M. A. Malkan

University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States

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Publications (294)783.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present ALMA detections of the [NII] 205$\mu$m and CO(12-11) emission lines, and the tentative detection of [CI] $^3$P$_1$ - $^3$P$_0$ for the strongly lensed ($\mu$=5.7$\pm$0.5) dusty, star-forming galaxy SPT-S J213242-5802.9 (hereafter SPT2132-58) at z=4.77. The [NII] and CO(12-11) lines are detected at 11.5 and 8.5 $\sigma$ level, respectively, by our band-6 observations. The [CI] line is detected at 3.2 $\sigma$ after a re-analysis of existing band-3 data. The [CI] luminosity implies a gas mass of 3.8$\pm$1.2$\times$10$^{10}$ M$_\odot$, and consequently a very short depletion timescale of 3$\pm$6 Myr and a CO-luminosity-to-gas-mass conversion factor $\alpha_{\rm CO}$ of 1.0$\pm$0.3 M$_\odot$ (K km s$^{-1}$ pc$^{2}$)$^{-1}$. SPT2132-58 is an extreme starburst with an intrinsic star formation rate of 1100$\pm$200 M$_\odot$/yr. We find a [CII]/[NII] ratio of 34$\pm$13, which is the highest reported at z$>$4. This suggests that SPT2132-58 hosts an evolved interstellar medium (0.5 Z$_\odot$<Z<1.5 Z$_\odot$), which may be dominated by photodissociation regions. The CO(2-1) and CO(5-4) transitions have lower CO-to-far-infrared ratios than local and high-redshift samples, while CO(12-11) is similar to these samples, suggesting the presence of an additional very excited component or an AGN.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: We probe star formation in the environments of massive (∼1013 M⊙) dark matter haloes at redshifts of z ∼ 1. This star formation is linked to a submillimetre clustering signal which we detect in maps of the Planck High Frequency Instrument that are stacked at the positions of a sample of high redshift (z > 2) strongly lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) 2500 deg2 survey. The clustering signal has submillimetre colours which are consistent with the mean redshift of the foreground lensing haloes (z ∼ 1). We report a mean excess of star formation rate (SFR) compared to the field, of (2700 ± 700) M⊙ yr−1 from all galaxies contributing to this clustering signal within a radius of 3.5 arcmin from the SPT DSFGs. The magnitude of the Planck excess is in broad agreement with predictions of a current model of the cosmic infrared background. The model predicts that 80 per cent of the excess emission measured by Planck originates from galaxies lying in the neighbouring haloes of the lensing halo. Using Herschel maps of the same fields, we find a clear excess, relative to the field, of individual sources which contribute to the Planck excess. The mean excess SFR compared to the field is measured to be (370 ± 40) M⊙ yr−1 per resolved, clustered source. Our findings suggest that the environments around these massive z ∼ 1 lensing haloes host intense star formation out to about 2 Mpc. The flux enhancement due to clustering should also be considered when measuring flux densities of galaxies in Planck data.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: To understand cosmic mass assembly in the Universe at early epochs, we primarily rely on measurements of stellar mass and star formation rate of distant galaxies. In this paper, we present stellar masses and star formation rates of six high-redshift ($2.8\leq z \leq 5.7$) dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) that are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. These sources were first discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at millimeter wavelengths and all have spectroscopic redshifts and robust lens models derived from ALMA observations. We have conducted follow-up observations, obtaining multi-wavelength imaging data, using {\it HST}, {\it Spitzer}, {\it Herschel} and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX). We use the high-resolution {\it HST}/WFC3 images to disentangle the background source from the foreground lens in {\it Spitzer}/IRAC data. The detections and upper limits provide important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for these DSFGs, yielding stellar masses, IR luminosities, and star formation rates (SFRs). The SED fits of six SPT sources show that the intrinsic stellar masses span a range more than one order of magnitude with a median value $\sim$ 5 $\times 10^{10}M_{\Sun}$. The intrinsic IR luminosities range from 4$\times 10^{12}L_{\Sun}$ to 4$\times 10^{13}L_{\Sun}$. They all have prodigious intrinsic star formation rates of 510 to 4800 $M_{\Sun} {\rm yr}^{-1}$. Compared to the star-forming main sequence (MS), these six DSFGs have specific SFRs that all lie above the MS, including two galaxies that are a factor of 10 higher than the MS. Our results suggest that we are witnessing the ongoing strong starburst events which may be driven by major mergers.