[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal expression of various oncogenes has been implicated in the development of many malignant tumors. Although RNA blotting methods have been used to measure abnormal expression, they involve the time-consuming process of individually labeling the oncogene probes. To simplify this process we have attempted to develop a new method, termed simultaneous screening, which is based on the synthesis of radiolabeled cDNA corresponding to the mRNA population of malignant cells and on hybridization with various oncogene probes, immobilized on a membrane filter. This method circumvents the time-consuming process of the prevailing RNA blotting methods and is also sensitive enough to detect accurately a five- to ten-fold level of expression of rare mRNA (∼10 copies per cell). Overexpression of ten oncogenes was detected in a variety of malignant cells and mitogen-stimulated cells with this method. These results suggest that our simultaneous screening method can be used to examine the overexpression of oncogenes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Syrian hamster embryo cell lines, SHOK and MC-1, were used as recipient cells for DNA transfection assay to detect transforming genes in experimental mouse tumours. A mouse repeat sequence was utilised to check whether each transformed focus included mouse genomic DNA in the Hamster background. We investigated five mouse tumours that are related to X-ray radiation, and detected activated c-K-ras, c-mos, and c-cot oncogenes which induced foci of hamster cells. These results show that SHOK and MC-1 cells have unique properties for detecting transforming genes in experimental mouse tumours.
Preview · Article · Mar 1993 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new transforming gene has been molecularly cloned from hamster SHOK cells transformed with DNA extracted from a human thyroid
carcinoma cell line and named the cot (cancer Osaka thyroid) oncogene. cDNA sequencing disclosed that this oncogene codes
for a protein with 415 amino acid residues, and computer matching showed 42 to 48% similarity matches with serine protein
kinases. Its gene product was identified as a 52-kDa protein by transcription and translation in vitro. Expression of cot
cDNA under transcriptional control by a retroviral long terminal repeat induced morphological transformation of NIH 3T3 cells
as well as SHOK cells. Protein kinase activity associated with constructed p60gag-cot was detected by immune complex kinase
assay with anti-gag antiserum. The cot oncogene was overexpressed in transformed SHOK cells and found to have a rearranged
3' end in the last coding exon, which probably resulted in a deletion and an altered C' terminus in the transforming protein.
This DNA rearrangement appeared to have occurred during transfection of the tumor DNA into hamster SHOK cells and not in the
original thyroid tumor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant phages that carry the human smooth muscle (enteric type) gamma-actin gene were isolated from human genomic DNA libraries. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence matches those of cDNAs but differs from the protein sequence previously reported at one amino acid position, codon 359. The gene containing one 5' untranslated exon and eight coding exons extends for 27 kb on human chromosome 2. The intron between codons 84 and 85 (site 3) is unique to the two smooth muscle actin genes. In the 5' flanking region, there are several CArG boxes and E boxes, which are regulatory elements in some muscle-specific genes. Hybridization with the 3' untranslated region, which is specific for the human smooth muscle gamma-actin gene, suggests the single gene in the human genome and specific expressions in enteric and aortic tissues. From characterized molecular structures of the six human actin isoform genes, we propose a hypothesis of evolutionary pathway of the actin gene family. A presumed ancestral actin gene had introns at least sites 1, 2, and 4 through 8. Cytoplasmic actin genes may have directly evolved from it through loss of introns at sites 5 and 6. However, through duplication of the ancestral actin gene with substitutions of many amino acids, a prototype of muscle actin genes had been created. Subsequently, striated muscle actin and smooth muscle actin genes may have evolved from this prototype by loss of an intron at site 4 and acquisition of a new intron at site 3, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have determined the nucleotide (nt) sequence of 5.5 kb including the 5' flanking, first untranslated exon and first intron regions of the human smooth muscle (SM) (aortic type) alpha-actin-(Sm alpha A)- encoding gene. The promoter region and a part of the first intron show remarkably high sequence conservation with equivalent regions of the chicken gene, and contain multiple transcriptional regulatory elements. From transient chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) expression assays in SM cells, a DNA fragment from nt -123 to +49 containing two CArG boxes showed strong positive promoter activity, whereas a far upstream region from nt -253 to -124 showed a negative effect. The conserved region in the first intron also contains the CArG box and showed an enhancer activity. Therefore, the human SM alpha A gene is controlled under positive and negative mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipocortin I, a Ca2(+)-and phospholipid-binding protein without EF-hand structures, has many biological effects in vitro. Its actual role in vivo, however is unknown. We obtained and characterized five monoclonal antibodies to lipocortin I. Two of these monoclonal antibodies (L2 and L4-MAbs) reacted with the Ca(+)-bound form of lipocortin I, but not with the Ca2(+)-free form, both in vivo and in vitro. Lipocortin I required greater than or equal to 10 microM-Ca2+ to bind the two antibodies, and this Ca2+ requirement was not affected by phosphatidylserine. L2-MAb abolished the phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity of lipocortin I and inhibited its binding to Escherichia coli membranes and to phosphatidylserine