Vlad Zabrouskov

Thermo Fisher Scientific, Волтам, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (38)134.32 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Chemical & Engineering News
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    ABSTRACT: Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is a valuable tool for protein sequence analysis, especially for the fragmentation of intact proteins. However, low product ion signal-to-noise often requires some degree of signal averaging to achieve high quality MS/MS spectra of intact proteins. Here we describe a new implementation of ETD on the newest generation of quadrupole-Orbitrap-linear ion trap Tribrid, the Orbitrap Fusion Lumos, for improved product ion signal-to-noise via ETD reactions on larger precursor populations. In this new high precursor capacity ETD implementation, precursor cations are accumulated in the center section of the high pressure cell in the dual pressure linear ion trap prior to charge-sign independent trapping, rather than precursor ion sequestration in only the back section as is done for standard ETD. This new scheme increases the charge capacity of the precursor accumulation event, enabling storage of approximately 3-fold more precursor charges. High capacity ETD boosts the number of matching fragments identified in a single MS/MS event, reducing the need for spectral averaging. These improvements in intra-scan dynamic range via reaction of larger precursor populations, which have been previously demonstrated through custom modified hardware, are now available on a commercial platform, offering considerable benefits for intact protein analysis and top down proteomics. In this work, we characterize the advantages of high precursor capacity ETD through studies with myoglobin and carbonic anhydrase. Graphical Abstract ᅟ
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary microvesicles constitute a rich source of membrane-bound and intracellular proteins that may provide important clues of pathophysiological mechanisms in renal disease. In the current study, we analyzed and compared the proteome of urinary microvesicles from patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN), idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (iFSGS), and normal controls using an approach that combined both proteomics and pathology analysis. Lysosome membrane protein-2 (LIMP-2) was increased greater than two-fold in urinary microvesicles obtained from patients with iMN compared to microvesicles of patients with iFSGS and normal controls. Immunofluorescence analysis of renal biopsies confirmed our proteomics findings that LIMP-2 was upregulated in glomeruli from patients with iMN but not in glomeruli of diseased patients (iFSGS, minimal change nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) and normal controls. Confocal laser microscopy showed co-localization of LIMP-2 with IgG along the glomerular basement membrane. Serum antibodies against LIMP-2 could not be detected. In conclusion, our data show the value of urinary microvesicles in biomarker discovery and provide evidence for de novo expression of LIMP-2 in glomeruli of patients with iMN. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Proteomics
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    ABSTRACT: Histones, and their modifications, are critical components of cellular programming and epigenetic inheritance. Recently, cancer genome sequencing has uncovered driver mutations in chromatin modifying enzymes spurring high interest how such mutations change histone modification patterns. Here, we applied Top-Down mass spectrometry for the characterization of combinatorial modifications (i.e., methylation and acetylation) on full length histone H3 from human cell lines derived from multiple myeloma patients with overexpression of the histone methyltransferase MMSET as the result of a t(4;14) chromosomal translocation. Using the latest in Orbitrap-based technology for clean isolation of isobaric proteoforms containing up to 10 methylations and/or up to 2 acetylations, we provide extensive characterization of histone H3.1 and H3.3 proteoforms. Differential analysis of modifications by electron-based dissociation recapitulated antagonistic crosstalk between K27 and K36 methylation in H3.1, validating that full-length histone H3 (15 kDa) can be analyzed with site-specific assignments for multiple modifications. It also revealed K36 methylation in H3.3 was affected less by the overexpression of MMSET due to its higher methylation levels in control cells. The co-occurrence of acetylation with a minimum of three methyl groups in H3K9 and H3K27 suggested a hierarchy in the addition of certain modifications. Comparative analysis showed that high levels of MMSET in the myeloma-like cells drove the formation of hypermethyled proteoforms containing H3K36me2 co-existent with the repressive marks H3K9me2/3 and H3K27me2/3. Unique histone proteoforms with such "trivalent hypermethylation" (K9me2/3-K27me2/3-K36me2) were not discovered when H3.1 peptides were analyzed by Bottom-Up. Such disease-correlated proteoforms could link tightly to aberrant transcription programs driving cellular proliferation, and their precise description demonstrates that Top-Down mass spectrometry can now decode crosstalk involving up to three modified sites. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