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We give an overview of the Grism Lens Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS), a large Hubble Space Telescope program aimed at obtaining grism spectroscopy of the fields of ten massive clusters of galaxies at redshift z=0.308-0.686, including the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF). The Wide Field Camera 3 yields near infrared spectra of the cluster cores, covering the wavelength range 0.81-1.69mum through grisms G102 and G141, while the Advanced Camera for Surveys in parallel mode provides G800L spectra of the infall regions of the clusters. The WFC3 spectra are taken at two almost orthogonal position angles in order to minimize the effects of confusion. After summarizing the scientific drivers of GLASS, we describe the sample selection as well as the observing strategy and data processing pipeline. We then utilize MACSJ0717.5+3745, a HFF cluster and the first one observed by GLASS, to illustrate the data quality and the high-level data products. Each spectrum brighter than H_AB=23 is visually inspected by at least two co-authors and a redshift is measured when sufficient information is present in the spectra. Furthermore, we conducted a thorough search for emission lines through all the GLASS WFC3 spectra with the aim of measuring redshifts for sources with continuum fainter than H_AB=23. We provide a catalog of 139 emission-line based spectroscopic redshifts for extragalactic sources, including three new redshifts of multiple image systems (one probable, two tentative). In addition to the data itself we also release software tools that are helpful to navigate the data.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a method of selection of 24~$\mu$m galaxies from the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) Deep Field down to $150 \mbox{ }\mu$Jy and measurements of their two-point correlation function. We aim to associate various 24 $\mu$m selected galaxy populations with present day galaxies and to investigate the impact of their environment on the direction of their subsequent evolution. We discuss using of Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm applied to infrared photometric data to perform star-galaxy separation, in which we achieve an accuracy higher than 80\%. The photometric redshift information, obtained through the CIGALE code, is used to explore the redshift dependence of the correlation function parameter ($r_{0}$) as well as the linear bias evolution. This parameter relates galaxy distribution to the one of the underlying dark matter. We connect the investigated sources to their potential local descendants through a simplified model of the clustering evolution without interactions. We observe two different populations of star-forming galaxies, at $z_{med}\sim 0.25$, $z_{med}\sim 0.9$. Measurements of total infrared luminosities ($L_{TIR}$) show that the sample at $z_{med}\sim 0.25$ is composed mostly of local star-forming galaxies, while the sample at $z_{med}\sim0.9$ is composed of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with $L_{TIR}\sim 10^{11.62}L_{\odot}$. We find that dark halo mass is not necessarily correlated with the $L_{TIR}$: for subsamples with $L_{TIR}= 10^{11.15} L_{\odot}$ at $z_{med}\sim 0.7$ we observe a higher clustering length ($r_{0}=6.21\pm0.78$ $[h^{-1} \mbox{Mpc}]$) than for a subsample with mean $L_{TIR}=10^{11.84} L_{\odot}$ at $z_{med}\sim1.1$ ($r_{0}=5.86\pm0.69$ $h^{-1} \mbox{Mpc}$). We find that galaxies at $z_{med}\sim 0.9$ can be ancestors of present day $L_{*}$ early type galaxies, which exhibit a very high $r_{0}\sim 8$~$h^{-1} \mbox{Mpc}$.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present spatially-resolved imaging obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) of three CO lines in two high-redshift gravitationally lensed dusty star-forming galaxies, discovered by the South Pole Telescope. Strong lensing allows us to probe the structure and dynamics of the molecular gas in these two objects, at z=2.78 and z=5.66, with effective source-plane resolution of less than 1kpc. We model the lensed emission from multiple CO transitions and the dust continuum in a consistent manner, finding that the cold molecular gas as traced by low-J CO always has a larger half-light radius than the 870um dust continuum emission. This size difference leads to up to 50% differences in the magnification factor for the cold gas compared to dust. In the z=2.78 galaxy, these CO