in vitro. L4-MAb abolished the phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity of lipocortin I, but did not affect its binding to E. coli membranes or to phosphatidylserine. These findings indicated that the inhibition of phospholipase A2 by lipocortin I was not simply due to removal or capping of the substrates in E. coli membranes. Furthermore, an immunofluorescence study using L2-MAb showed the actual existence of Ca2(+)-bound form of lipocortin I in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition by alpha-cyano-3-ethoxy-4-hydroxy-5-phenylthiomethylcinnamamide (ST 638) of tyrosine-specific protein kinase was examined using epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated A431 cells at the concentration of 25 to 100 microM. ST 638 had negligible effects on the growth and morphology of A431 cells and on EGF binding to its receptor, and subsequent down-regulation of the receptor. ST 638 specifically inhibited EGF-induced phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of whole cell proteins in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues. ST 638 greatly inhibited the EGF-induced phosphorylation of lipocortin I at 25 microM, and yet had a negligible effect on the EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGF receptor. Neither the amount of [35S]methionine-labeled lipocortin I nor the serine/threonine phosphorylation level of fodrin beta-subunit was affected by the same concentration of ST 638. These results indicate that the phosphorylation of lipocortin I is not relevant to the transformation of A431 cells. In cell lines transformed by src or fgr oncogene encoding tyrosine kinase, ST 638 also inhibited phosphorylation of calpactin I (p36) without affecting that of the oncogene products. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that ST 638 specifically inhibited the EGF-induced phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of cellular proteins in A431 cells.
Preview · Article · Jun 1990 · Japanese journal of cancer research: Gann
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two non-tumorigenic variant cells were isolated from UV-irradiated Balb/c 3T3 cells on the basis of their different responsiveness in phorbol ester-induced morphological change (rounding formation). They showed marked differences of lung metastatic potentials after intravenous injections of their v-src transformants into nude mice; phorbol ester-resistant variant TR4 cells transformed by v-src were hypermetastatic, whereas v-src transformants of phorbol ester-sensitive variant TR5 cells were not metastatic at all. These different metastatic responses were not observed in v-K-ras-induced transformants of the variants. These non-tumorigenic variant cells may pre-acquire the genetic alteration of certain src-specific and metastasis-associated factors. This system may be useful for genetic analysis of the induction of metastasis.
Preview · Article · Jun 1990 · Japanese journal of cancer research: Gann
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We established a subclone, SHOK, from the GHE-L cell line, an immortal line derived from a primary culture of Syrian hamster embryo cells, as a recipient cell line useful for the detection of oncogenes by transfection. SHOK cells were almost as susceptible as NIH 3T3 cells to focus formation by many oncogenes, including v-raf, v-Ha-ras, v-Ki-ras, or activated c-Ha-ras. The susceptibility of SHOK to focus formation was higher than that of NIH 3T3 for v-mos but was lower for v-fps, v-fgr, v-src, v-sis, and v-abl. When DNAs extracted from 27 human and murine tumors were tested for focus formation, 5 DNAs were positive in NIH 3T3 cells, whereas 9 were positive in SHOK cells at the primary transfection. Using SHOK cells as recipients of tumor cellular DNA, we isolated another oncogene and a c-Ki-ras2 gene mutated at codon 146 that were difficult to detect in NIH 3T3 cells. SHOK cells have a low rate of spontaneous transformation, produce easily distinguishable foci, and maintain a stable karyotype in transformed cells. In addition to being useful for the screening of human tumor DNAs, SHOK cells will be useful for the isolation of oncogenes from murine tumors because of their hamster origin.
Preview · Article · May 1990 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated N-ras activation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (dALL) by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the oligonucleotide hybridization method. The frequency of point-mutation of the N-ras gene was not high (2 of 15), and one positive case who relapsed was analyzed in detail. Although N-ras gene activation was detected at both onset and relapse, the mutation sites were different. At onset, Gly (GGT) was changed to Ser (AGT) at codon 12, and at relapse, Gly (GGT) to Asp (GAT) was observed at the same codon. In addition, the DNA at relapse showed a remarkably higher transforming activity than the DNA at onset on two independent recipient cell lines. The identical cell surface phenotype and the same rearrangement patterns of both the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain and T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma chain genes indicated that the leukemic cells at onset and those at relapse were derived from the same precursor cell. Therefore, this case supports the concept that ras activation is not the event initiating leukemogenesis, but may be involved in leukemic progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An automated, video-driven system has been developed which can quantitate dynamic cell morphology in cultured mammalian cells. This system is based upon the Personal Image Analysis System and is assisted by a video-enhanced contrast microscopy with a computer-aided digital image processing unit and a time-lapse video technique. Various parameters for cell motility including locomotion (vectorial translation) and accompanying shape changes can be simultaneously analyzed. Here, we describe this system and demonstrate its application in Balb/c 3T3 cell culture. This system represents a new tool for exploring subtleties of mammalian cell behavior.
