[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
In Japan, the prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with nonviral liver disease, especially with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD-HCC) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD-HCC), has been increasing. Clarification of the clinical features of NAFLD-HCC and ALD-HCC is needed. We performed a large retrospective multicenter survey to clarify the clinical course of these two types of HCC.
Clinical characteristics, survival, and recurrence were examined in 532 patients with ALD-HCC and 209 patients with NAFLD-HCC who were diagnosed between January 2000 and December 2013.
The ALD-HCC patients were predominantly male and were younger than the patients with NAFLD-HCC. Lifestyle-related diseases were significantly more common in the NAFLD-HCC group, but the prevalence of cirrhosis was significantly higher in the ALD-HCC group. The histological diagnosis of NAFLD-HCC showed a gender difference (F4; 72.7 % in the females vs. 37.6 % in the males). The characteristic features of HCC including histology, survival rate, and recurrence rate were quite similar in the NAFLD-HCC and ALD-HCC groups: 5-year survival rates 49.1 vs. 43.7 %; 5-year recurrence rates 69.6 vs. 65.4 %, respectively. However, the risk factors for recurrence differed between the two groups: des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin was a risk factor in NAFLD-HCC and α-fetoprotein was a risk factor in ALD-HCC.
Although the characteristic features underlying these two diseases are different, the two HCC groups showed a similar clinical course. The recurrence rates of the two HCC groups were relatively high. We found that critical tumor markers for recurrence differed between the two diseases.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical data regarding Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are limited. The aim was to evaluate H. pylori infection in patients with NAFLD and its association with disease severity.
One hundred and thirty patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD [43 with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and 87 with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)] were recruited for blood samples for anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) and standard biochemical tests were obtained after overnight fasting. Glucose tolerance was evaluated by 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Liver biopsies were scored for NAFLD activity score (NAS), fibrosis and iron deposits.
H. pylori IgG seropositivity was found in 40 % of patients overall. The prevalence of NASH was significantly higher in the patients with H. pylori IgG seropositivity (81 %) than in those without (58 %, p = 0.008). Glucose intolerance was similar between the two groups. The total NAS and the grade of hepatocyte ballooning were higher in the patients with H. pylori IgG seropositivity than in those without, while the hepatic iron grade was lower in the patients with H. pylori IgG seropositivity than in those without. H. pylori infection (p = 0.030), female gender (p = 0.029), and NAFIC score ≥ 2 points (p < 0.001) could independently predict NASH in logistic regression analysis, independent of age, obesity and glucose tolerance.
The association of H. pylori seropositivity with hepatocyte ballooning suggests that H. pylori infection may represent another contributing factor in the progression from NAFL to NASH. Eradicating H. pylori infection may have therapeutic prospects in NASH treatment.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 56-year-old male patient with chronic hepatitis C was treated with pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) α-2b and ribavirin (RBV) for 72 weeks in 2006. The patient achieved an early virological response (EVR); however, hepatitis C relapsed 12 weeks after discontinuation of peg-IFN and RBV. In 2012, the patient was treated with a peg-IFN/RBV/telaprevir combination therapy. After 5 days of treatment, he suffered from a telaprevir-associated skin rash on his body and four limbs. He chose to be treated with peg-IFN and RBV until 60 weeks. He again achieved EVR but no sustained virological response (SVR). In 2014, he was treated with peg-IFN/RBV/simeprevir combination therapy. He achieved rapid virological response, but after 6 weeks of therapy, a striking elevation of serum aminotransferase level was recorded with no accompanying skin rash; he was admitted to our hospital. Peg-IFN/RBV/simeprevir was stopped, but sodium valproate (VPA; 400 mg/day), which had been administered for >10 years to prevent epilepsy was continued. Liver biopsy revealed typical features of drug-induced liver injury. After stopping peg-IFN/RBV/simeprevir, serum aminotransferase levels soon returned to the normal range. We diagnosed this case to be simeprevir-induced hepatitis clinically and histologically. Physicians need to stay alert of the possibility of drug-induced liver injury in using simeprevir. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Hepatology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & AimsSome cases with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), particularly nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), can ultimately progress to liver cirrhosis. However, studies to clarify factors predictive of histological change in patients with NASH remain scarce. Our aim is to determine predictors of histological progression in Japanese patients with biopsy-proven NASH.Methods
