Yong-Il Kim

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (150)367.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The surface framework of LiCoO2 is modified through a surface treatment called phosphidation, which suppressed the unwanted phase transition occurring above 4.2 V. The surface instability of LiCoO2 toward organic electrolytes is simultaneously improved by changing its surface structure from an O2-based framework to a PO4-based framework that can protect against HF attack during cycling. Phosphidated LiCoO2 is successfully synthesized that showed greater stability in its bulk and surface structures. The phosphidated form enables faster Li+ diffusion and prevents irreversible phase transitions, especially when charged above 4.2 V, and consequently demonstrates excellent cycling performance and rate capabilities. The improved kinetics and stability resulting from phosphidation make LiCoO2 highly suitable as a high-voltage cathode material for use in lithium ion batteries.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Advanced Energy Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Transition metal oxides are very promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries that operate through conversion reactions. Energy densities for conversion reactions are higher than for intercalation reactions, but most of transition metal oxides show poor cycling performance and reversibility due to the pulverization of active materials and subsequent volume changes. We here report a facile and scalable synthesis for realizing Li4Ti5O12-coated Fe/Fe3O4 hybrid nanocomposites in the form of one-dimensional nanofibers (C@Fe-Fe3O4/Li4Ti5O12 hybrid NFs). This is a new class of highly-reversible and safe anode material that can significantly reduce the lithium-ion diffusion length and improve strain tolerance during Li ion insertion/extraction. Its oxidation state was also impressively controlled through a carbothermal reaction during annealing. The precise oxidation state control of C@Fe-Fe3O4/Li4Ti5O12 hybrid NFs simultaneously enabled high capacity due to the conversion reaction of Fe3O4 as well as high reversibility and stability resulting from zero-strain characteristics and superb kinetics of Li4Ti5O12. This new electrode material appears promising for not only future energy systems but also various electronic devices.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Nano Energy
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the maxillary stability in patients who had undergone Le Fort I osteotomy with propeller graft and mandibular sagittal split ramus osteotomy for correction of maxillary asymmetry. This was a retrospective study on 15 facial asymmetry patients (7 men, 8 women: 22.2 years) requiring surgical correction at the preoperative (T0), immediately postoperative (T1) and 6 months after surgery (T2) stages. To evaluate the skeletal stability, computed tomography (CT) superimposition was used, and skeletal landmarks were measured and compared from the superimposed images according to an x, y, z coordinate system. The skeletal changes at each stage (ΔT1 - T0 and ΔT2 - T1) were compared by paired t-test (P < 0.05). The obtained data on the skeletal changes immediately postoperatively to 6-month follow-up (ΔT2 - T1) showed that the Le Fort I osteotomy with propeller graft had effected stable maxillary skeletal stability at the maxillary measurement points (posterior nasal spine (PNS ), nasopalatine canal, U3crown tip, U3root apex, and U6furcation). These results suggested that in cases of facial asymmetry where the upper tooth exposure is proper and anterior-posterior movement of the maxilla is not much required, Le Fort I osteotomy with propeller graft is an effective method for stable canting correction.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of craniofacial surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: From computed tomographic images, the dentocentral synchondrosis can be identified in the second cervical vertebra. This can demarcate the border between the odontoid process and the body of the 2nd cervical vertebra and serve as a good model for the prediction of bone and forensic age. Nevertheless, until now, there has been no application of the 2nd cervical vertebra based on the dentocentral synchondrosis. Methods: In this study, statistical shape analysis was used to build bone and forensic age estimation regression models. Following the principles of statistical shape analysis and principal components analysis, we used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to evaluate a Japanese population (35 males and 45 females, from 5 to 19 years old). Results: The narrowest prediction intervals among the multivariate regression models were 19.63 for bone age and 2.99 for forensic age. There was no significant difference between form space and shape space in the bone and forensic age estimation models. However, for gender comparison, the bone and forensic age estimation models for males had the higher explanatory power. Conclusion: This study derived an improved objective and quantitative method for bone and forensic age estimation based on only the 2nd, 3rd and 4th cervical vertebral shapes.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Forensic science international
  • Yong-Il Kim · Yun-Hee Lee · Ki-Bok Kim · Yong-Hak Huh