No preview · Article · Jan 1990 · Experimental Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanism of the morphological changes induced in cells by tumor-promoting phorbol esters, we isolated a 3T3 cell variant which was morphologically unresponsive to phorbol esters and analyzed the activation of protein kinase C induced by the phorbol esters in it. The variant resembled the parent cells in its activation and appeared to have been altered at some step distal to the early events of protein kinase C activation.
No preview · Article · Jan 1990 · Biochemistry international
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We isolated the 3'-downstream part of the human aortic smooth muscle alpha-actin (SM alpha A)-encoding gene and determined the nucleotide sequence, including the ninth (last) exon and 3'-untranslated (UT) region. From the comparison of the human 3'-UT region with rat and chicken 3'-UT regions, its homology is lower than those in 3'-UT regions of other actin isoforms such as cardiac alpha-actin and cytoskeletal beta-actin. Therefore, by using the 3'-UT region of the human SM alpha A gene as an actin isoform-specific probe, this gene was detected as a single copy only in the human genome, which expressed the 1.7-kb RNA transcript in an aortic tissue-specific manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two distinct 68-kDa proteins, named 68K-I (pI 6.4) and 68K-II (pI 5.6), were solubilized from human placenta by treatment with 5 mM EGTA. On DE52 cellulose column chromatography at pH 7.4, 68K-I in the EGTA eluate was recovered in the unadsorbed fractions, whereas 68K-II was retained on the column and eluted with 0.2 M NaCl. The 68K-I protein was obtained in more than 95% purity by further hydroxylapatite and cation exchange chromatographies, while the 68K-II protein was purified further by gel filtration and hydroxylapatite chromatographies. Partial amino acid sequence data showed that 68K-I protein was a novel protein which shared the same sequences as lipocortin I and that 68K-II was the same as human p68/67-kDa calelectrin (Crompton, M. R., Owens, R. J., Totty, N. F., Moss, S. E., Waterfield, M.D., and Crumpton, M. J. (1988) EMBO J. 7, 21-27; Südhof, T. C., Slaughter, C. A., Leznicki, I., Barjon, P., and Reynolds, G. A. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 664-668). The two proteins bound to acidic phospholipids, phosphatidylserine, and/or phosphatidylinositol, but not to phosphatidylcholine, in the presence of micromolar levels of Ca2+. 68K-I bound to phosphatidylinositol preferentially to phosphatidylserine, whereas 68K-II bound only to phosphatidylserine. Both 68K-I and 68K-II inhibited phospholipase A2 activity, and the inhibition by 68K-II was detectable only in the presence of 100 mM KCl. 68K-I, but not 68K-II, was found to bind to F-actin in a Ca2+-dependent (1 mM) manner. Moreover 68K-I, but not 68K-II, was phosphorylated in vitro at tyrosine residues by fps kinase and by epidermal growth factor receptor/kinase, the latter reaction being dependent on Ca2+ and epidermal growth factor. Western blot analysis with affinity purified anti-68K-I and anti-68K-II antibodies showed that 68K-I was located in only certain tissues, especially human placenta, whereas 68K-II was present in many human and rat tissues.
Preview · Article · Nov 1989 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stimulation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in the formation of high-molecular-weight lipocortins I, having apparent molecular weights of 75 kDa and 160 kDa as detected with specific anti-lipocortin I antibody. These immunoreactive proteins were identified to be covalently cross-linked multimers of lipocortin I, since essentially the same cross-linked multimers were observed when purified lipocortin I was incubated with tissue transglutaminase (TGase) in vitro. Classical amine substrates for TGase, such as dansylcadaverine and putrescine, were also incorporated stoichiometrically into lipocortin I. Cross-linking or amine incorporation was not observed with lipocortin II. Des 1-26 lipocortin I did not serve as a substrate for TGase, indicating that the N-terminal region of lipocortin I plays an important role in the formation of lipocortin I multimers. The cross-linking of lipocortin I by TGase resulted in a remarkable enhancement of calcium sensitivity for phospholipid binding; i.e., the free calcium concentration required for the cross-linked lipocortin I to attain 50% maximal binding to phosphatidylserine vesicles was as little as 3 microM, while that required for intact monomeric lipocortin I was 20 microM.