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    ABSTRACT: Top-down analysis of intact proteins by mass spectrometry provides an ideal platform for comprehensive proteoform characterization, in particular, for the identification and localization of post-translational modifications (PTM) co-occurring on a protein. One of the main bottlenecks in top-down proteomics is insufficient protein sequence coverage caused by incomplete protein fragmentation. Based on previous work on peptides, increasing sequence coverage and PTM localization by combining sequential ETD and HCD fragmentation in a single fragmentation event, we hypothesized that protein sequence coverage and phospho-proteoform characterization could be equally improved by this new dual fragmentation method termed EThcD, recently been made available on the Orbitrap Fusion. Here, we systematically benchmark the performance of several (hybrid) fragmentation methods for intact protein analysis on an Orbitrap Fusion, using as a model system a 17.5 kDa N-terminal fragment of the mitotic regulator Bora. During cell division Bora becomes multiply phosphorylated by a variety of cell cycle kinases, including Aurora A and Plk1, albeit at distinctive sites. Here, we monitor the phosphorylation of Bora by Aurora A and Plk1, analyzing the generated distinctive phospho-proteoforms by top-down fragmentation. We show that EThcD and ETciD on a Fusion are feasible and capable of providing richer fragmentation spectra compared to HCD or ETD alone, increasing protein sequence coverage, and thereby facilitating phosphosite localization and the determination of kinase specific phosphorylation sites in these phospho-proteoforms. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001845.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Analytical Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Proteome coverage and peptide identification rates have historically advanced in line with improvements to the detection limits and spectral acquisition rate of the mass spectrometer. For a linear ion trap/Orbitrap hybrid, the acquisition rate has been limited primarily by the duration of the ion accumulation and analysis steps. It is shown here that the spectral acquisition rate can be significantly improved through extensive parallelization of the acquisition process using a novel mass spectrometer incorporating quadrupole, Orbitrap and linear trap analyzers. Further, these improvements to the spectral acquisition rate continue to enhance proteome coverage and general experimental throughput.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Analytical Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: In mass spectrometry-based proteomics, data-independent acquisition (DIA) strategies can acquire a single data set useful for both identification and quantification of detectable peptides in a complex mixture. However, DIA data are noisy owing to a typical five- to tenfold reduction in precursor selectivity compared to data obtained with data-dependent acquisition or selected reaction monitoring. We demonstrate a multiplexing strategy, MSX, for DIA analysis that increases precursor selectivity fivefold.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Nature Methods
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    ABSTRACT: Top-down mass spectrometry has been used to investigate structural diversity within some abundant salivary protein families. In this study, we report the identification of two isoforms of protein II-2 which differed in mass by less than 1 Da, the determination of a sequence for protein IB8a that was best satisfied by including a mutation and a covalent modification in the C-terminal part, and the assignment of a sequence of a previously unreported protein of mass 10433 Da. The final characterization of Peptide P-J was achieved, and the discovery of a truncated form of this peptide was reported. The first sequence assignment was done at low resolution using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight instrument to quickly identify and characterize proteins, and data acquisition was switched to Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) for proteins that required additional sequence coverage and certainty of assignment. High-resolution and high mass accuracy mass spectrometry on a FTICR-mass spectrometry (MS) instrument combined with electron-capture dissociation (ECD) provided the most informative data sets, with the more frequent presence of "unique" ions that unambiguously define the primary structure. A mixture of predictable and unusual post-translational modifications in the protein sequence precluded the use of shotgun-annotated databases at this stage, requiring manual iterations of sequence refinement in many cases. This led us to propose guidelines for an iterative processing workflow of MS and MSMS data sets that allow researchers to completely assign the identity and the structure of a protein.