This retrospective cohort study enrolled 52 patients with NASH who underwent serial liver biopsies. Histological evaluation included NAFLD activity score (NAS) and liver fibrosis. The median interval between initial and second liver biopsies was 968 days. An ALT response was defined as a decrease of 30% or more from baseline.ResultsOf 52 patients, NAS was ameliorated in 30.8%, deteriorated in 30.8%, and remained unchanged in 38.4%. Liver fibrosis was improved in 25.0% of patients, progressed in 25.0%, and remained stable in 50.0%. Multivariate analysis identified ALT non-response as a predictor of deterioration of NAS (hazard ratio [HR], 5.85; p=0.031) and progression of liver fibrosis (HR, 4.50; p=0.029). The mean annual rate of fibrosis was 0.002 stages/year overall, increasing to 0.15 stages/year in ALT non-responders.ConclusionsA lack of reduction in serum ALT level by at least 30% from baseline was a predictor for histological progression in patients with NASH. Serum ALT level is a better predictor of histological change than insulin resistance or body weight and can be a valid index in treatment. Serum ALT should be strictly controlled to prevent liver histological progression in patients with NASH.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Hepatology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Some patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease develop hepatocellular carcinoma and have higher mortality than others. The evidence causally linking nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to extrahepatic malignancies is scarce. Our aim was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma, extrahepatic cancer, and mortality in Japanese patients with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.Methods
This retrospective cohort study analyzed outcomes including onset of malignant tumors and death in 312 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosed by liver biopsy.ResultsOf 312 patients, 176 (56.4%) were diagnosed with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. During a median follow-up period of 4.8 years (range, 0.3–15.8 years), six patients (1.9%) developed hepatocellular carcinoma, and twenty (6.4%) developed extrahepatic cancer. Multivariate analysis identified fibrosis stage (≥3; hazard ratio, 12.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-136.0; p=0.041) as a predictor for hepatocellular carcinoma and type IV collagen 7s (>5 ng/ml; hazard ratio, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.79; p=0.022) as a predictor for extrahepatic cancer. Eight patients (2.6%) died during the follow-up period. The most common cause of death was extrahepatic malignancy. None died of cardiovascular disease. Multivariate analysis identified type IV collagen 7s (>5 ng/ml; hazard ratio, 3.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-9.76; p=0.024) as a predictor for mortality.Conclusions
The incidence of extrahepatic cancer was higher than that of hepatocellular carcinoma. Severe fibrosis was a predictor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and elevated type IV collagen 7s levels are at increased risk for extrahepatic cancer and overall mortality.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Hepatology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimGrowth hormone (GH) deficiency may be associated with histological progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which includes nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is mainly produced by hepatocytes and its secretion is stimulated by GH. Our aim was to determine whether more histologically advanced NAFLD is associated with low circulating levels of IGF-1 in Japanese patients.Methods
Serum samples were obtained in 199 Japanese patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and in 2,911 sex- and age-matched healthy people undergoing health checkups. The serum levels of IGF-1 were measured using a commercially available immunoradiometric assay. The standard deviation scores (SDS) of IGF-1 according to age and gender were also calculated in NAFLD patients.ResultThe serum IGF-1 levels in NAFLD patients were significantly lower (median, 112 ng/ml) compared with the control population (median, 121 ng/mL, p<0.0001). IGF-1 SDS less than -2.0 SD from median were found in 11.6% of 199 patients. NASH patients exhibited significantly lower levels of IGF-1 SDS (n=130, median, -0.7) compared with NAFL patients (n=69: median, -0.3, p =0.026). The IGF-1 SDS values decreased significantly with increasing lobular inflammation (p <0.001) and fibrosis (p <0.001). In multiple regressions, the association between the IGF-1 SDS values and the severity of NAFLD persisted after adjusting for age, gender, and insulin resistance.Conclusion
Low levels of circulating IGF-1 might have a role in the development of advanced NAFLD, independent of insulin resistance. Supplementation with GH/IGF-1 may be a candidate for the treatment of NASH.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Hepatology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/AimsMice fed high-fat diet (HFD) demonstrate obesity-related systemic insulin resistance (IR). Aim of this study is to clarify the role of interleukin (IL)-6 in IR in vivo focusing on skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver.Methods