No preview · Article · Oct 1989 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The motility of individual mammalian cells is crucial for many biological processes. This report describes a new technique to quantitate cell motility, momentary alterations of cell shape, based on trace images obtained by video-image analyses and computer techniques. By means of this system, quantitation of cell motility could be automatically done without human observation or subjective judgement. Quantitative data from transformed and nontransformed rodent fibroblasts revealed that the cell motility measured here was related to the expression of such transformed phenotypes as morphological changes and tumorigenicity.
No preview · Article · Jun 1989 · Japanese journal of cancer research: Gann
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition by seven synthetic 4-hydroxycinnamamide derivatives, ST 271, ST 280, ST 458, ST 494, ST 633, ST 638, and ST 642, of tyrosine-specific protein kinases (tyrosine kinase) of oncogene or proto-oncogene products (p130gag-v-fps, p70gag-actin-v-fgr, pp60v-src, pp60c-src) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase were investigated. ST 638 (alpha-cyano-3-ethoxy-4-hydroxy-5-phenylthiomethylcinnamamide) strongly inhibited more of the tyrosine kinases than any of the other compounds. The susceptibilities of these tyrosine kinases to ST 638 increased in the following order: EGF receptor greater than p70gag-actin-v-fgr greater than pp60c-src greater than p130gag-v-fps, pp60v-src, with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 1.1, 4.2, 18, 70, and 87 microM, respectively. The phosphorylation of the tyrosine residues in particulate fractions from RR1022 cells expressing pp60v-src was inhibited by ST 638 in a dose-dependent way, while it had a negligible effect on the phosphorylations of threonine and serine residues. Kinetic analysis showed that ST 638 competitively inhibited the phosphorylation of an exogenous substrate by the EGF receptor kinase with a Ki of 2.1 microM. ST 638 noncompetitively inhibited autophosphorylation by EGF receptor kinase. These results indicate that ST 638 is a potent and specific inhibitor of tyrosine kinases in vitro, and that its inhibitory activity is caused by competing with the substrate protein for the tyrosine kinase binding site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A phospholipid column was prepared by coating siliconized porous glass beads with phospholipids. The analysis of the Ca2+ requirement of lipocortin I and its derivatives in the binding to phospholipids was carried out with this column. The Ca2+ concentration required for 50% binding to the phospholipid column at room temperature was about 30 microM for lipocortin I, while that was reduced to 15 microM when lipocortin I was phosphorylated by the epidermal growth factor receptor/kinase, and a further reduction in the Ca2+ requirement was observed with proteolytic cleavage at the N-terminal region. Cathepsin D and calpain I (low calcium-requiring form of calcium-activated neutral protease) rapidly cleaved human placental lipocortin I at Trp-12 and Lys-26, respectively. These N-terminal-truncated proteins required only 5 microM Ca2+ for 50% binding to the phospholipid column. This enhancement of Ca2+ sensitivity by limited proteolysis was also observed for porcine lung lipocortin I. Essentially the same results were obtained when the Ca2+ sensitivities of the modified lipocortins I were analyzed using dispersed phospholipid vesicles instead of the phospholipid affinity column. Equilibrium dialysis indicated that the release of the N-terminal region markedly increased the affinity of lipocortin I for Ca2+ in the presence of phosphatidylserine, without any appreciable change of the number of Ca2+-binding sites. Limited proteolysis by endogenous proteases such as calpain may be an important regulatory mechanism for the Ca2+ sensitivity of lipocortin I in phospholipid binding.
Preview · Article · May 1989 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The motility of individual mammalian cells is crucial for many biological processes. This report describes a new technique to quantitate cell motility momentary alterations of cell shape, based on trace images obtained by video-image analyses and computer techniques. By means of this system, quantitation of cell motility could be automatically done without human observation or subjective judgement. Quantitative data from transformed and nontransformed rodent fibroblasts revealed that the cell motility measured here was related to the expression of such transformed phenotypes as morphological changes and tumorigenicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oncogene of Gardner-Rasheed feline sarcoma virus (GR-FeSV) encodes the 70-kilodalton protein containing gag(p15), gamma-actin, and fgr domains. To determine the role of these domains in the biological activity of P70gag-actin-fgr, we have constructed in-frame deletion and insertion mutants of GR-FeSV. We found, first, that the gamma-actin region could be deleted without affecting the transforming ability of these constructs, although an insertion mutant in the middle of the gamma-actin domain (map position 671) was partially defective in transformation and specifically had a reduced level of in vitro autophosphorylation activity. Second, mutations affecting the C-terminal third of the gag region appeared to abolish the ability to transform NIH 3T3 cells and autophosphorylation activity. These results suggest that the gamma-actin domain is not essentially required for the transforming activity of GR-FeSV but that it may take part in maintaining the conformational integrity of P70gag-actin-fgr and that the gag(p15) domain might have a critical role in modulating the function of P70gag-actin-fgr.
Preview · Article · Apr 1989 · Journal of Virology