Sunil Agarwal

Christian Medical College Vellore, Velluru, Tamil Nadu, India

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Publications (39)28.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) is a rare clinically polymorphic tumor that mimics both benign and malignant conditions. It presents with dermal or subcutaneous nodules on the extremities in young adults. We present here a case of epithelioid sarcoma of the inguinal region infiltrating the femoral vessels. Biopsy is diagnostic and good histopathological evaluation is critical in management.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Indian Journal of Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: . Elevated factor VIII population in the Indian population has not been studied as a possible risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). High factor VIII level is considered a predisposing factor for DVT and its recurrence. However it is known to vary between populations and its exact role in the etiopathogenesis of thrombophilia remains unknown. Material and Methods . Factor VIII levels of patients with DVT who had undergone a prothrombotic workup as a part of their workup was compared to normal age matched controls in a 1 : 3 ratio. Results . There were 75 patients with DVT who had undergone a prothrombotic workup in the course of their treatment for lower limb DVT. In these, 64% had levels of factor VIII more than 150 as compared to 63% of normal controls ( p > 0 . 05 , not significant). Conclusion . Elevated factor VIII in the Indians may not be associated with the same thrombotic risk as seen in the West. We find a variation in the levels of factor VIII with a different “normal” than what is reported in other populations. This needs further study to elucidate the role of factor VIII in the evaluation and treatment of thrombophilia.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: [Please check the following sentence for clarity: "Point-of-care devices measuring international normalized ratio have clinical appeal, reports of 'off-label' in-hospital/primary care use report improved time to intervention/dose adjustment."]Point-of-care devices measuring international normalized ratio have clinical appeal, reports of 'off-label' in-hospital/primary care use report improved time to intervention/dose adjustment. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of a device for such multiple patient use compared to a reference laboratory. Methods: The point-of-care international normalized ratio result of patients on oral anticoagulation at the Vascular Surgery clinic was compared to the reference to check for statistical and clinical correlation. This was a prospective case-control study design with sample size calculated for sensitivity of 87.5%, precision 5% and desired confidence level 95%. Results: There were 168 patients tested; 55% were male, the mean age was 45.4. Sixty per cent were in the target international normalized ratio range. Tests were done for statistical and clinical correlation. The international normalized ratio range using the point-of-care device was 0.8-7.5 (reference lab 0.8-10), mean international normalized ratio was 2.22 ± 1.6 (point-of-care device) compared to 2.46 ± 1.3 (reference lab). The mean absolute difference was 0.79 ± 0.92 and the mean relative difference was 8.1% ± 1.03. Data was analysed using a Bland-Altman plot yielding a mean of 0.738 (standard deviation 0.92). Concordance between the tests was 75% with r2 = 0.52 on linear regression. Using an error grid plot, excellent clinical correlation was seen in 63.8%. In 5.4% major corrective action was needed but potentially missed if relying on the point-of-care device. Conclusion: The accuracy and precision of this point-of-care device is moderate. It may have potential utility only where access to a reference lab is difficult.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Phlebology
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    ABSTRACT: Fig 1. Clinical presentation: swelling in the right thigh with an area of ulceration (red arrow).
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Vascular Surgery
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    George Joseph · Sunil Agarwal
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    ABSTRACT: A 52-year-old man presenting with severely symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia had proximal occlusion of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries and critical stenosis of the inferior mesenteric artery ostium. Concurrent percutaneous revascularization with stenting of all three mesenteric arteries was successfully achieved using techniques tailored to each lesion. Complete clinical recovery was observed at the six-month post-procedure follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Indian Heart Journal
  • Indrani Sen · Sunil Agarwal

    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · ANZ Journal of Surgery

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015
  • Indrani Sen · Sunil Agarwal