observations confirm that the background source is undergoing a major merger, while the velocity field of the other source is more complex. We use the ATCA CO observations and comparable resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array dust continuum imaging of the same objects to constrain the CO-H_2 conversion factor with three different procedures, finding good agreement between the methods and values consistent with those found for rapidly star-forming systems. We discuss these galaxies in the context of the star formation - gas mass surface density relation, noting that the change in emitting area with observed CO transition must be accounted for when comparing high-redshift galaxies to their lower redshift counterparts.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The morphology of the circumnuclear gas accreting onto supermassive black holes in Seyfert galaxies remains a topic of much debate. As the innermost regions of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are spatially unresolved, X-ray spectroscopy, and in particular line-of-sight absorption variability, is a key diagnostic to map out the distribution of gas. Observations of variable X-ray absorption in multiple Seyferts and over a wide range of timescales indicate the presence of clumps/clouds of gas within the circumnuclear material. Eclipse events by clumps transiting the line of sight allow us to explore the properties of the clumps over a wide range of radial distances from the optical/UV Broad Line Region (BLR) to beyond the dust sublimation radius. Time-resolved absorption events have been extremely rare so far, but suggest a range of density profiles across Seyferts. We resolve a weeks-long absorption event in the Seyfert NGC 3227. We examine six Suzaku and twelve Swift observations from a 2008 campaign spanning 5 weeks. We use a model accounting for the complex spectral interplay of three differently-ionized absorbers. We perform time-resolved spectroscopy to discern the absorption variability behavior. We also examine the IR-to-X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) to test for reddening by dust. The 2008 absorption event is due to moderately-ionized ($\log \xi\sim 1.2-1.4$) gas covering 90% of the line of sight. We resolve the density profile to be highly irregular, in contrast to a previous symmetric and centrally-peaked event mapped with RXTE in the same object. The UV data do not show significant reddening, suggesting that the cloud is dust-free. The 2008 campaign has revealed a transit by a filamentary, moderately-ionized cloud of variable density that is likely located in the BLR, and possibly part of a disk wind.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Multiwavelength Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of far-infrared (FIR) galaxies detected in the AKARI South Ecliptic Poles Survey (ADF-S) allow to trace differences between [Ultra]-Luminous Infrared Galaxies ([U]LIRGS) and other types of star-forming galaxies (SF).
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: Upcoming space-based surveys such as Euclid and WFIRST-AFTA plan to measure Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAOs) in order to study dark energy. These surveys will use IR slitless grism spectroscopy to measure redshifts of a large number of galaxies over a significant redshift range. In this paper, we use the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey (WISP) to estimate the expected number of Halpha (Ha) emitters observable by these future surveys. WISP is an ongoing HST slitless spectroscopic survey, covering the 0.8-1.65micron wavelength range and allowing the detection of Ha emitters up to z~1.5 and [OIII] emitters to z~2.3. We derive the Ha-[OIII] bivariate line luminosity function for WISP galaxies at z~1 using a maximum likelihood estimator that properly accounts for uncertainties in line luminosity measurement, and demonstrate how it can be used to derive the Ha luminosity function from exclusively fitting [OIII] data. Using the z~2 [OIII] line luminosity function, and assuming that the relation between Ha and [OIII] luminosity does not change significantly over the redshift range, we predict the Ha number counts at z~2 - the upper end of the redshift range of interest for the future surveys. For the redshift range 0.7<z<2, we expect ~3000 galaxies/deg^2 for a flux limit of 3x10^{-16} ergs/s/cm^2 (the proposed depth of Euclid galaxy redshift survey) and ~20,000 galaxies/deg^2 for a flux limit of ~10^{-16} ergs/s/cm^2 (the baseline depth of WFIRST galaxy redshift survey).
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the Universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA).
