[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to examine whether the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with HIV is associated with changes in pericardial fat and myocardial lipid content measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).
In this prospective case-control study, we compared 27 HIV seropositive (+) male subjects receiving HAART to 22 control male subjects without HIV matched for age, ethnicity and body mass index. All participants underwent CMR imaging for determination of pericardial fat [as volume at the level of the origin of the left main coronary artery (LM) and at the right ventricular free wall] and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for evaluation of intramyocardial lipid content (% of fat to water in a single voxel at the interventricular septum). All measurements were made by two experienced readers blinded to the clinical history of the study participants. Two-sample t-test, Spearman’s correlation coefficient or Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multivariable logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.
Pericardial fat volume at the level of LM origin was higher in HIV (+) subjects (33.4 cm 3 vs. 27.4 cm 3 , p = 0.03). On multivariable analysis adjusted for age, Framingham risk score (FRS) and waist/hip ratio, pericardial fat remained significantly associated to HIV-status (OR 1.09, p = 0.047). For both HIV (+) and HIV (-) subjects, pericardial fat volume showed strong correlation with intramyocardial lipid content (r = 0.58, p < 0.0001) and FRS (r = 0.53, p = 0.0002). Among HIV (+) subjects, pericardial fat was significantly higher in patients with lipo-accumulation (37 cm 3 vs. 27.1 cm 3 , p = 0.03) and showed significant correlation with duration of both HIV infection (r = 0.5, p = 0.01) and HAART (r = 0.46, p = 0.02).
Pericardial fat content is increased in HIV (+) subjects on chronic HAART (>5 years), who demonstrate HAART-related lipo-accumulation and prolonged HIV duration of infection. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether increased pericardial fat is associated with higher cardiovascular risk leading to premature cardiovascular events in this patient population.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To assess whether gradations of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes measured with coronary computed tomography (CT) would augment risk stratification and discrimination for incident mortality.
Materials and methods:
This study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained when required. Subjects without known coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent cardiac CT angiography with quantitative LV measurements were categorized according to LVEF (≥ 55%, 45%-54.9%, 35%-44.9%, or <35%). LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) and LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) were classified as normal (≥ 90 mL) or abnormal (≥ 200 mL). CAD extent and severity was categorized as none, nonobstructive, obstructive (≥ 50%), one-vessel, two-vessel, and three-vessel or left main disease. LVEF and volumes were assessed for risk prediction and discrimination of future mortality by using Cox hazards model and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, respectively.
During a follow-up of 2.0 years ± 0.9, 7758 patients (mean age, 58.5 years ± 13.0; 4220 male patients [54.4%]) were studied. At multivariable analysis, worsening LVEF was independently associated with mortality for moderately (hazard ratio = 3.14, P < .001) and severely (hazard ratio = 5.19, P < .001) abnormal ejection fraction. LVEF demonstrated improved discrimination for mortality (Az = 0.816) when compared with CAD risk factors alone (Az = 0.781) or CAD risk factors plus extent and severity. At multivariable analysis of a subgroup of 3706 individuals, abnormal LVEDV (hazard ratio = 4.02) and LVESV (hazard ratio = 6.46) helped predict mortality (P < .001). Similarly, LVESV and LVEDV demonstrated improved discrimination when compared with CAD risk factors or CAD extent and severity (P < .05).
LV dysfunction and volumes measured with cardiac CT angiography augment risk prediction and discrimination for future mortality.