Plasma markers of IR and hepatic IL-6 signaling were examined in eight-week HFD feeding C57/BL6 mice. Furthermore, IR-related molecules in skeletal muscles, adipose tissues and livers were investigated following a single injection of anti- IL-6 receptor neutralizing antibody (MR16-1) in two-week-HFD feeding mice. To investigate the role of IL-6 in hepatic steatosis by prolonged HFD, hepatic triglyceride accumulation was assessed in eight-week HFD-feeding mice with continuous MR16-1 treatment.ResultsHFD for both two and eight weeks elevated plasma IL-6, insulin, and leptin, which were decreased by MR16-1 treatment. A single injection of MR16-1 ameliorated IR as assessed by glucose and insulin tolerance test, which may be attributable to upregulation of glucose transporter type 4 via phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase as well as upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in livers and, particularly, in skeletal muscles. MR16-1 also decreased mRNA expression of leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and increased that of adiponectin in adipose tissue. HFD for eight weeks, not two weeks, induced hepatic steatosis and increased hepatic triglyceride content, all of which were ameliorated by MR16-1 treatment.Conclusions
Blockade of excessive IL-6 stimulus ameliorated HFD-induced IR in a skeletal muscle and modulated the production of adipokines from an early stage of NAFLD, leading to prevention of liver steatosis for a long term.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacodynamics of cisplatin following three different treatment procedures for intrahepatic arterial infusion therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
We divided 13 HCC patients into the following three groups: group A, lone injection of cisplatin (n=3); group B, combined injection of cisplatin and lipiodol, with embolization using small gelatin cubes (GCs) (n=5); and group C, injection of suspended lipiodol with cisplatin powder, with embolization using small GCs (n=5). In each group, the free cisplatin concentration in the hepatic vein was measured at 0, 5, 10, and 30 minutes.
The mean free cisplatin concentrations were as follows. For group A, the mean was 48.58 µg/mL at 0 minute, 7.31 µg/mL at 5 minutes, 5.70 µg/mL at 10 minutes, and 7.15 µg/mL at 30 minutes. For the same time points, for group B, the concentrations were 8.66, 4.23, 3.22, and 1.65 µg/mL, respectively, and for group C, the concentrations were 4.81, 2.61, 2.52, and 1.75 µg/mL, respectively. The mean area under the curve (AUC)0-infinity for the free cisplatin concentration was 7.80 in group A, 2.48 in group B, and 2.27 in group C. The AUC0-infinity for the free cisplatin concentration gradually decreased, from group A to group C.
These results indicate that the combination of lipiodol and small GCs may be useful for delaying cisplatin drainage from the liver.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on two cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with metastasis to the cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus. Both cases presented with diplopia and retro-orbital headache and both underwent surgery for a primary pituitary gland tumor. After surgery, both cases were diagnosed with metastases from HCC. Case 1 was a 67-year-old male with a history of HCC who was referred to our hospital for pituitary tumor surgery. The tumor appeared to be in the sella turcica and to invade the sphenoid sinus and right cavernous sinus. Transnasal transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) was performed. The tumor was postoperatively diagnosed by histology to be a metastatic pituitary tumor from HCC. Radiotherapy was administered to the metastatic site. Case 2 was a 58-year-old male with a history of TSS for a pituitary tumor 16 years previously. He was referred to our hospital for TSS for a recurrent pituitary adenoma. TSS was performed twice in 3 months. During a preoperative general examination, HCC and chronic hepatitis B were revealed. TSS was performed initially, followed by arterial infusion chemotherapy. After TSS, the pituitary tumor was diagnosed by histology to be a metastasis from HCC. As with Case 1, radiotherapy was administered to the metastasis. Most tumors in the sella turcica are pituitary adenomas, although some cases of metastatic pituitary tumors and skull base metastases have been reported. Distant metastases generally have a poor prognosis; however, surgery to the metastatic site can effectively control symptoms caused by the metastatic tumor.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Antiviral agents are thought to reduce HCC development, but agents such as lamivudine (LAM) have a high rate of drug resistance. We compared the incidence of HCC in 472 entecavir (ETV)-treated patients and 1,143 nontreated HBV patients (control group). Propensity score matching eliminated the baseline differences, resulting in a sample size of 316 patients per cohort. The drug mutation resistance was 0.8% (4/472) in the ETV group. The cumulative HCC incidence rates at 5 years were 3.7% and 13.7% for the ETV and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, adjusted for a number of known HCC risk factors, showed that patients in the ETV group were less likely to develop HCC than those in the control group (hazard ratio: 0.37; 95% confidence interval: 0.15-0.91; P = 0.030). Both cohorts were applied in three previously reported risk scales and risk scores were generated based on age, gender, cirrhosis status, levels of alanine aminotransferase, hepatitis B e antigen, baseline HBV DNA, albumin, and bilirubin. The greatest HCC risk reduction occurred in high-risk patients who scored higher on respective risk scales. In sub analyses, we compared treatment effect between nucleos(t)ide analogs, which included matched LAM-treated patients without rescue therapy (n = 182). We found HCC suppression effect greater in ETV-treated (P < 0.001) than nonrescued LAM-treated (P = 0.019) cirrhosis patients when they were compared with the control group.