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We aim to study the evolution of dust attenuation in galaxies selected in the IR in the redshift range in which they are known to dominate the star formation activity in the universe. The comparison with other measurements of dust attenuation in samples selected using different criteria will give us a global picture of the attenuation at work in star-forming galaxies and its evolution with redshift. Using multiple filters of IRC instrument, we selected more than 4000 galaxies from their rest-frame emission at 8 microns, from z~0.2 to 2$. We built SEDs from the rest-frame UV to the far-IR by adding data in the optical-NIR and from GALEX and Herschel surveys. We fit SEDs with the physically-motivated code CIGALE. We test different templates for AGNs and recipes for dust attenuation and estimate stellar masses, SFRs, amount of dust attenuation, and AGN contribution to the total IR luminosity. The AGN contribution to the total IR luminosity is found to be on average approximately 10% with a slight increase with redshift. Dust attenuation in galaxies dominating the IR luminosity function is found to increase from z=0 to z=1 and to remain almost constant from z=1 to z=1.5. Conversely, when galaxies are selected at a fixed IR luminosity, their dust attenuation slightly decreases as redshift increases but with a large dispersion. The attenuation in our mid-IR selected sample is found ~ 2 mag higher than that found globally in the universe or in UV and Halpha line selections in the same redshift range. This difference is well explained by an increase of dust attenuation with the stellar mass, in global agreement with other recent studies. Starbursting galaxies do not systematically exhibit a high attenuation
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present spatially resolved gas-phase metallicity for a system of three galaxies at z=1.85 detected in the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). The combination of HST's diffraction limit and strong gravitational lensing by the cluster MACS J0717+3745 results in a spatial resolution of ~200-300 pc, enabling good spatial sampling despite the intrinsically small galaxy sizes. The galaxies in this system are separated by 50-200 kpc in projection and are likely in an early stage of interaction, evidenced by relatively high specific star formation rates. Their gas-phase metallicities are consistent with larger samples at similar redshift, star formation rate, and stellar mass. We obtain a precise measurement of the metallicity gradient for one galaxy and find a shallow slope compared to isolated galaxies at high redshift, consistent with a flattening of the gradient due to gravitational interaction. An alternative explanation for the shallow metallicity gradient and elevated star formation rate is rapid recycling of metal-enriched gas, but we find no evidence for enhanced gas-phase metallicities which should result from this effect. Notably, the measured stellar masses log(M/Msun) = 7.2-9.1 probe to an order of magnitude below previous mass-metallicity studies at this redshift. The lowest mass galaxy has properties similar to those expected for Fornax at this redshift, indicating that GLASS is able to directly study the progenitors of local group dwarf galaxies on spatially resolved scales. Larger samples from the full GLASS survey will be ideal for studying the effects of feedback, and the time evolution of metallicity gradients. These initial results demonstrate the utility of HST spectroscopy combined with gravitational lensing for characterizing resolved physical properties of galaxies at high redshift.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present [C ii] observations of 20 strongly lensed dusty star-forming galaxies at 2.1 < z < 5.7 using Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment and Herschel. The sources were selected on their 1.4 mm flux (S1.4 mm > 20 mJy) from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey, with far-infrared (FIR) luminosities determined from extensive photometric data. The [C ii] line is robustly detected in 17 sources, all but one being spectrally resolved. 11 out of 20 sources observed in [C ii] also have low-J CO detections from Australia Telescope Compact Array. A comparison with mid- and high-J CO lines from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array reveals consistent [C ii] and CO velocity profiles, suggesting that there is little differential lensing between these species. The [C ii], low-J CO and FIR data allow us to constrain the properties of the interstellar medium. We find [C ii] to CO(1–0) luminosity ratios in the SPT sample of 5200 ± 1800, with significantly less scatter than in other samples. This line ratio can be best described by a medium of [C ii] and CO emitting gas with a higher [C ii] than CO excitation temperature, high CO optical depth τCO(1–0) ≫ 1, and low to moderate [C ii] optical depth $\tau _{{\rm [C\,\small {II}]}}$≲ 1. The geometric structure of photodissociation regions allows for such conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present data products from the 300 ks Chandra survey in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Deep Field. This field has a unique set of nine-band infrared photometry covering 2–24 μm from the AKARI Infrared Camera, including mid-infrared (MIR) bands not covered by Spitzer. The survey is one of the deepest ever achieved at ∼15 μm, and is by far the widest among those with similar depths in the MIR. This makes this field unique for the MIR-selection of AGN at z ∼ 1. We design a source