Xuemei Lei

Beijing Normal University, Peping, Beijing, China

Are you Xuemei Lei?

Claim your profile

Publications (16)69.74 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is a keen interest in identifying specific brain regions that are related to individual differences in true and false memories. Previous functional neuroimaging studies showed that activities in the hippocampus, right fusiform gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus were associated with true and false memories, but no study thus far has examined whether the structures of these brain regions are associated with short-term and long-term true and false memories. To address that question, the current study analyzed data from 205 healthy young adults, who had valid data from both structural brain imaging and a misinformation task. In the misinformation task, subjects saw the crime scenarios, received misinformation, and took memory tests about the crimes an hour later and again after 1.5 years. Results showed that bilateral hippocampal volume was associated with short-term true and false memories, whereas right fusiform gyrus volume and surface area were associated with long-term true and false memories. This study provides the first evidence for the structural neural bases of individual differences in short-term and long-term true and false memories.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Brain Structure and Function
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is an intrinsic personality trait whose genetic and neural bases have recently been studied. The current study used a neural mediation model to explore whether resting-state brain functions mediated the effects of dopamine-related genes on SPS. 298 healthy Chinese college students (96 males, mean age = 20.42 years, SD = 0.89) were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging during resting state, genotyped for 98 loci within the dopamine system, and administered the Highly Sensitive Person Scale. We extracted a "gene score" that summarized the genetic variations representing the 10 loci that were significantly linked to SPS, and then used path analysis to search for brain regions whose resting-state data would help explain the gene-behavior association. Mediation analysis revealed that temporal homogeneity of regional spontaneous activity (ReHo) in the precuneus actually suppressed the effect of dopamine-related genes on SPS. The path model explained 16% of the variance of SPS. This study represents the first attempt at using a multi-gene voxel-based neural mediation model to explore the complex relations among genes, brain, and personality.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The GABRB1 gene encodes the beta 1 subunit of gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABA A receptor), which is responsible for mediating inhibitory neurotransmission in the thalamus. Potential relationships between the GABRB1 gene, thalamus volume, and intelligence have been suggested by previous clinical studies, but have not been directly examined among nonclinical samples. The current study collected structural MRI, genetic, and behavioral data in 316 healthy Chinese adults (including 187 females and 129 males), and examined associations between GABRB1 variants, thalamus volume, and intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised). After controlling for intracranial volume, sex, and age, GABRB1 genetic polymorphism at the SNP rs7435958 had the strongest association with thalamus volume (p=0.002 and 0.00008 for left and right thalamus volumes, respectively), with GG homozygotes having smaller bilateral thalamus volumes than the other genotypes. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between bilateral thalamus volumes and intelligence, especially for GABRB1 rs7435958 GG female homozygotes (r's=0.31 and 0.29, p<0.01, for the correlations of intelligence with left and right thalamus volumes, respectively). This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of the GABRB1 gene in thalamus structure and their interactive effects on intelligence. Future studies of the thalamus-intelligence associations should consider genetic factors as potential moderators.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · NeuroImage
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Allen Brain Atlas shows that the semaphorin 5A (SEMA5A) gene, which encodes an important protein for neurogenesis and neuronal apoptosis, is predominantly expressed in the human hippocampus. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have further shown that the hippocampus plays an important role in the performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM), a measure of reasoning ability and general fluid intelligence. Thus far, however, no study has examined the relationships between the SEMA5A gene polymorphism, hippocampal volume, and RPM performance. The current study collected both structural MRI, genetic, and behavioral data in 329 healthy Chinese adults, and examined associations between SEMA5A variants, hippocampal volume, and performance on RAPM (the advanced form of RPM). After controlling for intracranial volume (ICV), sex, and age, SEMA5A genetic polymorphism at the SNP rs42352 had the strongest association with hippocampal volume (p=0.00000552 and 0.000103 for right and left hippocampal volumes, respectively), with TT homozygotes having higher hippocampal volume than the other genotypes. Furthermore, there was a high correlation between right hippocampal volume and RAPM performance (r=0.42, p=0.0000509) for SEMA5A rs42352 TT homozygotes. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of the SEMA5A gene in hippocampal structure and their interaction on RAPM performance. Future studies of the hippocampus-RPM associations should consider genetic factors as potential moderators.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · NeuroImage