Long-term ETV treatment may reduce the incidence of HCC in HBV-infected patients. The treatment effect was greater in patients at higher risk of HCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The definitive diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is currently based on histopathological assessment. This study aimed to elucidate the utility of a novel noninvasive method, three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI), for diagnosing advanced fibrosis in patients with NASH, using histopathological diagnosis as the reference standard.
This retrospective study included 30 consecutive patients who had been diagnosed with NASH by histopathology and had undergone 3D-MRI before biopsy. 3D-MRI provided a three-dimensional reconstruction of the liver from contrast-enhanced hepatobiliary phase MR images. In the present study, histopathological advanced fibrosis was defined as stage 3 and 4 NASH. Advanced fibrosis, diagnosed by 3D-MRI, was considered to be diffuse irregularity of the entire surface of the liver. The diagnostic features of 3D-MRI and the noninvasive evaluation systems (APRI, FIB-4 index, and BARD score) for identifying advanced and nonadvanced fibrosis of NASH were determined and compared.
Nine (30 %) of the 30 study patients were diagnosed histopathologically with advanced fibrosis, and 11 (37 %) of 30 patients were diagnosed with advanced fibrosis using 3D-MRI. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 3D-MRI for diagnosing advanced fibrosis were 100, 90, 82, and 100 %, respectively. The sensitivities of APRI, the FIB-4 index, and BARD score ranged from 78 to 89 %, the specificities from 71 to 90 %, the PPVs from 54 to 78 %, and the NPVs from 88 to 94 %.
Compared with the common noninvasive methods for diagnosing advanced fibrosis associated with NASH, 3D-MRI was more accurate.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Hepatology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Renal dysfunction and Fanconi's syndrome associated with hypophosphatemia caused by long-term administration of low-dose adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) has been reported in recent years. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence and factors associated with renal dysfunction and hypophosphatemia in patients with hepatitis B infection on long-term treatment with ADV and lamivudine (LAM).
The study subjects were 292 patients treated with 10 mg/day ADV and 100 mg/day LAM for more than 6 months. We evaluated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum creatinine and serum phosphate level at the start of ADV and every 6 months.
During a median treatment duration of 64 months, 28 (9.6 %) patients developed renal impairment (defined as eGFR < 50 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), and 73 (27.1 %) developed hypophosphatemia, including 14 with persistent hypophosphatemia. The cumulative incidences of renal impairment at 1, 3, and 5 years were 1.4, 7.5, 10.5 %, respectively, and those of hypophosphatemia were 6.8, 20.6, 26.7 %, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified old age, liver cirrhosis and hypertension as determinants of renal impairment, and male sex, HCC, low baseline serum phosphate as determinants of hypophosphatemia. Three of the 14 patients with persistent hypophosphatemia developed Fanconi's syndrome; their serum creatinine level remained normal, but eGFR was lower than at baseline.