detection procedure, which performs joint maximum likelihood PSF (point spread function) fits on all of our 15 mosaicked Chandra pointings covering an area of 0.34 deg2. The procedure has been highly optimized and tested by simulations. We provide a point source catalogue with photometry and Bayesian-based 90 per cent confidence upper limits in the 0.5–7, 0.5–2, 2–7, 2–4, and 4–7 keV bands. The catalogue contains 457 X-ray sources and the spurious fraction is estimated to be ∼1.7 per cent. Sensitivity and 90 per cent confidence upper flux limits maps in all bands are provided as well. We search for optical–MIR counterparts in the central 0.25 deg2, where deep Subaru Suprime-Cam multiband images exist. Among the 377 X-ray sources detected there, ∼80 per cent have optical counterparts and ∼60 per cent also have AKARI MIR counterparts. We cross-match our X-ray sources with MIR-selected AGN from Hanami et al. Around 30 per cent of all AGN that have MIR SEDs purely explainable by AGN activity are strong Compton-thick AGN candidates.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the two-dimensional distribution and kinematics of the stars as well as molecular and ionized gas in the central few hundred parsecs of five active and five matched inactive galaxies. The equivalent widths of the Br gamma line indicate that there is no ongoing star formation in their nuclei, although recent (terminated) starbursts are possible in the active galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show no signs of non-circular motions, while the 1-0 S(1) H-2 kinematics exhibit significant deviations from simple circular rotation. In the active galaxies the H-2 kinematics reveal inflow and outflow superimposed on disk rotation. Steady-state circumnuclear inflow is seen in three active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and hydrodynamical models indicate it can be driven by a large-scale bar. In three of the five AGNs, molecular outflows are spatially resolved. The outflows are oriented such that they intersect, or have an edge close to, the disk, which may be the source of molecular gas in the outflow. The relatively low speeds imply the gas will fall back onto the disk, and with moderate outflow rates, they will have only a local impact on the host galaxy. H-2 was detected in two inactive galaxies. These exhibit chaotic circumnuclear dust morphologies and have molecular structures that are counter-rotating with respect to the main gas component, which could lead to gas inflow in the near future. In our sample, all four galaxies with chaotic dust morphology in the circumnuclear region exist in moderately dense groups with 10-15 members where accretion of stripped gas can easily occur.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present time series analyses of the full Kepler dataset of Zw 229-15. This Kepler light curve --- with a baseline greater than three years, composed of virtually continuous, evenly sampled 30-minute measurements --- is unprecedented in its quality and precision. We utilize two methods of power spectral analysis to investigate the optical variability and search for evidence of a bend frequency associated with a characteristic optical variability timescale. Each method yields similar results. The first interpolates across data gaps to use the standard Fourier periodogram. The second, using the CARMA-based time-domain modeling technique of Kelly et al. (2014), does not need evenly-sampled data. Both methods find excess power at high frequencies that may be due to Kepler instrumental effects. More importantly both also show strong bends ({\Delta}{\alpha} ~ 2) at timescales of ~5 days, a feature similar to those seen in the X-ray PSDs of AGN but never before in the optical. This observed ~5 day timescale may be associated with one of several physical processes potentially responsible for the variability. A plausible association could be made with light-crossing, dynamical or thermal timescales, depending on the assumed value of the accretion disk size and on unobserved disk parameters such as {\alpha} and H/R. This timescale is not consistent with the viscous timescale, which would be years in a ~10^7 Solar mass AGN such as Zw 229-15. However there must be a second bend on long (>~1 year) timescales, and that feature could be associated with the viscous timescale.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We analyse the 2-dimensional distribution and kinematics of the stars as well as molecular and ionised gas in the central few hundred parsecs of 5 active and 5 matched inactive galaxies. The equivalent widths of the Br-gamma line indicate there is no on-going star formation in their nuclei, although recent (terminated) starbursts are possible in the active galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show no signs of non-circular motions, while the 1-0S(1) H_2 kinematics exhibit significant deviations from simple circular rotation. In the active galaxies the H_2 kinematics reveal inflow and outflow superimposed on disk rotation. Steady-state circumnuclear inflow is seen in three AGN, and hydrodynamical models indicate it can be driven by a large scale bar. In three of the five AGN, molecular outflows are spatially resolved. The outflows are oriented such that they intersect, or have an edge close to, the disk - which may be the source of molecular gas in the outflow. The relatively low speeds imply the gas will fall back onto the disk; and with moderate outflow rates, they will have only a local impact on the host galaxy. H_2 was detected in two inactive galaxies. These exhibit chaotic circumnuclear dust morphologies and have molecular structures that are counter-rotating with respect to the main gas component, which could lead to gas inflow in the near future. In our sample, all four galaxies with chaotic dust morphology in the circumnuclear region exist in moderately dense groups with 10-15 members where accretion of stripped gas can easily occur.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