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Analytical Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: We report the implementation of front-end higher energy collision-induced dissociation (fHCD) on a benchtop dual-pressure linear ion trap. Software and hardware modifications were employed, described in detail vide-infra, to allow isolated ions to undergo collisions with ambient gas molecules in an intermediate multipole (q00) of the instrument. Results comparing the performance of fHCD and resonance excitation collision-induced dissociation (RE-CID) in terms of injection time, total number of scans, efficiency, mass measurement accuracy (MMA), unique peptide identifications, and spectral quality of labile modified peptides are presented. fHCD is approximately 23% as efficient as RE-CID, and depending on the search algorithm, it identifies 6.6% more or 15% less peptides (q < 0.01) from a soluble whole-cell lysate ( Caenorhabditis elegans ) than RE-CID using Mascot or Sequest search algorithms, respectively. fHCD offers a clear advantage for the analysis of phosphorylated and glycosylated (O-GlcNAc) peptides as the average cross-correlation score (XCorr) for spectra using fHCD was statistically greater (p < 0.05) than for spectra collected using RE-CID.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Analytical Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Proteomics is gradually complementing large shotgun qualitative studies with hypothesis-driven quantitative experiments. Targeted analyses performed on triple quadrupole instruments in selected reaction monitoring mode are characterized by a high degree of selectivity and low limit of detection; however, the concurrent analysis of multiple analytes occurs at the expense of sensitivity because of reduced dwell time and/or selectivity due to limitation to a few transitions. A new data acquisition paradigm is presented in which selected reaction monitoring is performed in two ways to simultaneously quantify and confirm the identity of the targeted peptides. A first set of primary transitions is continuously monitored during a predetermined elution time window to precisely quantify each peptide. In addition, a set of six to eight transitions is acquired in a data-dependent event, triggered when all the primary transitions exceed a preset threshold. These additional transitions are used to generate composite tandem mass spectra to formally confirm the identity of the targeted peptides. This technique was applied to analyze the tryptic digest of a yeast lysate to demonstrate the performance of the technique. We showed a limit of detection down to tens of attomoles injected and a throughput exceeding 6000 transitions in one 60-min experiment. The technique was integrated into a linear work flow, including experimental design, data acquisition, and data evaluation, enabling large scale proteomic studies.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
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    Terry Zhang · Rosa Viner · Zhiqi Hao · Vlad Zabrouskov

    Preview · Article · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Top-down proteomics characterizes protein primary structures with unprejudiced descriptions of expressed and processed gene products. Gene sequence polymorphisms, protein post-translational modifications, and gene sequence errors can all be identified using top-down proteomics. Saliva offers advantages for proteomic research because of availability and the noninvasiveness of collection and, for these reasons, is being used to search for disease biomarkers. The description of natural protein variants, and intra- and inter-individual polymorphisms, is necessary for a complete description of any proteome, and essential for the discovery of disease biomarkers. Here, we report a striking example of natural protein variants with the discovery by top-down proteomics of two new variants of Peptide P-C. Intact mass measurements, and collisionally activated-, infrared multiphoton-, and electron capture-dissociation, were used for characterization of the form predicted from the gene sequence with an average mass 4371 Da, a form postulated to result from a single nucleotide polymorphism of mass 4372 Da, and another form of mass 4370 Da postulated to arise from a novel protein sequence polymorphism. While the biological significance of such subtle variations in protein structure remains unclear, their importance cannot be assigned without their characterization, as is reported here for one of the major salivary proteins.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
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    ABSTRACT: The considerable progress in high-throughput proteomics analysis via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry over the past decade has been fueled to a large degree by continuous improvements in instrumentation. High-throughput identification experiments are based on peptide sequencing and are largely accomplished through the use of tandem mass spectrometry, with ion trap and trap-based instruments having become broadly adopted analytical platforms. To satisfy increasingly demanding requirements for depth of characterization and throughput, we present a newly developed dual-pressure linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ Velos) that features increased sensitivity, afforded by a new source design, and demonstrates practical cycle times 2 times shorter than that of an LTQ XL, while improving or maintaining spectral quality for MS/MS fragmentation spectra. These improvements resulted in a substantial increase in the detection and identification of both proteins and unique peptides from the complex proteome of Caenorhabditis elegans, as compared to existing platforms. The greatly increased ion flux into the mass spectrometer in combination with improved isolation of low-abundance precursor ions resulted in increased detection of low-abundance peptides. These improvements cumulatively resulted in a substantially greater penetration into the baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) proteome compared to LTQ XL. Alternatively, faster cycle times on the new instrument allowed for higher throughput for a given depth of proteome analysis, with more peptides and proteins identified in 60 min using an LTQ Velos than in 180 min using an LTQ XL. When mass analysis was carried out with resolution in excess of 25,000 full width at half-maximum (fwhm), it became possible to isotopically resolve a small intact protein and its fragments, opening possibilities for top down experiments.