    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Chronic venous ulcers are quite commonly seen in vascular surgery outpatient clinics in India. Understanding the pathophysiology and identification of the primary cause forms the cornerstone of treatment. However there are many management challenges especially in developing countries. Aim To study the role of four layer bandage dressing in chronic venous ulcer management by assessing healing rates, the time to heal and compliance rate in the outpatient setting. Methods This is a retrospective study of patients with chronic venous ulcers presenting to vascular surgery outpatient department from September 2012 to July 2013 who were treated with four layer dressings. Results A total of 202 patients were treated with four layer dressings during this period. Of these 32 were excluded for various reasons. Of the 170 patients studied, healing was seen in 87.6%. Most of the ulcers healed by 4 weeks (50.6%). There was 90% patient compliance. Conclusion Four layer dressing is effective in the healing of venous ulcers in the outpatient setting with good patient compliance.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Wound Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Venous ulcers are a major source of morbidity to the patient and result in significantly poorer quality of life.[1]. Faster healing of these ulcer results in relief of significant financial burden to the patient and the society. Compression therapy continues to be the mainstay in the treatment of venous ulcers. However a group of patients have non healing or recurrent ulcer inspite of the above treatment. We present two cases of refractory non healing venous ulcers which were successfully treated with a combination of four layer dressing and iliac vein stenting.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Wound Medicine
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    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory carotid pseudotumor is a rare differential of a unilateral neck swelling in the carotid triangle. A 48-year-old man presented with a firm non-tender gradually progressive left neck swelling for five months. Computed tomography angiogram revealed a mass encasing the common carotid. Patient underwent excision; histopathology was reported as inflammatory pseudotumor. Patient had a recurrence after eight months. Steroids were prescribed with which the swelling resolved, patient remained recurrence free at two-year follow-up.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Vascular
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    ABSTRACT: Carotid body tumors are considered rare. However, there has been an increase in the number of these tumors managed at our center in recent years. Delayed presentation with large tumors is common. We studied the clinical profile, interventions, and outcomes of these tumors and assessed the factors influencing operative neurological morbidity and recurrence. This retrospective study was conducted at the Christian Medical College in Vellore, a tertiary care center in south India. We analyzed the inpatient and outpatient records of patients diagnosed to have carotid body tumors undergoing excision from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2011. Patients diagnosed to have vagal paragangliomas were excluded. Thirty-four of 48 tumors were excised from 32 patients (11 female, 21 male). Average age at presentation was 38.2 years, and three patients had familial bilateral tumors. All patients presented with a painless neck mass. There were 27 Shamblin group III, six Shamblin group II, and one Shamblin group I tumor. Eleven Shamblin group II/III tumors were associated with transient cranial nerve palsy or paresis (32.3%). Two Shamblin group III tumors were associated with perioperative stroke (5.8%). Preoperative embolization was done in 17 tumors, 12 of which were associated with neurological complications (two stroke, nine nerve palsy, one hemianopia). One patient underwent thrombolysis for a middle cerebral artery thrombus and recovered completely on follow-up, and another with a capsuloganglionic infarct managed conservatively had minimal persistent disability. Three patients had persistent nerve palsy (8.8%). Although complications were more common in patients with higher Shamblin group tumors, the difference was not statistically significant. The overall rate of neurological complications is higher with tumors of higher Shamblin groups. Preoperative embolization was not effective in reducing neurological complications. The rates of postoperative stroke and permanent cranial nerve palsy after resection of large tumors are acceptable.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter
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    Indrani Sen · Edwin Stephen · Sunil Agarwal
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    ABSTRACT: Aortoiliac arterial occlusive (AIOD) disease is common in India. The clinical presentation and etiology are different than in the West. Intervention is frequently required for advanced lower extremity ischemia, but the results have not been systemically evaluated. We studied the clinical profile and midterm results of patients undergoing aortobifemoral bypass for AIOD at a tertiary care center in south India. Clinical data of patients undergoing aortobifemoral bypass for AIOD over a 6-year period from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical presentation and factors affecting outcome were evaluated. Graft patency and mortality were included as study end points. Ninety-nine patients (mean age, 52 years) with AIOD who underwent aortobifemoral bypass were included. Etiology included atherosclerosis in 79 patients, thromboangiitis obliterans in 15, Takayasu's arteritis in two, and hematological conditions in 3. Smoking (82%), hypertension (40%), and diabetes (30%) were the most common risk factors; ischemic heart disease (4%), obesity (2%), and dyslipidemia (3%) were rare. Eighty-one percent of patients presented with critical limb ischemia. Mean duration of symptoms was 22 months (range, 4 months to 9 years). Concomitant infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease was identified in 81%, but intervened upon in only 2%. In-hospital mortality was 3%. Causes of death included myocardial infarction in two and colon ischemia in one. Major morbidity included nonfatal myocardial infarction (3%), pneumonia/atelectasis (5%), and renal dysfunction (2%). Groin wound complications occurred in 20%, seroma/lymph leak in 13%, infection in 7%, and anastomotic hemorrhage in 2%. Multidrug-resistant and polymicrobial infections were common. Early graft thrombosis (30 days) occurred in 15 patients; 8 of 11 reintervened grafts were salvaged. Four more grafts thrombosed during a mean follow-up of 2 years (range, 0-5 years) and two became infected. Overall study major limb loss rate was 10% (primary, 2%; secondary, 8%). Delayed presentation and smoking were more common in patients developing complications. There was no significant difference in overall complication rates between patients with thromboangiitis obliterans and atherosclerosis (P = .66). Despite earlier age at presentation, atherosclerosis remains the predominant etiology of aortoiliac arterial occlusive disease in Indian patients. Results of open revascularization are comparable to those in the Western literature. Thromboangiitis obliterans is the underlying pathology in a minority of patients with no significant difference in operative outcome. Patients frequently present late with critical limb ischemia, but this does not affect outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter
