis‑element in gastric cancer cells. EGCG also inhibited PMA-induced Egr-1 expression and DNA binding in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, gastric cancer cells pretreated with PMA showed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by EGCG and siRNA‑targeted RON and Egr-1. EGCG significantly reduced tumor growth in an in vivo tumor model, whereas RON expression was downregulated. These results suggest that EGCG may exert at least part of its anticancer effect by controlling RON expression through suppression of Egr-1 activation.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · International Journal of Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate a monoclonal antibody-based test to detect Helicobacter pylori-specific antigen in gastric aspirates from humans. Sixty-one volunteers were enrolled in the study. All of the subjects underwent a (13)C-urea breath test (UBT) before esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Gastric aspirates were analyzed for pH and ammonia and used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture, and monoclonal antibody-based detection of H. pylori. Multiple biopsies of the gastric antrum and body were obtained for a rapid urease test (RUT) and histological evaluation. Thirty-six subjects were H. pylori-positive and 25 were H. pylori-negative according to the UBT results. Compared with the H. pylori-negative subjects, H. pylori-positive subjects had a higher pH (4.77±1.77 vs 3.49±1.30, p<0.05) and ammonia level (1,130.9±767.4 vs 184.2±126.3, p<0.0001). The sensitivities and specificities of the PCR test, RUT, culture test, and monoclonal antibody-based test were 100% and 72%, 89% and 100%, 47% and 100%, and 78% and 100%, respectively. The monoclonal antibody-based test for diagnosing H. pylori infection in gastric aspirates has increased sensitivity compared with the culture test and specificity as high as that of the RUT. The test may be useful as an additive test for examining gastric aspirates.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Gut and liver
  • Pham Ngoc Khoi · Jung Sun Park · Nam Ho Kim · Young Do Jung
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    ABSTRACT: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression is elevated during inflammation, tissue remodeling and in many human cancers. This study investigated the effect of nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco, on uPAR expression and cell invasiveness in ECV304 endothelial cells. Nicotine stimulated uPAR expression in a dose-dependent manner and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (Erk-1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Specific inhibitors of MEK-1 (PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited the nicotine-induced uPAR expression, while the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) and JNK (TAM67) also prevented nicotine-induced uPAR promoter activity. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content was increased by nicotine treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented nicotine-activated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uPAR expression. Furthermore, exogenous H(2)O(2) increased uPAR mRNA expression. Deleted and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the involvement of the binding sites of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 in the nicotine-induced uPAR expression. Studies with expression vectors encoding mutated NF-κB signaling molecules and AP-1 decoy confirmed that NF-κB and AP-1 were essential for the nicotine-stimulated uPAR expression. MAPK (Erk-1/2 and JNK) and ROS functioned as upstream signaling molecules in the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, respectively. In addition, ECV304 endothelial cells treated with nicotine displayed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by uPAR neutralizing antibodies. The data indicate that nicotine induces uPAR expression via the MAPK/AP-1 and ROS/NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human ECV304 endothelial cells.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of recepteur d'Origine nantais (RON) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) have been observed in human gastric cancers. However, the interaction between RON and uPAR in gastric cancer is unclear. The present study investigated the effect of macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP, the RON ligand) on uPAR expression and the underlying signal pathways in human gastric cancer AGS cells. uPAR messenger RNA expression was induced by MSP in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. MSP also induced uPAR promoter activity. The introduction of RON-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly affected the MSP-induced uPAR transcription. Deleted and site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated the involvement of the binding sites of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 in the MSP-induced uPAR expression. Studies with expression vectors encoding mutated-type NF-κB signaling molecules and AP-1 decoy confirmed that NF-κB and AP-1 were essential for the MSP-induced uPAR expression. In addition, MSP induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (Erk-1/2), c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Dominant-negative mutants (K97M and TAM67) and specific inhibitors of Erk-1/2 and JNK were able to suppress the MSP-induced uPAR expression. AGS cells pretreated with MSP showed a remarkably enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by siRNA-targeted RON and uPAR-neutralizing antibodies. The above results suggest that MSP induces uPAR expression via MAPK, AP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates cell invasiveness in human gastric cancer AGS cells.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Carcinogenesis
  • Jung Sun Park · Ji Hye Park · Soong Lee · Young Eun Joo · Young Do Jung
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    ABSTRACT: The abnormal accumulation and activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase, Recepteur d'Origine Nantais (RON), has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis in epithelial tumors including gastric cancer. This study examined whether the sequence-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppression of the RON expression could induce apoptotic cell death, and investigated the involved molecular mechanisms. Sequence-specific siRNA effectively suppressed the RON expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Silencing of the RON expression significantly inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by the ladder-patterned DNA fragmentation, the presence of cleaved and condensed nuclear chromatin and the increased number of annexin V-positive cells. RON-targeted siRNA effectively inhibited the constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation as revealed by an altered electrophoretic mobility shift. In agreement with this, silencing of the RON expression resulted in a decrease in the nuclear level of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. The transfection of siRNA, which blocked the RON expression, also caused a change in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in a manner that favored apoptosis. The siRNA silencing of RON induced cytochrome c release and the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9. These results indicate that RON-targeted siRNA could be therapeutically efficacious by inducing cell apoptosis through the modulation of the NF-kappaB and Bcl-2 family in gastric cancer cells.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Oncology Reports