  • M. Karouzos · M. Im · M. Trichas · T. Goto · M. Malkan · A. Ruiz · Y. Jeon
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    ABSTRACT: There exist strong evidence supporting the co-evolution of central supermassive black holes and their host galaxies; however it is still under debate how such a relation comes about and whether it is relevant for all or only a subset of galaxies. A rich multi-wavelength dataset is available for the North Ecliptic Pole field, most notably surveyed by the AKARI infrared space telescope. We investigate the star-formation properties of the host galaxies of radio-AGN together with the radio feedback mechanism, potentially responsible for the eventual quenching of star formation. Using broadband SED modelling, the nuclear and host galaxy components of these sources are studied as a function of their radio luminosity. Here we present results concerning the AGN content of the radio sources in this field, while offering evidence supporting a maintenance type of feedback from powerful radio-jets.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we investigate the dependence of the covering factor (CF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on the mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity and the redshift. We constructed 12 and 22 μm luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.006 ≤z ≤ 0.3 using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. Combining the WISE catalog with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data, we selected 223,982 galaxies at 12 μm and 25,721 galaxies at 22 μm for spectroscopic classification. We then identified 16,355 AGNs at 12 μm and 4683 AGNs at 22 μm by their optical emission lines and cataloged classifications in the SDSS. Following that, we estimated the CF as the fraction of Type 2 AGN in all AGNs whose MIR emissions are dominated by the active nucleus (not their host galaxies) based on their MIR colors. We found that the CF decreased with increasing MIR luminosity, regardless of the choice of Type 2 AGN classification criteria, and the CF did not change significantly with redshift for z ≤ 0.2. Furthermore, we carried out various tests to determine the influence of selection bias and confirmed that similar dependences exist, even when taking these uncertainties into account. The luminosity dependence of the CF can be explained by the receding torus model, but the "modified" receding torus model gives a slightly better fit, as suggested by Simpson.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250 to 770 GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 3 mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z = 2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of 12CO, [C I], and H2O, we also detect several faint transitions of 13CO, HCN, HNC, HCO+, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the 13CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z > 2 star-forming galaxy in which 13CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO+, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T kin ~ 55 K and cm–3. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlikely to be significant for the bulk of these systems. We quantify the average emission from several species with no individually detected transitions, and find emission from the hydride CH and the linear molecule CCH for the first time at high redshift, indicating that these molecules may be powerful probes of interstellar chemistry in high-redshift systems. These observations represent the first constraints on many molecular species with rest-frame transitions from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in star-forming systems at high redshift, and will be invaluable in making effective use of ALMA in full science operations.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

7k Citations
783.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1986-2015
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      • • Division of Astronomy & Astrophysics
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2014
    • Nagoya University
      • Graduate School of Science
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • California State University, Los Angeles
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2013
    • University of California, Riverside
      Riverside, California, United States
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      • Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2012
    • McGill University
      • Department of Physics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2004
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 1999
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, New York, United States
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1998-1999
    • Wellesley College
      • Department of Astronomy
      Уэлсли, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1997-1999
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996-1998
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1984
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1982
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Pasadena, California, United States