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Analytical Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Mass and top-down analyses of 150-kDa monoclonal immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) antibodies were performed on an Orbitrap analyzer. Three different sample delivery methods were tested including (1) infusion of an off-line desalted IgG sample using nano-electrospray; (2) on-line desalting followed by a step elution with a high percentage of organic solvent; and (3) reversed-phase HPLC separation and on-line mass and top-down analyses of disulfide isoforms of an IgG2 antibody. The accuracy of mass measurements of intact antibody was within +/-2 Da (15 ppm). The glycoforms of intact IgG antibodies separated by 162 Da were baseline resolved. In-source fragmentation of the intact antibodies produced mainly 115 residue fragments including N-terminal variable domains of heavy and light chains. The sequence coverage (the number of cleavages) was greatly increased after reduction of disulfide bonds and HPLC/MS/MS analysis of light and heavy chains using collision-induced dissociation in the ion trap of the LTQ-Orbitrap. This is an attractive alternative to peptide mapping for characterization and monitoring of post-translational modifications attributed to minimal sample preparation, high speed of the mass/top-down analysis, and relatively minor method-induced sample modifications.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
  • Rosa I Viner · Terry Zhang · Tonya Second · Vlad Zabrouskov
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    ABSTRACT: The modification of Ser/Thr residues in proteins by addition of single O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moieties play an important role in cell regulation. However, understanding the cellular mechanisms that regulate O-GlcNAc glycosylation has been challenging due to the difficulty in detection and quantification of this modification. Mass spectrometry-based multiplex quantitative approaches have been successfully employed to measure relative phosphorylation levels using collisionally induced dissociation (CID). However, labile modifications such as O-GlcNAc are lost prior to fragmentation of the peptide backbone in conventional CID, often preventing correct peptide identification, localization of the modified site, and as a result, relative quantification. Compared to CID, Electron Transfer Dissociation (ETD) preserves labile post-translational modifications (PTMs), and allows direct mapping of peptide/protein modifications. This is the first report to assess the utility of combining multiplexed isobaric tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and ETD for relative quantification of labile PTMs. ETD analysis of both labeled and unlabeled peptides from bovine alpha-crystallins pinpointed at least one O-GlcNAc containing modification site in each of the protein subunits, in addition to a multitude of other PTMs, including glycation, phosphorylation, and acetylation. Moreover, ETD of TMT(6) labeled peptides produced four unique reporter ions that could be used for relative quantification. TMT reporter ion ratios measured by ETD had similar accuracy and precision as those obtained by conventional CID techniques. When applied to glycosylated or otherwise modified peptides, ETD was the only dissociation method which consistently provided confident sequence identification, PTM localization, and quantitative information, all in the same spectrum. This suggests that ETD-based workflows can be complementary to traditional CID approaches when used for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of modified peptides.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of proteomics
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro evaluation of histones and their PTMs has drawn substantial interest in the development of epigenetic therapies. The differential expression of histone isoforms may serve as a potential marker in the classification of diseases affected by chromatin abnormalities. In this study, protein profiling by LC and MS was used to explore differences in histone composition in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Extensive method validations were performed to determine the experimental variances that would impact histone relative abundance. The resulting data demonstrated that the proposed methodology was suitable for the analysis of histone profiles. In 4 normal individuals and 40 CLL patients, a significant decrease in the relative abundance of histone H2A variants (H2AFL and H2AFA/M*) was observed in primary CLL cells as compared to normal B cells. Protein identities were determined using high mass accuracy MS and shotgun proteomics.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Proteomics