Long-term treatment of hepatitis B with low-dose (10 mg/day) ADV and LAM can potentially cause renal impairment and hypophosphatemia. We advocate regular monitoring of serum phosphate and evaluation of eGFR, in addition to serum creatinine, in such patients.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimThe aim of this case-control study was to assess the efficacy and safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods
Twenty NAFLD patients with T2DM treated by sitagliptin were retrospectively enrolled as the sitagliptin group. These patients were given sitagliptin between January 2010 and July 2011. Another 20 NAFLD patients with T2DM treated only with diet and exercise for 48weeks were selected as the control group. Serum levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured before and 12, 24, 36 and 48weeks after the initiation of treatment. ResultsIn the sitagliptin group, average HbA1c levels decreased approximately 0.7% at 48weeks after the initiation of sitagliptin. Next, average FPG levels decreased approximately 15mg/dL at 48weeks after the initiation of sitagliptin. The serum levels of HbA1c and FPG in the sitagliptin group decreased with statistical significance compared to those in the control group (P<0.05). All the patients could take sitagliptin of 50mg/day without reduction necessitated by sitagliptin-related side-effects. There were no significant changes of average AST and ALT levels during follow up of 48weeks in both sitagliptin and control groups. Conclusion
Our results indicate sitagliptin is effective and safe for the treatment of T2DM complicated with NAFLD.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Hepatology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Miriplatin is a novel lipophilic platinum complex that was developed to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although HCC patients frequently have coexisting chronic renal failure, little prospective data are available regarding the clinical toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents used to treat HCC patients with chronic renal failure. In a phase II study, the plasma concentration of total platinum in patients who received miriplatin was very low, and no severe renal toxicity caused by miriplatin injection was reported. Here, we present three cases of HCC with stage 4 chronic renal failure who received transcatheter arterial chemotherapy with miriplatin. All cases were male, ages 72, 84, and 83 years, and had serum creatinine levels of 2.3, 1.6, and 1.9 mg/dL, respectively. Their estimated glomerular filtration rates were 21.9, 20.3, and 22.2 mL/min, respectively. All cases were treated for unresectable HCC with transcatheter arterial chemotherapy with miriplatin. No serious adverse events were observed, and serum creatinine levels did not elevate, even in the patient who experienced renal failure caused by cisplatin administration. These results might suggest that transcatheter arterial chemotherapy with miriplatin can be safely used in HCC patients with chronic renal failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) often undergo transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Miriplatin is a lipophilic cisplatin derivative used in TACE that is effective in HCC. However, the difference in antitumor efficacy between warmed versus room temperature miriplatin is unclear.
Chemotherapy efficacy was evaluated by dynamic computed tomography 1–3 months after TACE, according to the Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. A total of 203 patients with HCC who received TACE with miriplatin for the first time were included in a follow-up study to retrospectively investigate its efficacy and safety. Overall, 45 patients underwent TACE with warmed (40°C) miriplatin and 158 patients received TACE with room temperature miriplatin.
Seventy patients (44.3%) treated with room temperature miriplatin and 32 patients (71.1%) who received warmed miriplatin experienced complete or partial responses. Multivariate analysis identified miriplatin temperature (warmed miriplatin, risk ratio (RR) = 2.26, P = 0.047), tumor number (solitary, RR = 3.48, P = 0.007), α-fetoprotein (AFP) level (<50 ng/mL, RR = 2.35, P = 0.012) and history of TACE (no history, RR = 2.22, P = 0.041) as predictors of objective response following TACE with miriplatin, and no serious complications were observed.
Warm temperature, solitary tumors, low AFP level and first TACE are significant and independent predictors of objective response after TACE using miriplatin. These results suggest that warmed miriplatin can be considered as one of the standard treatments for unresectable HCC.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Hepatology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
The impact of amino acid (aa) 70 substitution in the core region on hepatocarcinogenesis and survival for liver-related death in patients of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b (HCV-1b), who had not received antiviral therapy, is unknown. The relationships among aa 70 substitution, IL28B genotype, and hepatocarcinogenesis are also not clear. A total of 1,181 consecutive HCV-infected patients, who had not received antiviral therapy, were included in a follow-up study to determine predictive factors of hepatocarcinogenesis and survival for liver-related death. The cumulative hepatocarcinogenesis rates in HCV-1b of Gln70(His70) (glutamine (histidine) at aa 70) were significantly higher than those in HCV-1b of Arg70 (arginine at aa 70) and HCV-2a/2b. The cumulative survival rates for liver-related death in HCV-1b of Gln70(His70) were significantly lower than those in HCV-1b of Arg70 and HCV-2a/2b. Multivariate analysis identified gender (male), age (≥ 60 years), albumin (<3.9 g/dL), platelet count (<15.0 × 10(4) /mm(3) ), aspartate aminotransferase (≥ 67 IU/L), and HCV subgroup (HCV-1b of Gln70(His70)) as determinants of both hepatocarcinogenesis and survival rates for liver-related death. In HCV-1b patients, the cumulative change rates from Arg70 to Gln70(His70) by direct sequencing were significantly higher than those from Gln70(His70) to Arg70. In patients of Arg70 at the initial visit, the cumulative change rates from Arg70 to Gln70(His70) in IL28B rs8099917 non-TT genotype were significantly higher than those in the TT genotype.