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The seven-factor biopsychosocial model of personality distinguished four biologically based temperaments and three psychosocially based characters. Previous studies have suggested that the four temperaments-Novelty Seeking (NS), Reward Dependence (RD), Harm Avoidance (HA), and Persistence (P)-have their respective neurobiological correlates, especially in the striatum-connected subcortical and cortical networks. However, few studies have investigated their neurobiological basis in the form of fiber connectivity between brain regions. This study correlated temperaments with fiber connectivity between the striatum and subcortical and cortical hub regions in a sample of 50 Chinese adult males. Generally consistent with our hypotheses, results showed that: (1) NS was positively correlated with fiber connectivity from the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, lOFC) and amygdala to the striatum; (2) RD was positively correlated with fiber connectivity from the mOFC, posterior cingulate cortex/retrosplenial cortex (PCC), hippocampus, and amygdala to the striatum; (3) HA was positively linked to fiber connectivity from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and PCC to the striatum; and (4) P was positively linked to fiber connectivity from the mOFC to the striatum. These results extended the research on the neurobiological basis of temperaments by identifying their anatomical fiber connectivity correlates within the subcortical-cortical neural networks.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · NeuroImage
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity has become a worldwide health problem in the past decades. Human and animal studies have implicated serotonin in appetite regulation, and behavior genetic studies have shown that body mass index (BMI) has a strong genetic component. However, the roles of genes related to the serotoninergic (5-hydroxytryptamine,5-HT) system in obesity/BMI are not well understood, especially in Chinese subjects. With a sample of 478 healthy Chinese volunteers, this study investigated the relation between BMI and genetic variations of the serotoninergic system as characterized by 136 representative polymorphisms. We used a system-level approach to identify SNPs associated with BMI, then estimated their overall contribution to BMI by multiple regression and verified it by permutation. We identified 12 SNPs that made statistically significant contributions to BMI. After controlling for gender and age, four of these SNPs accounted for 7.7% additional variance of BMI. Permutation analysis showed that the probability of obtaining these findings by chance was low (p = 0.015, permuted for 1000 times). These results showed that genetic variations in the serotoninergic system made a moderate contribution to individual differences in BMI among a healthy Chinese sample, suggesting that a similar approach can be used to study obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although much is known about college students as a special sample in terms of their behavioral traits such as intelligence and academic motivation, no studies have examined whether college students represent a “biased” sample in terms of their genotype frequencies. The present study investigated this issue by examining the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium of genotype frequencies of 284 SNPs covering major neurotransmitter genes in a sample of 478 Chinese college students, comparing these frequencies with those of a community sample (the 1000 Genomes dataset), and examining behavioral correlates of the SNPs in Hardy–Weinberg disequilibrium. Results showed that 24 loci showed Hardy–Weinberg disequilibrium among college students, but only two of these were in disequilibrium in the 1000 Genomes sample. These loci were found to be associated with mathematical abilities, executive functions, motivation, and adjustment-related behaviors such as alcohol use and emotion recognition. Generally, genotypes overrepresented in the college sample showed better performance and adjustment than under-represented or non-biased genotypes. This study illustrates a new approach to studying genetic correlates of traits associated with a socially-selected group—college students—and presents the first evidence of genetic stratification in terms of education attainment.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) is involved in the synthesis of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. It has been suggested that genes involved in the dopamine, norepinephrine, and cholinergic systems play an essential role in the efficiency of human attention networks. Attention refers to the cognitive process of obtaining and maintaining the alert state, orienting to sensory events, and regulating the conflicts of thoughts and behavior. The present study tested seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the DDC gene for association with attention, which was assessed by the Attention Network Test to detect three networks of attention, including alerting, orienting, and executive attention, in a healthy Han Chinese sample (N = 451). Association analysis for individual SNPs indicated that four of the seven SNPs (rs3887825, rs7786398, rs10499695, and rs6969081) were significantly associated with alerting attention. Haplotype-based association analysis revealed that alerting was associated with the haplotype G-A-T for SNPs rs7786398- rs10499695-rs6969081. These associations remained significant after correcting for multiple testing by max(T) permutation. No association was found for orienting and executive attention. