[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A divergent and highly stereoselective route to 11 glycosylated methymycin analogues has been developed. The key to the success of this method was the iterative use of the Pd-catalyzed glycosylation reaction and postglycosylation transformation. This unique application of Pd-catalyzed glycosylation demonstrates the breath of α/β- and d/l-glycosylation of macrolides that can be efficiently prepared using a de novo asymmetric approach to the carbohydrate portion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vitro characterization of the catalytic activity of DesVII, the glycosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the macrolide antibiotics methymycin, neomethymycin, narbomycin, and pikromycin in Streptomyces venezuelae, is described. DesVII is unique among glycosyltransferases in that it requires an additional protein component, DesVIII, for activity. Characterization of the metabolites produced by a S. venezuelae mutant lacking the desVIII gene confirmed that desVIII is important for the biosynthesis of glycosylated macrolides but can be replaced by at least one of the homologous genes from other pathways. The addition of recombinant DesVIII protein significantly improves the glycosylation efficiency of DesVII in the in vitro assay. When affinity-tagged DesVII and DesVIII proteins were coproduced in Escherichia coli, they formed a tight (αβ)(3) complex that is at least 10(3)-fold more active than DesVII alone. The formation of the DesVII/DesVIII complex requires coexpression of both genes in vivo and cannot be fully achieved by mixing the individual protein components in vitro. The ability of the DesVII/DesVIII system to catalyze the reverse reaction with the formation of TDP-desosamine was also demonstrated in a transglycosylation experiment. Taken together, our data suggest that DesVIII assists the folding of DesVII during protein production and remains tightly bound during catalysis. This requirement must be taken into consideration in the design of combinatorial biosynthetic experiments with new glycosylated macrolides.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of the macrolide glycosyltransferase, DesVII/DesVIII, showed that when multiple hydroxyl groups are present, no regiospecificity of glycosylation is observed for the linear substrates. In contrast, when cyclic substrates with multiple glycosylation sites were tested, it displayed excellent regiospecificity in most cases. These results clearly indicate that this enzyme pair is a valuable tool for glycodiversification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The two essential structural components of macrolide antibiotics are the polyketide aglycone and the appended sugars. The aglycone formation is catalyzed by polyketide synthase (PKS), and glycosylation is catalyzed by an appropriate glycosyltransferase. Although it has been shown that glycosylation occurs after the cyclic aglycone is released from PKS, it is not known whether the acyl carrier protein (ACP)-bound linear polyketide chain can also be processed by the corresponding glycosyltransferase. To explore this possibility, the aglycone, 10-deoxymethynolide, which is the precursor of methymycin and neomethymycin, was chemically synthesized in the linear form as a N-acetylcysteamine (NAC) thioester. Subsequent incubation with TDP-d-desosamine in the presence of the dedicated glycosyltransferase, DesVII, and activator, DesVIII, produces a more polar product whose high-resolution mass is consistent with the anticipated glycosylated product. This study demonstrated for the first time that a macrolide glycosyltransferase can also recognize and process the linear precursor of its macrolactone substrate with a reduced but measurable activity.
Preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (Chemical Equation Presented) Two's Company: DesVII, a glycosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of macrolide antibiotics, is unusual in that it requires an additional protein partner, DesVIII, for its full activity. The level of substrate tolerance of the DesVII/DesVIII pair was explored.
No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Angewandte Chemie International Edition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro catalytic activity of DesVII, the glycosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of methymycin, neomethymycin, narbomycin, and pikromycin in Streptomyces venezuelae, is described. This is the first report of demonstrated in vitro activity of a glycosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of macrolide antibiotics. DesVII is unique among glycosyltransferases in that it requires an additional protein component, DesVIII, as well as basic pH for its full activity.
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our study of the biosynthesis of D-desosamine in Streptomyces venezuelae, we have cloned and sequenced the entire desosamine biosynthetic cluster. The deduced product of one of the genes, desR, in this cluster shows high sequence homology to beta-glucosidases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages, a function not required for the biosynthesis of desosamine. Disruption of the desR gene led to the accumulation of glucosylated methymycin/neomethymycin products, all of which are biologically inactive. It is thus conceivable that methymycin/neomethymycin may be produced as inert diglycosides, and the DesR protein is responsible for transforming these antibiotics from their dormant to their active forms. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that the translated desR gene has a leader sequence characteristic of secretory proteins, allowing it to be transported through the cell membrane and hydrolyze the modified antibiotics extracellularly to activate them. Expression of desR and biochemical characterization of the purified protein confirmed the catalytic function of this enzyme as a beta-glycosidase capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of glucosylated methymycin/neomethymycin produced by S. venezuelae. These results provide strong evidence substantiating glycosylation/deglycosylation as a likely self-resistance mechanism of S. venezuelae. However, further experiments have suggested that such a glycosylation/deglycosylation is only a secondary self-defense mechanism in S. venezuelae, whereas modification of 23S rRNA, which is the target site for methymycin and its derivatives, by PikR1 and PikR2 is a primary self-resistance mechanism. Considering that postsynthetic glycosylation is an effective means to control the biological activity of macrolide antibiotics, the availability of macrolide glycosidases, which can be used for the activation of newly formed antibiotics that have been deliberately deactivated by engineered glycosyltransferases, may be a valuable part of an overall strategy for the development of novel antibiotics using the combinatorial biosynthetic approach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [formula: see text] The appended sugars in macrolide antibiotics are indispensable to the biological activities of these important drugs. In an effort to generate a set of novel macrolide derivatives, we have created a new analogue of methymycin and neomethymycin, antibiotics produced by Streptomyces venezuelae. This analogue 15 carrying a different sugar, D-quinovose, instead of D-desosamine, was constructed by taking advantage of targeted gene deletion combined with a specific pathway-independent C-3 reduction capability of the wild type S. venezuelae.