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoindentation test records load-displacement curves during the nanocontact deformations and nanohardness and Young's modulus can be estimated through subsequent analyses of the raw data. A key step in the analyses is a geometric conversion from contact depths to contact areas using an indenter area function representing the apex morphology of an indenter. However, the indenter area function obtained from a series of nanoindentation tests on a reference material includes not only the indenter apex morphology but also the effects of an improper calibration of a nanoindenter. Thus, a direct and quantitative observation of indenters with an atomic force microscope (AFM) was tried in this study. To overcome the bottleneck of AFM calibration using a conventional patterned block, a dimensional calibration with dual standard references was newly adopted; in-plane and out-of-plane dimensions of AFM images were calibrated with both step-height block and microsphere reference. Finally, tip bluntness and indenter angle were quantitatively estimated from the AFM images of the indenter apex.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics
  • Yun-Hee Lee · Ki-Bok Kim · D.H. Gregory · Yong-Il Kim
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    ABSTRACT: A co-precipitation process using transition metal hydrates was used to prepare a mixture of M(OH)2 and MO(OH) (M=Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3). This powder consisted of dense, quasi-spherical particles each composed of plate-like particles of ca. 250 nm across. By increasing the temperature, M(OH)2 was made to transform into MO(OH) at ca. 220 °C, then into M3O4 at ca. 330 °C. Moreover, the M3O4 phase persisted without further reaction until 700 °C. During these phase transitions, the mixed-metal (M) in M(OH)2, MO(OH) and M3O4 retained disordered cation distributions at the same crystallographic sites of their host lattices without appearance of any phases related to Ni, Co and Mn. The MO(OH) phase appeared owing to exposure to air. M(OH)2 at room temerature had the lattice parameters (a=b=2.9991(2) Å and c=8.5892(2) Å) with space group ( P63/mmc).
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Materials Letters
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate bony remodelling in the anterior region of the maxilla after bimaxillary surgery for skeletal Class III deformities preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and 6 months postoperatively. For accurate analysis, cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) images of 29 patients (12 men and 17 women; mean age 22 (range 19 to 44) years) were used. The nasopalatine canal, unaffected by the maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy, was used for the reference points (posterosuperior, midpoint, and posteroinferior). The changes in the distance from each of the points on the nasopalatine canal to the corresponding anterior border of the maxilla were measured and analysed at the 3 stages (p<0.05). Bony resorption was apparent during the postoperative period, and the mean resorption was -1.13 (1.53) mm at the posterosuperior level, -0.92 (0.83) mm at the midpoint, and -0.83 (0.88) mm at the posteroinferior level (p<0.01). These findings show that there had been resorptive remodelling postoperatively in the anterior maxillary region after bimaxillary surgery with superior maxillary movement, which suggests that the postoperative change in the position of point A is affected by operative movement as well as by postoperative relapse and bony remodelling. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated condylar surface changes in patients after temporomandibular (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA) treatment, and used cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to investigate the relationship between condylar surface and mandibular position changes. Thirty-six patients diagnosed with TMJ OA and receiving non-surgical treatments for TMJ OA were enrolled in this study. Patients were assigned to study groups according to the affected side. Those in the unilateral osteoarthritis (OAU) group (n = 20; 8 males and 12 females; aged 22.0 ± 11.5 years) had a unilateral condyle with TMJ OA, and those in the OAB group had bilateral TMJ OA (n = 16; 1 male and 15 females; aged 25.7 ± 6.4 years). Condylar surface and mandibular position changes were investigated by the superimposition of three-dimensional reconstructed images and CBCT data, respectively. For condylar surface changes, the average absolute deviation was 0.32 ± 0.08 mm for the OA side and 0.18 ± 0.03 mm for the non-OA side, a significant difference between sides (p < 0.05). In the bilateral osteoarthritis (OAB) group, the average absolute deviation was 0.35 ± 0.08 mm for the left side and 0.33 ± 0.09 mm for the right side. For mandibular position changes, measurement points that moved more than 2 mm were Pog, Me, and Mental foramen in both groups. The study results show that the mandible with both condyles affected moved backward and downward after TMJ OA treatment. In the patient ngroup with unilateral TMJ OA, there was deviation on the affected side and downward movement (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to examine the correlation between skeletal maturation status and parameters from the odontoid process/body of the second vertebra and the bodies of third and fourth cervical vertebrae and simultaneously build multiple regression models to be able to estimate skeletal maturation status in Korean girls. Hand-wrist radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained from 74 Korean girls (6-18 years of age). CBCT-generated cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) was used to demarcate the odontoid process and the body of the second cervical vertebra, based on the dentocentral synchondrosis. Correlation coefficient analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used for each parameter of the cervical vertebrae (P < 0.05). Forty-seven of 64 parameters from CBCT-generated CVM (independent variables) exhibited statistically significant correlations (P < 0.05). The multiple regression model with the greatest R (2) had six parameters (PH2/W2, UW2/W2, (OH+AH2)/LW2, UW3/LW3, D3, and H4/W4) as independent variables with a variance inflation factor (VIF) of <2. CBCT-generated CVM was able to include parameters from the second cervical vertebral body and odontoid process, respectively, for the multiple regression models. This suggests that quantitative analysis might be used to estimate skeletal maturation status.