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    ABSTRACT: Here we detail the modification of a quadrupole linear ion trap-orbitrap hybrid (QLT-orbitrap) mass spectrometer to accommodate a negative chemical ionization (NCI) source. The NCI source is used to produce fluoranthene radical anions for imparting electron transfer dissociation (ETD). The anion beam is stable, robust, and intense so that a sufficient amount of reagents can be injected into the QLT in only 4-8 ms. Following ion/ion reaction in the QLT, ETD product ions are mass-to-charge (m/z) analyzed in either the QLT (for speed and sensitivity) or the orbitrap (for mass resolution and accuracy). Here we describe the physical layout of this device, parametric optimization of anion transport, an evaluation of relevant ETD figures of merit, and the application of this instrument to protein sequence analysis. Described proteomic applications include complex peptide mixture analysis, post-translational modification (PTM) site identification, isotope-encoded quantitation, large peptide characterization, and intact protein analysis. From these experiments, we conclude the ETD-enabled orbitrap will provide the proteomic field with several new opportunities and represents an advance in protein sequence analysis technologies.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Journal of Proteome Research
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    T. Zhang · R. Viner · Z. Hao · V. Zabrouskov

    Preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics
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    Vlad Zabrouskov · Ying Ge · Jae Schwartz · Jeffery W Walker
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac troponin I (cTnI), the inhibitory subunit of the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin regulatory complex, is required for heart muscle relaxation during the cardiac cycle. Expressed only in cardiac muscle, cTnI is widely used in the clinic as a serum biomarker of cardiac injury. In vivo function of cTnI is influenced by phosphorylation and proteolysis; therefore analysis of post-translational modifications of the intact protein should greatly facilitate the understanding of cardiac regulatory mechanisms and may improve cTnI as a disease biomarker. cTnI (24 kDa, pI approximately 9.5) contains twelve serine, eight threonine, and three tyrosine residues, which presents a challenge for unequivocal identification of phosphorylation sites and quantification of positional isomers. In this study, we used top down electron capture dissociation and electron transfer dissociation MS to unravel the molecular complexity of cTnI purified from human heart tissue. High resolution MS spectra of human cTnI revealed a high degree of heterogeneity, corresponding to phosphorylation, acetylation, oxidation, and C-terminal proteolysis. Thirty-six molecular ions of cTnI were detected in a single ESI/FTMS spectrum despite running as a single sharp band on SDS-PAGE. Electron capture dissociation of monophosphorylated cTnI localized two major basal phosphorylation sites: a well known site at Ser(22) and a novel site at Ser(76)/Thr(77), each with partial occupancy (Ser(22): 53%; Ser(76)/Thr(77): 36%). Top down MS(3) analysis of diphosphorylated cTnI revealed occupancy of Ser(23) only in diphosphorylated species consistent with sequential (or ordered) phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the Ser(22/23) pair. Top down MS of cTnI provides unique opportunities for unraveling its molecular complexity and for quantification of phosphorylated positional isomers thus allowing establishment of the relevance of such modifications to physiological functions and disease status.
    Preview · Article · May 2008 · Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
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    ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can result in protein sequence polymorphisms (PSPs) when codon translations are altered. Both top-down and bottom-up proteomics strategies can identify PSPs, but only if databases and software are used with this in mind. A 14319 Da protein from human saliva was characterized using the top-down approach on a hybrid linear ion-trap Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer equipped for both collisionally-activated (CAD) and electron-capture (ECD) dissociation. Sequence tags identified the protein as Cystatin SN, and defined the N-terminal signal peptide cleavage site, as well as two disulfide bonds, in agreement with previous studies. The mass of the intact protein (< 5 ppm error) deviated from that calculated from the published gene sequence by 16.031 Da, and, based on CAD and ECD fragment ion assignments, it was concluded that the isoform of the protein analyzed carried a PSP at residue 11 such that the Pro translated from the genome was in fact Leu/Ile. An independently determined SNP (rs2070856) subsequently confirmed the genetic basis of the mass spectral interpretation and defined the residue as Leu. In another example, the PRP3 protein with mass ∼10,999 Da was found to be an isomeric/isobaric mixture of the reported sequence with PSPs D4N or D50N (rs1049112). Both CAD and ECD datasets support two phosphorylation sites at residues Ser8 and Ser22, rather than Ser17. In the context of discovery proteomics, previously undefined PSPs and PTMs will only be detected if the logic of data processing strategies considers their presence in an unbiased fashion.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · International Journal of Mass Spectrometry