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of the DDC gene in alerting attention. A better understanding of the genetic basis of distinct attention networks would allow us to develop more effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of deficient or underdeveloped alerting attention as well as its related prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous research reported that a rare serotonin receptor 2B gene (HTR2B) stop codon mutation predisposes subjects to severe impulsivity and novelty seeking. In this study, we expanded this previous work by testing six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the HTR2B gene for potential associations with the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the three components of the behavioral approach systems (BAS: fun seeking, drive, and reward responsiveness) in a Han Chinese sample (N = 478). Association analysis for individual SNPs indicated that four of the six SNPs (i.e., rs6437000, rs10194776, rs16827801, and rs1549339) were significantly associated with BAS fun seeking (p = .0003–.0022). Haplotype-based association analysis revealed that fun seeking was positively associated with haplotype A–A–G–A for SNPs rs6437000–rs10194776–rs16827801–rs1549339 (p = .0002), which survived Bonferroni correction. Except for the association between BAS reward responsiveness and rs16827801 (p = .005), no other association was found for BAS drive, BAS reward responsiveness, or BIS. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of the HTR2B gene in BAS fun seeking. A better understanding of the genetic basis of the BIS and BAS would allow us to develop more effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of impulsive behavioral problems.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Personality and Individual Differences
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The genetic and neural basis of working memory (WM) has been extensively studied. Many dopamine (DA) related genes, including the NTSR1 gene (a DA modulator gene), have been reported to be associated with WM performance. The NTSR1 protein is predominantly expressed in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, the latter of which is closely involved in WM processing based on both lesion and fMRI studies. Thus far, however, no study has examined the joint effects of NTSR1 gene polymorphism and hippocampal morphology on WM performance. Participants of the current study were 330 healthy Chinese college students. WM performance was measured with a 2-back WM paradigm. Structural MRI data were acquired and then analyzed using an automated procedure with atlas-based FreeSurfer segmentation software (v 4.5.0) package. Linear regression analyses were conducted with a NTSR1 C/T polymorphism previously associated with WM (rs4334545) , hippocampal volume, and their interaction as predictors of WM performance, with gender and intracranial volume (ICV) as covariates. Results showed a significant interaction between NTSR1 genotype and hippocampal volume (p<.05 for both the left and right hippocampi). Further analysis showed that the correlation between hippocampal volume and WM scores was significant for carriers of the NTSR1 T-allele (p<.05 for both hippocampi), but not for CC homozygotes. These results indicate that the association between hippocampal structure and WM performance was modulated by variation in the NTSR1 gene, and suggest that further studies of brain-behavior associations should take genetic background information into account.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · NeuroImage
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler's fallacy (GF). The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making mechanism. With data from a large sample of college students, we found that individuals' use of the GF strategy was positively correlated with their general intelligence and executive function, such as working memory and conflict resolution, but negatively correlated with their affective decision making capacities, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Our result provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the GF, which highlights the significant role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision-making.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Both genetic and environmental factors have been shown to influence decision making, but their relative contributions and interactions are not well understood. The present study aimed to reveal possible gene-environment interactions on decision making in a large healthy sample. Specifically, we examined how the frequently studied COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism interacted with an environmental risk factor (i.e., stressful life events) and a protective factor (i.e., parental warmth) to influence affective decision making as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. We found that stressful life events acted as a risk factor for poor IGT performance (i.e., high reward sensitivity) among Met carriers, whereas parental warmth acted as a protective factor for good IGT performance (i.e., higher IGT score) among Val/Val homozygotes. These results shed some new light on gene-environment interactions in decision making, which could potentially help us understand the underlying etiology of several psychiatric disorders associated with decision making impairment.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Scientific Reports
