[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diphtheria toxin (DT) has been utilized as a prospective anti-cancer agent for the targeted delivery of cytotoxic therapy to otherwise untreatable neoplasia. DT is an extremely potent toxin for which the entry of a single molecule into a cell can be lethal. DT has been targeted to cancer cells by deleting the cell receptor-binding domain and combining the remaining catalytic portion with targeting proteins that selectively bind to the surface of cancer cells. It has been assumed that "receptorless" DT cannot bind to and kill cells. In the present study, we report that "receptorless" recombinant DT385 is in fact cytotoxic to a variety of cancer cell lines.
In vitro cytotoxicity of DT385 was measured by cell proliferation, cell staining and apoptosis assays. For in vivo studies, the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) system was used to evaluate the effect of DT385 on angiogenesis. The CAM and mouse model system was used to evaluate the effect of DT385 on HEp3 and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor growth, respectively.
Of 18 human cancer cell lines tested, 15 were affected by DT385 with IC(50) ranging from 0.12-2.8 microM. Furthermore, high concentrations of DT385 failed to affect growth arrested cells. The cellular toxicity of DT385 was due to the inhibition of protein synthesis and induction of apoptosis. In vivo, DT385 diminished angiogenesis and decreased tumor growth in the CAM system, and inhibited the subcutaneous growth of LLC tumors in mice.
DT385 possesses anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activity and may have potential as a therapeutic agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The defining characteristic of a tumor cell is its ability to escape the constraints imposed by neighboring cells, invade the surrounding tissue and metastasize to distant sites. This invasive property of tumor cells is dependent on activation of proteinases at the cell surface. The serine proteinase plasmin is one of the key proteinases that participate in the pericellular proteolysis associated with the invasive program of tumor cells. The assembly of plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator at the endothelial cell surface or on the fibrin clot provides a focal point for plasmin generation and therefore plays an important role in maintaining blood fluidity and promoting fibrinolysis. S100A10, a member of the S100 family of Ca2+-binding proteins, is a dimeric protein composed of two 11 kDa subunits. Typically, S100A10 is found in most cells bound to its annexin A2 ligand as the heterotetrameric (S100A10)2(annexin A2)2 complex, AIIt. In addition to an intracellular distribution, S100A10 is present on the extracellular surface of many cells. The carboxyl-terminal lysines of S100A10 bind tPA and plasminogen resulting in the stimulation of tPA-dependent plasmin production. Carboxypeptidases cleave the carboxyl-terminal lysines of S100A10, resulting in a loss of binding and activity. Plasmin binds to S100A10 at a distinct site and the formation of the S100A10-plasmin complex stimulates plasmin autoproteolysis thereby providing a highly localized transient pulse of plasmin activity at the cell surface. The binding of tPA and plasmin to S100A10 also protects against inhibition by physiological inhibitors, PAI-1 and alpha2-antiplasmin, respectively. S100A10 also colocalizes plasminogen with the uPA-uPAR complex thereby localizing and stimulating uPA-dependent plasmin formation to the surface of cancer cells. The loss of S100A10 from the extracellular surface of cancer cells results in a significant loss in plasmin generation. In addition, S100A10 knock-down cells demonstrate a dramatic loss in extracellular matrix degradation and invasiveness as well as reduced metastasis. Annexin A2 plays an important role in plasminogen regulation by controlling the levels of extracellular S100A10 and by acting as a plasmin reductase. The mechanism by which annexin A2 regulates the extracellular levels of S100A10 is unknown. This review highlights the important part that S100A10 plays in plasmin regulation and the role this protein plays in cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Frontiers in Bioscience