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    ABSTRACT: Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms are rare in the peripheral arteries and usually occur as a late sequel of trauma. Surgery has traditionally been considered as the gold standard of therapy for traumatic peripheral pseudoaneurysms. We report 2 cases of post traumatic pseudoaneurysms successfully treated by percutaneous cyanoacrylate glue (N-Butyl 2 cyanoacrylate) embolization. This method offers complete exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm, at the same time avoiding the morbidity of open surgery.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Indian Journal of Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) leads to skin changes with dermal hemosiderin deposi-tion. We studied the presence of hemosiderin in the urine to assess if this could be used as a biochemical marker for CVI. Hereby we pres-ent a case control study conducted in a tertiary care centre in South India. There were 100 cases with evidence of advanced CVI (the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology classification: C5, C6) confirmed by duplex scanning. Controls were 50 patients with leg ulcers due to other etiologies. All patients were subjected to urinary hemosiderin testing. In all 100 patients with CVI (C5 and C6 disease) axial venous reflux was confirmed by duplex ultrasound. Superficial venous reflux was noted in 71% of patients and deep venous reflux in 54.%. Primary venous insufficiency was the etiology in 81% of patients. Only 4/100 patients had detectable amounts of hemo-siderin in the urine. Urine hemosiderin test-ing to determine presence or absence of CVI yielded the following values: positive predic-tive value-80%; negative predictive value-33%; sensitivity-4% and specificity-98%. The test could not be recommended as a marker of CVI. In Indian patients urinary hemosiderin is not a useful screening test in CVI.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe a family with hereditary paraganglioma due to a disease-causing mutation in the SDHD gene.Methods: We present the clinical findings, diagnostic test results, treatment, and genetic test results in a family with hereditary paraganglioma.Results: Three siblings with bilateral carotid body tumors presented at different time points and with varied clinical presentations. While the proband, a 20-year-old man, was not hypertensive and had normal urinary metanephrine and normetanephrine levels, his sister and brother had a more severe clinical picture, with hypertension in both and elevated normetanephrine levels in his brother (his brother had pheochromocytoma and 2 intra-abdominal paragangliomas). Mean age at presentation was 24 years. A 4-base pair frameshift mutation, c.337-340delGACT, was detected in exon 4 of the SDHD gene in all 3 patients.Conclusion: This is the first report of the c.337-340delGACT mutation being associated with hereditary paraganglioma; this report emphasizes the need to screen all at-risk first-degree relatives for the disease-causing SDHD mutation once it has been identified in an affected family member.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Endocrine Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have compared the accuracy of color Doppler (CD) with that of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). However, only a few have looked at the influence of these diagnostic tests on the treatment decision in PAD. This study evaluated the differences in treatment decisions that were based on CD and with those based on DSA findings. Findings from CD and DSA studies obtained in 40 patients were entered on line diagrams by two radiologists working separately. These were randomized and sent to three experienced clinicians - two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist. The treatment decisions of the clinicians based on each proforma were collected and analyzed to look for the degree of agreement between Doppler-based and DSA-based decisions. There was fair to moderate agreement between CD-based and DSA-based decisions for all three clinicians, with some improvement in agreement with the addition of clinical data. The vascular surgeons showed better agreement with each other on treatment decisions compared to the interventional radiologist who showed a fair-to-moderate level of agreement with the vascular surgeons, which did not significantly change with the addition of clinical data. There is a fair to moderate agreement between treatment decisions based on CD findings and those based on DSA findings. We conclude that CD along with clinical data is sufficient to make decisions in the treatment of PAD.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · The Indian journal of radiology and imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Doppler evaluation of lower limb veins was performed to evaluate the pattern of involvement of various sites of incompetence in Indian patients with varicose veins. A prospective Doppler study of 100 consecutive limbs in patients who presented with varicose veins to the vascular surgery department of a tertiary care hospital in India. The Clinico-Etiological Anatomical and Pathological (CEAP) classification was applied for assessment. Doppler evaluation of both superficial and deep venous system of the lower limbs was performed. The data of various sites of reflux was analysed to find the patterns of venous involvement in the affected patients. Superficial venous reflux was seen in all the patients. Deep venous reflux was seen in 50% of the lower limbs examined. Doppler is a simple non-invasive test, and is well tolerated by the patients. Deep venous reflux is common in Indian population, though it rarely occurs in isolation, and is usually associated with superficial reflux.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Indian Journal of Surgery