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous case-control and family-based association studies have implicated the SLC6A4 gene in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Little research, however, has examined this gene's role in obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in community samples. The present study genotyped seven tag SNPs and two common functional tandem repeat polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and STin2), which together cover the whole SLC6A4 gene, and investigated their associations with OCS in normal Chinese college students (N = 572). The results revealed a significant gender main effect and gender-specific genetic effects of the SLC6A4 gene on OCS. Males scored significantly higher on total OCS and its three dimensions than did females (ps < .01). The 5-HTTLPR in the promoter region showed a female-specific genetic effect, with the l/l and l/s genotypes linked to higher OCS scores than the s/s genotype (ps < .05). In contrast, a conserved haplotype polymorphism (rs1042173| rs4325622| rs3794808| rs140701| rs4583306| rs2020942) covering from intron 3 to the 3' UTR of the SLC6A4 gene showed male-specific genetic effects, with the CGAAGG/CGAAGG genotype associated with lower OCS scores than the other genotypes (ps < .05). These effects remained significant after controlling for OCS-related factors including participants' depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as stressful life events, and correction for multiple tests. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for our understanding of the sex-specific role of the different sections of the SLC6A4 gene in OCD.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Psychiatric Research
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Do false memories last? And do they last as long as true ones? This study investigated whether experimentally created false memories would persist for an extended period (one and a half years). A large number of subjects (N = 342) participated in a standard three-stage misinformation procedure (saw the event slides, read the narrations with misinformation, and then took the memory tests). The initial tests showed that misinformation led to a significant amount of false memory. One and a half years later, the participants were tested again. About half of the misinformation false memory persisted, which was the same rate as for true memory. These results strongly suggest that brief exposure to misinformation can lead to long term false memory and that the strength of memory trace was similar for true and false memories.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Applied Cognitive Psychology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Response inhibition refers to the suppression of inappropriate or irrelevant responses. It has a central role in executive functions, and has been linked to a wide spectrum of prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. Increasing evidence from neuropharmacological studies has suggested that gene variants in the norepinephrine neurotransmission system make specific contributions to response inhibition. This study genotyped five tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms covering the whole alpha-2B-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2B) gene and investigated their associations with response inhibition in a relatively large healthy Chinese sample (N=421). The results revealed significant genetic effects of the ADRA2B conserved haplotype polymorphisms on response inhibition as measured by stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) (F(2, 418)=5.938, p=0.003). Individuals with the AAGG/AAGG genotype (n=89; mean SSRT=170.2 ms) had significantly shorter SSRTs than did those with either the CCAC/AAGG genotype (n=216; mean SSRT=182.4 ms; uncorrected p=0.03; corrected p=0.09) or the CCAC/CCAC genotype (n=116; mean SSRT=195.8 ms; corrected p<0.002, Cohen's d=0.51). This finding provides the first evidence from association research in support of a critical role of the norepinephrine neurotransmission system in response inhibition. A better understanding of the genetic basis of response inhibition would allow us to develop more effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of deficient or underdeveloped response inhibition as well as its related prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Risky decision making is a complex process that involves weighing the probabilities of alternative options that can be desirable, undesirable, or neutral. Individuals vary greatly in how they make decisions either under ambiguity and/or under risk. Such individual differences may have genetic bases. Based on previous studies on the genetic basis of decision making, two decision making tasks [i.e., the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Loss Aversion Task (LAT)] were used to test the effect of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on decision making under ambiguity and under risk in a large Han Chinese sample (572 college students, 312 females). Basic intelligence and memory tests were also included to control for the influence of basic cognitive abilities on decision making. We found that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism significantly influenced performance in both IGT and LAT. After controlling for intelligence and memory abilities, subjects homozygous for s allele had lower IGT scores than l carriers in the first 40 trials of the IGT task. They also exhibited higher loss aversion than l carriers in the LAT task. Moreover, the effects of 5-HTTLPR were stronger for males than for females. These results extend the literature on the important role of emotion in decision making under ambiguity and risk, and shed additional lights on how decision making is influenced by culture as well as sex differences. Combining our results with existing literature, we propose that these effects might be mediated by a neural circuitry that comprises the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and insular cortex. Understanding the genetic factors affecting decision making in healthy subjects may allow us to better identify at-risk individuals, and better target the development of new potential treatments for specific disorders such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Neuropharmacology