Substitution of aa 70 in the core region of HCV-1b is an important predictor of hepatocarcinogenesis and survival for liver-related death in HCV patients who had not received antiviral therapy. The IL28B genotype might partly affect changes over time of dominant amino acid in core aa 70 of HCV-1b.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study are to assess the antiviral effects, safety and telaprevir (TVR) pharmacokinetics in two cohorts given TVR every 8 h (q8h) at doses of 500 mg and 750 mg with peginterferon-α-2b and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients.
Twenty chronic hepatitis C (HCV) patients with genotype 1b in high viral loads were randomly assigned to two TVR-based regimens of 750 mg q8h (group A) and 500 mg q8h (group B) in combination with peginterferon-α-2b and ribavirin for 12 weeks.
Although the difference was not statistically significant other than trough concentration (Ctrough) at week 4, the parameters of maximum concentration (Cmax), the area under the concentration time curve (AUC0–∞) and Ctrough tended to be higher in group A than those in group B. The antiviral effects were similar in the two groups (sustained virological response rates [SVR], 40% in group A, 50% in group B). The discontinuation rates by anemia were 30% in group A and 20% in group B. Serum creatinine concentrations were lower in group B than those in group A.
Although the exposure to TVR tended to be lower in 500 mg q8h than that in 750 mg q8h, the SVR rates in both groups were similar. The result suggests that the 500 mg q8h dose may be one option for treatment. In addition, the present findings indicate that the development of adverse events which increase with a TVR-based regimen, specifically anemia and creatinine, could be avoided by dose adjustment of TVR.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Hepatology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is considered the ultimate goal in chronic hepatitis B treatment. One treatment option is long-term nucleot(s)ide analog (NA) therapy. We followed a group of long-term NA therapy patients to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment in promoting clearance and longitudinal declines of HBsAg.
The study included 791 NA therapy patients who received lamivudine as their first drug. At the baseline, 442 patients were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)+ and 349 were HBeAg-. All analyses were performed after separating the HBeAg+ and HBeAg- cohorts. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine which factors were associated with HBsAg clearance.
HBsAg clearance was observed in 18 (4.1 %) of the HBeAg+ patients and 20 (5.7 %) of the HBeAg- patients at baseline, giving seroclearance rates of 6.4 and 6.9 %, respectively, over the nine-year study period. HBsAg clearance was influenced by several independent factors that varied according to HBeAg cohort. For HBeAg+ patients, these included previous interferon therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype A, a ≥0.5 log IU/mL decline in HBsAg level within six months, and clearance of HBeAg at six months. For HBeAg- patients, these included infection with HBV genotype A, decline in HBsAg at six months, and a baseline HBsAg level of <730 IU/mL.
This study suggests that both direct antiviral potential and host immune response are needed to achieve HBsAg clearance by NA therapy. Viral genotype strongly influenced HBsAg clearance during NA therapy.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Anticarcinogenic activity of ribavirin combination therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related compensated cirrhosis is still unclear.
In study 1, in 157 consecutive patients with HCV-related compensated cirrhosis, treatment efficacy with interferon plus ribavirin therapy was evaluated for 48 weeks of HCV genotype 1b (HCV-1b) or 24 weeks of HCV-2a/2b. In study 2, in 185 consecutive patients with HCV-related compensated cirrhosis, who showed no sustained virological response following the first course of interferon monotherapy, hepatocarcinogenesis rates were evaluated according to the additional treatment, and they were classified into three groups: no treatment, interferon monotherapy, and ribavirin combination therapy.
In study 1, in HCV-1b, rates of sustained virological response and sustained biochemical response were 21 and 56%, respectively. In HCV-2a/2b, rates of sustained virological response and sustained biochemical response were 70 and 78%, respectively. In HCV-1b, sustained biochemical response rates were significantly higher than those of sustained virological response. In study 2, the hepatocarcinogenesis rates in ribavirin combination therapy were significantly lower than those in interferon monotherapy and no treatment, respectively.
Ribavirin combination therapy for HCV-related compensated cirrhosis reduces the risk of hepatocarcinogenesis in comparison with interferon monotherapy, and higher rates of sustained biochemical response might be associated with lower hepatocarcinogenesis rates.