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the degree and range of recognition of canting of the interpupillary line and deviation of the nose, which were regarded as "normal," "acceptable," and "needing surgical correction," according to different observer groups. Four different groups (40 each for laypeople, dental students, general dentists, and orthodontists) rated 11 simulated asymmetric images with canted eyes and a deviated nose separately. The raters categorized each image as normal, socially "acceptable" and not requiring correction, or abnormal and would benefit from correction. Survival analysis was used to evaluate the scope of perception. The degree of recognition for eye-canting and nose deviation was 2.31 and 2.92, respectively. Eye-canting and nose deviation had lower degrees of recognition in the clockwise direction (2.13°) and on the left side (2.65°), respectively. Women showed a lower degree of the "upper limit of the acceptable range" for canted eyes, and men showed a lower "degree of recognition" and "upper limit of the acceptable range" for a deviated nose. Orthodontists showed a larger upper limit of the acceptable range for eye-canting (P < .001). The perceptions of asymmetry of canted eyes and deviated nose were affected by gender, direction of asymmetry, and observer groups. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate skeletal and dental changes after application of a mandibular setback surgery-first orthodontic treatment approach in cases of skeletal Class III malocclusion. A retrospective study of 34 patients (23 men, 11 women; mean age, 26.2 ± 6.6 years) with skeletal Class III deformities, who underwent surgery-first orthodontic treatment, was conducted. Skeletal landmarks in the maxilla and mandible at three time points, pre-treatment (T0), immediate-postoperative (T1), and post-treatment (T2), were analyzed using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-generated half-cephalograms. The significant T0 to T1 mandibular changes occurred -9.24 ± 3.97 mm horizontally. From T1 to T2, the mandible tended to move forward 1.22 ± 2.02 mm, while the condylar position (Cd to Po-perpendicular plane) shifted backward, and the coronoid process (Cp to FH plane) moved vertically. Between T1 and T2, the vertical dimension changed significantly (p < 0.05). Changes in the vertical dimension were significantly correlated to T1 to T2 changes in the Cd to Po-perpendicular plane (r = -0.671, p = 0.034), and in the Cp to FH plane (r = 0.733, p = 0.016), as well as to T0 to T1 changes in the Cp to Po-perpendicular plane (r = 0.758, p = 0.011). Greater alterations in the vertical dimension caused larger post-treatment (T2) stage skeletal changes. Studying the mandibular position in relation to the post-surgical vertical dimension emphasized the integral importance of vertical dimension control and proximal segment management to the success of surgery-first orthodontic treatment.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Korean Journal of Orthodontics
  • Ji-Woong Kim · Woo-Sung Son · Seong-Sik Kim · Yong-Il Kim
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the 3-dimensional postoperative changes in the proximal segments in patients with facial asymmetry according to the anteroposterior skeletal patterns. A total of 51 patients with facial asymmetry who had undergone Le Fort I osteotomy and sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) with rigid fixation were classified according to their anteroposterior skeletal patterns. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data were obtained before (T0) and 6 months (T1) after surgery. The position, angulation, and distance of the proximal segment were measured from the CBCT superimposition. Comparing the T0 and T1 CBCT data, almost no significant differences were found in the condylar head position in any of the groups (P > .05), except for the axial condylar head position on the deviated side in the skeletal Class I group (P < .05) and the sagittal condylar head position on the deviated side in the skeletal Class III group (P < .05). However, the changes in the coronoid process and ramus down varied (P < .05), and these movements were related to changes in the ramal plane. Comparing the deviated and nondeviated sides, significant differences were found only in the skeletal Class I group (P < .05). The most influential factors affecting differences between the deviated and nondeviated sides in patients with facial asymmetry after bilateral SSRO could be the direction of the surgical movement of the distal segment of the mandible rather than its extent. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to establish multivariable regression models for the estimation of skeletal maturation status in Japanese boys and girls using the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) assessment method and hand-wrist radiography. The analyzed sample consisted of hand-wrist radiographs and CBCT images from 47 boys and 57 girls. To quantitatively evaluate the correlation between the skeletal maturation status and measurement ratios, a CBCT-based CVM assessment method was applied to the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae. Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis and multivariable regression analysis were used to determine the ratios for each of the cervical vertebrae (p < 0.05). Four characteristic parameters ((OH2 + PH2)/W2, (OH2 + AH2)/W2, D2, AH3/W3), as independent variables, were used to build the multivariable regression models: for the Japanese boys, the skeletal maturation status according to the CBCT-based quantitative cervical vertebral maturation (QCVM) assessment was 5.90 + 99.11 × AH3/W3 - 14.88 × (OH2 + AH2)/W2 + 13.24 × D2; for the Japanese girls, it was 41.39 + 59.52 × AH3/W3 - 15.88 × (OH2 + PH2)/W2 + 10.93 × D2. The CBCT-generated CVM images proved very useful to the definition of the cervical vertebral body and the odontoid process. The newly developed CBCT-based QCVM assessment method showed a high correlation between the derived ratios from the second cervical vertebral body and odontoid process. There are high correlations between the skeletal maturation status and the ratios of the second cervical vertebra based on the remnant of dentocentral synchondrosis.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Clinical Oral Investigations
  • Yun-Hee Lee · Jong Seo Park · Yong-il Kim · Yong-Hak Huh
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    ABSTRACT: Berkovich pyramidal indents formed on stressed metallic glass samples were observed with an atomic force microscope. Three-dimensional morphologies of the remnant impressions with pile-up lobes were approximated as six-sided pyramids and their indent strains were estimated according to Milman's strain definition. Under a residual stress state, it was possible to formulate the indent strain using the sum of the elastic indentation stresses and the residual stress parallel to the sample surface. Finally, the residual stress can be expressed by the multiple of the stress-dependent change in the indent strain and the Young's modulus of the indented sample. The predicted stresses estimated from the pyramidal indent morphologies were comparable to the applied streses except in a high stress regime. This deviating phenomenon under high tensile stress is discussed and found to be due to exaggerated plastic deformation and image scatter due to mild pile-ups.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Taehan-Kŭmsok-Hakhoe-chi = Journal of the Korean Institute of Metals and Materials
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the skeletal and dental changes that resulted from the use of two methods of intermaxillary fixation (IMF)-miniscrews and surgical archwire-in 74 adult patients who had Class III malocclusion and were treated with the same orthognathic surgical procedure at a hospital in Korea. All the patients underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy with rigid fixation. They were divided into two groups according to the type of IMF used-group 1 underwent surgical archwire fixation and group 2 underwent orthodontic miniscrew fixation. In a series of cephalograms for each patient, we compared vertical and horizontal tooth-position measurements: (a) immediately after surgery (T0), (b) 3 months after surgery (T1), and (c) 6 months after surgery (T2). Cephalometric changes within each group were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) while the independent samples t-test procedure was used to compare the two groups. After surgery, the maxillary incisors tended to be proclined in both groups although there were no significant differences. Incisor overbite increased significantly in both groups from T0 to T1, and the miniscrew group (group 2) showed slightly greater overbite than the archwire group (group 1). This study suggest that the use of orthodontic miniscrews and orthodontic surgical archwire for IMF in adult patients results in similar skeletal and dental changes.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Korean Journal of Orthodontics
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    ABSTRACT: Pristine and Ru-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 samples were synthesized using a simple carbon combustion method. Crystallographic analyses combining X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement confirmed that formation of the LixNi1−xO-like impurity phase is prevented and that the lattice parameter increases as a result of Ru doping. Furthermore, its structure is partially changed to the more disordered spinel phase (Fd3m). Both this structural change and the disappearance of the impurity phase greatly enhance the rate capability and cyclic retention of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: We here describe the extraordinary performance of NASICON Na3V2(PO4)3-carbon nanofiber (NVP-CNF) composites with ultra-high power and excellent cycling performance. NVP-CNFs are composed of CNFs at the center part and partly embedded NVP nanoparticles in the shell. We first report this unique morphology of NVP-CNFs for the electrode material of secondary batteries as well as for general energy conversion materials. Our NVP-CNFs show not only a high discharge capacity of 88.9 mA h g−1 even at a high current density of 50 C but also 93% cyclic retention property after 300 cycles at 1 C. The superb kinetics and excellent cycling performance of the NVP-CNFs are attributed to the facile migration of Na ions through the partly exposed regions of NVP nanoparticles that are directly in contact with an electrolyte as well as the fast electron transfer along the conducting CNF pathways.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Materials Chemistry A
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate axial cervical vertebral (ACV) shape quantitatively and to build a prediction model for skeletal maturation level using statistical shape analysis for Japanese individuals. Methods: The sample included 24 female and 19 male patients with hand-wrist radiographs and CBCT images. Through generalized Procrustes analysis and principal components (PCs) analysis, the meaningful PCs were extracted from each ACV shape and analysed for the estimation regression model. Results: Each ACV shape had meaningful PCs, except for the second axial cervical vertebra. Based on these models, the smallest prediction intervals (PIs) were from the combination of the shape space PCs, age and gender. Overall, the PIs of the male group were smaller than those of the female group. There was no significant correlation between centroid size as a size factor and skeletal maturation level. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the ACV maturation method, which was applied by statistical shape analysis, could confirm information about skeletal maturation in Japanese individuals as an available quantifier of skeletal maturation and could be as useful a quantitative method as the skeletal maturation index.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Dento-maxillo-facial radiology. Supplement
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    ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between occlusal vertical dimension (VD) changes and postsurgical skeletal changes in the surgery-first approach and to derive regression models for the final mandibular setback at B-point. This retrospective study included 40 patients (16 men, 24 women; ages, 22.6 ± 4.0 years) who had undergone a bimaxillary surgery-first approach. Using cephalograms generated from cone-beam computed tomography representing the presurgical, postsurgical, and posttreatment stages, skeletal landmarks in the maxilla and mandible were investigated to derive multivariate linear regression-based prediction models. Additionally, a patient classification based on the VD was established and verified to generate regression models for the classified groups. For the nonincreased VD group, the surgical setback of B-point was its predictor for the final mandibular setback (R(2) at 92%). Meanwhile, the final mandibular setback of the increased VD group was predicted according to the surgical upward movement of pogonion, the postsurgical horizontal position of A-point, and the postsurgical vertical position of the coronoid process (R(2) at 94%). The results of this study support the clinical observation that the more increased the vertical occlusal dimension after surgery, the less predictable the position of B-point at the posttreatment stage. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To evaluate the maxillary stability after Le Fort I osteotomy with posterior-superior movement using pterygoid process fracture or removal, and mandibular setback surgery for skeletal Class III deformities. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of the changes in 28 skeletal Class III patients’ three-dimensional (3D) measurement-point coordinates, obtained by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) superimposition. The predictor variables were the management of pterygoid process (fracture and removal method). The outcome variables were the changes of measurement points based on 3D coordinates, obtained preoperatively (T0), immediately postoperatively (T1) and 6 months after surgery (T2). The linear mixed-effects models were applied to the evaluation of postoperative stability. Results The 3D cephalometric outcome variables for 14 subjects who had undergone pterygoid process fracture were compared with those for 14 subjects who had undergone pterygoid process removal. The postoperative NPC points moved superiorly 0.11 mm and inferiorly 0.06 mm for the fracture and removal groups, respectively. However, most of the extent of the postoperative relapse was within 1 mm. There were no differences in the postoperative skeletal changes shown by the fracture and removal groups (P<0.05). Conclusions The results suggest that surgeons could achieve very stable skeletal stability from Le Fort I osteotomy with posterior-superior movement, regardless of the pterygoid process method (fracture or removal).
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Publication Stats

1k Citations
367.02 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2008-2015
    • Pusan National University
      • School of Dentistry
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 1999-2015
    • Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science
      • Division of Metrology for Quality LIfe
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2014
    • Dongguk University
      • Department of Energy Materials and Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005-2014
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Chemistry
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • National Academy of Agricultural Science (South Korea)
      • Division of Agricultural Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012-2013
    • MEDIPOST Biomedical Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea