Stavros Gravas

University of Thessaly, Iolcus, Thessaly, Greece

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Publications (114)368.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: After radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer (PCa), several patients reportedlower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to damage and discontinuation of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer of the bladder. Instillation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate (HA-CS) represents replenishment therapy of the GAG layer. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HA-CS in men with symptomatic cystitis after RT for PCa.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Generalized lymphadenopathy is a rare manifestation of metastatic prostate cancer. We report on 2 cases of prostate adenocarcinoma, which clinically manifested as generalized lymphadenopathy. The origin of the primary tumor was confirmed by transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. We underline the fact that a suspicion of prostate cancer in men with adenocarcinoma of undetermined origin is important for an adequate and complete diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Urology
  • Stavros Gravas

    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · European Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy is one of the treatment options for prostate cancer (PCa) but up to 25 % of men report about severe nocturia (nocturnal voiding). The combination of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) resembles glycosaminoglycan (GAG) replenishment therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of HA and CS on nocturia, in men with nocturia after PCa radiotherapy. Twenty-three consecutive patients with symptomatic cystitis after external radiotherapy for PCa were enrolled. Patients underwent bladder instillation therapy with HA and CS weekly for the first month and, afterwards, on week 6, 8 and 12. Nocturnal voiding frequency was assessed by item 3 (Q3) of the Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms Index (ICSI) and item 2 (Q2) of the Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI). Data were analyzed with paired-samples T-test and adjusted for age. Eighteen patients (78 %) reported about nocturia. Pre- and post-treatment ICSI-Q3 was 2.13 ± 0.28 and 1.61 ± 0.21 (-24.4 %, p = 0.001). With logistic regression analysis, both age and baseline ICSI-Q3 had a significant impact on nocturnal voiding frequency (r = 0.293, p = 0.011 and r = 0.970, p < 0.001). Pre- and post-treatment ICPI-Q2 was 1.87 ± 0.26 and 1.30 ± 0.25 (-30.5 %, p = 0.016); logistic regression analysis was without significant findings. Bladder instillation treatment with a combination of HA and CS was effective in reducing nocturnal voiding frequency in men with post-radiation bladder pain for PCa. Randomized, controlled trials with sham treatment are needed to confirm our result.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Urology
  • P. Sountoulides · S. Gravas
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    ABSTRACT: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can be a progressive disease for some men with significant impact on their quality of life due to worsening of symptoms, risk of acute urinary retention (AUR) and surgery. Certain clinical parameters such as age' prostate volume and PSA are able to predict those patients with BPH-associated LUTS that are at risk of disease progression. These patients will likely benefit most from medical therapy that provides symptom relief while at the same time may prevent disease progression. Studies have shown that a-blockers, although able to rapidly alleviate symptoms, have no effect on prostate volume, risk for AUR and BPH-related surgery. On the other hand 5ARIs have proven their efficacy in reducing prostate size, the risk of AUR and prostate surgery. Therefore combination therapy with an a-blocker and a 5ARI can be the mainstay of treatment for those patients at risk of BPH progression. Patients' perspective and their needs and expectations from treatment are other crucial parameters to consider in order selecting the optimal management of BPH. Therefore physicians should take into consideration the drug properties and also the patients' preferences before deciding on the optimal pharmacological treatment for BPH-associated LUTS.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
  • Konstantinos Dimitropoulos · Stavros Gravas
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    ABSTRACT: Despite their multifactorial etiology, male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have been traditionally associated with benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) because of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Several pharmaceutical therapies have been used to manage LUTS, with α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists (α1-blockers) and inhibitors of 5α-reductase (5α-RIs) representing the most commonly prescribed agents currently in use for LUTS treatment. Due to their different modes of action, combined use of α1-blockers and 5α-RIs has been proven to offer more optimal control of symptoms and better associated quality of life, even though higher rates of adverse events have been shown. Following previous studies on the separate administration of dutasteride and tamsulosin, a fixed-dose combination capsule of tamsulosin 0.4 mg and dutasteride 0.5 mg has been approved and released for clinical use in men with BPH. The present review aims to discuss the rationale behind the combined use of tamsulosin and dutasteride for treating male LUTS, and to present the available data on the role of combination therapy in the management of BPH-related symptoms in terms of efficacy and safety. Special attention is given to the impact of combination treatment on the prevention of clinical progression of BPH. Cost-effectiveness of fixed-dose combination and patients’ adherence to treatment are also discussed.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Therapeutic Advances in Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men are usually chronic, with a high prevalence and a substantial impact on quality of life; therefore, adequate therapies are desirable and crucial for these men. First line treatment for all patients with storage LUTS should always be behavioral. The gold standard for pharmacological treatment of overactive bladder/storage symptoms is a muscarinic receptor antagonist such as tolterodine. First-marketed antimuscarinics were limited by several adverse events such as dry mouth, constipation, tachycardia, accommodation disorder, and cognitive dysfunction, resulting in poor compliance and early treatment discontinuation in a large number of patients. In order to improve compliance with oral drug treatment, tolterodine was developed, providing a better efficacy/adverse event profile. Tolterodine is available in the following two formulations: the intermediate release (IR) and extended release form (ER). Tolterodine ER 4 mg administered once daily is pharmacokinetically equivalent to tolterodine IR 2 mg twice daily but has a lower incidence of adverse events and increased efficacy. Combination therapy of tolterodine and an alpha-blocker is significantly more efficacious than either monotherapy. Even when compared and added to tamsulosin, tolterodine shows a good safety profile. The incidence of acute urinary retention requiring catheterization and treatment withdrawals due to adverse events are low in all the studies included in the present review.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Current Urology Reports
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    Stavros Gravas

    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · European Urology
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the feasibility and safety of open radical cystectomy (RC) under combined regional anesthesia (CRA) in high-risk octogenarian patients. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of high-risk, octogenarian bladder cancer patients submitted to open RC with CRA. Demographic and clinical data, intraoperative parameters and perioperative and postoperative complications were recorded using the Clavien-Dindo classification. In total, 14 male and 4 female patients, with a median age of 82.5 years were enrolled. Ureterocutaneostomy was performed in 15 patients and Bricker ileal conduit in the remaining 3. Operative time ranged from 97 to 184 minutes. Five patients were transfused and no major intraoperative complications occurred. Postoperative complications 30 days later included ileus (Grade II) in 3 patients, surgical trauma infection in 1 patient (Grade II), respiratory infection in 2 patients (Grade III), and hydronephrosis with concurrent urinary tract infection in 3 patients (Grade III). No deaths occurred. Our study showed that octogenarian, high-risk bladder cancer patients with indications for RC can safely undergo the surgical procedure under CRA, without apparent increase in major complications.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · European Urology Supplements
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    Stavros Gravas · Kostas Dimitropoulos
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has traditionally focused on the management of benign prostatic obstruction, but the contribution of bladder dysfunction has been recently recognized. Therefore, it is well understood that LUTS have multifactorial etiology and often occur in clusters and not in isolation. Voiding LUTS are highly prevalent in men, but storage LUTS have been proved to be more bothersome. alpha(1)-Blockers are the most widely used pharmacologic agents for the treatment of symptoms relating to benign prostatic enlargement due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), while antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for overactive bladder symptoms. A combination of the two drug classes would be a reasonable approach to treat men with both storage and voiding symptoms, and several short-term studies have proved the efficacy and safety of different combinations with an alpha(1)-blocker and an antimuscarinic. Following previous studies on the separate administration of solifenacin and tamsulosin, a fixed-dose combination tablet of tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) 0.4 mg and solifenacin succinate 6 mg has been recently introduced, and the current review evaluates the available data on the use of this fixed-dose combination in the treatment of LUTS in men with BPH.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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    ABSTRACT: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) represent one of the most common clinical complaints in adult men and have multifactorial aetiology. To develop European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on the assessment of men with non-neurogenic LUTS. A structured literature search on the assessment of non-neurogenic male LUTS was conducted. Articles with the highest available level of evidence were selected. The Delphi technique consensus approach was used to develop the recommendations. As a routine part of the initial assessment of male LUTS, a medical history must be taken, a validated symptom score questionnaire with quality-of-life question(s) should be completed, a physical examination including digital rectal examination should be performed, urinalysis must be ordered, post-void residual urine (PVR) should be measured, and uroflowmetry may be performed. Micturition frequency-volume charts or bladder diaries should be used to assess male LUTS with a prominent storage component or nocturia. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) should be measured only if a diagnosis of prostate cancer will change the management or if PSA can assist in decision-making for patients at risk of symptom progression and complications. Renal function must be assessed if renal impairment is suspected from the history and clinical examination, if the patient has hydronephrosis, or when considering surgical treatment for male LUTS. Uroflowmetry should be performed before any treatment. Imaging of the upper urinary tract in men with LUTS should be performed in patients with large PVR, haematuria, or a history of urolithiasis. Imaging of the prostate should be performed if this assists in choosing the appropriate drug and when considering surgical treatment. Urethrocystoscopy should only be performed in men with LUTS to exclude suspected bladder or urethral pathology and/or before minimally invasive/surgical therapies if the findings may change treatment. Pressure-flow studies should be performed only in individual patients for specific indications before surgery or when evaluation of the pathophysiology underlying LUTS is warranted. These guidelines provide evidence-based practical guidance for assessment of non-neurogenic male LUTS. An extended version is available online (www.uroweb.org/guidelines). This article presents a short version of European Association of Urology guidelines for non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The recommended tests should be able to distinguish between uncomplicated male LUTS and possible differential diagnoses and to evaluate baseline parameters for treatment. The guidelines also define the clinical profile of patients to provide the best evidence-based care. An algorithm was developed to guide physicians in using appropriate diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · European Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Overactive bladder (OAB)/ storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have a high prevalence affecting up to 90% of men over 80 years. The role of sufficient therapies appears crucial. In the present review, we analyzed the mechanism of action of tolterodine extended-release (ER) with the aim to clarify its efficacy and safety profile, as compared to other active treatments of OAB/storage LUTS. Methods A wide Medline search was performed including the combination of following words: “LUTS”, “BPH”, “OAB”, “antimuscarinic”, “tolterodine”, “tolterodine ER”. IPSS, IPSS storage sub-score and IPSS QoL (International Prostate Symptom Score) were the validated efficacy outcomes. In addition, the numbers of urgency episodes/24 h, urgency incontinence episodes/24 h, incontinence episodes/24 h and pad use were considered. We also evaluated the most common adverse events (AEs) reported for tolterodine ER. Results Of 128 retrieved articles, 109 were excluded. The efficacy and tolerability of tolterodine ER Vs. tolterodine IR have been evaluated in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized placebo controlled study in 1529 patients with OAB. A 71% mean reduction in urgency incontinence episodes was found in the tolterodine ER group compared to a 60% reduction in the tolterodine IR (p < 0.05). Few studies evaluated the clinical efficacy of α-blocker/tolterodine combination therapy. In patients with large prostates (prostate volume >29 cc) only the combination therapy significantly reduced 24-h voiding frequency (2.8 vs. 1.7 with tamsulosin, 1.4 with tolterodine, or 1.6 with placebo). A recent meta-analysis evaluating tolterodine in comparison with other antimuscarinic drugs demonstrated that tolterodine ER was significantly more effective than placebo in reducing micturition/24 h, urinary leakage episodes/24 h, urgency episodes/24 h, and urgency incontinence episodes/24 h. With regard to adverse events, tolterodine ER was associated with a good adverse event profile resulting in the third most favorable antimuscarinic. Antimuscarinic drugs are the mainstay of pharmacological therapy for OAB / storage LUTS; several studies have demonstrated that tolterodine ER is an effective and well tolerated formulation of this class of treatment. Conclusion Tolterodine ER resulted effective in reducing frequency urgency and nocturia and urinary leakage in male patients with OAB/storage LUTS. Dry mouth and constipation are the most frequently reported adverse events.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · BMC Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the treatment of choice for superficial bladder carcinoma. Disseminated BCG infection presenting as granulomatous hepatitis or pneumonitis is a very rare complication of this treatment. Here we report a case series of seven patients previously treated with BCG presenting with pneumonitis. In two of the cases, identification of Mycobacterium bovis was achieved with molecular methods.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of previous bladder cancer history with the recurrence and progression of patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with adjuvant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and to evaluate their natural history. Patients were divided into two groups based on the existence of previous bladder cancer (primary, non-primary). A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the possible differences in the probabilities of recurrence and progression with respect to tumor history, while potential differences due to gender, tumor size (> 3 cm, < 3 cm), stage (pTa, T1), concomitant carcinoma in situ (pTis) and number of tumors (single, multiple) were also assessed. Univariate and multivariate models were employed. In addition, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare recurrence- and progression-free survival between the groups. A total of 192 patients were included (144 with primary and 48 with non-primary tumors). The rates of recurrence and progression for patients with primary tumors were 27.8% and 12.5%, respectively. The corresponding percentages for patients with non-primary tumors were 77.1% and 33.3%, respectively. The latter group of patients displayed significantly higher probabilities of recurrence (p=0.000; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.067 to 18.804) and progression (p=0.002; 95% CI, 1.609 to 7.614) in a univariate logistic regression analysis. Previous bladder cancer history remained significant in the multivariate model accounting for history, age, gender, tumor size , number of tumors, stage and concomitant pTis (p=0.000; 95% CI, 4.367 to 21.924 and p=0.002; 95% CI, 1.611 to 8.182 for recurrence and progression respectively). Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that the non-primary group hadreduced progression- and recurrence-free survival. Previous non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer history correlates significantly with recurrence and progression in patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive disease treated with adjuvant BCG.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Cancer Research and Treatment
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To examine the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on postoperative infection rate in patients with negative urine cultures undergoing ureteroscopy (URS). Patients and methods: Using the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) URS Global Study database, patients with a negative baseline urine culture undergoing URS for ureteral stones (n=1141) or kidney stones (n=184) not receiving antibiotic prophylaxis were matched with those who were predefined by risk factors, including gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, and ureteral stent placement. Patient characteristics, operative data, and postoperative outcomes, including the development of urinary tract infection (UTI) and fever, in the two groups were compared. Results: Antibiotic prophylaxis use differed widely across participating countries (13%-100%). Differences were found between patients who did or did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis regarding the frequency of anticoagulation medication, previous treatment with URS, stone burden, previous presence of kidney stones, duration of current URS, and complications post-URS. The prevalence of fever and UTI was low (≤2.2%) and similar in both groups. Factors predictive of postoperative UTI or fever were female gender, Crohn's and cardiovascular disease, a high stone burden, and an ASA score of II or higher. Conclusions: In patients with a negative baseline urine culture undergoing URS for ureteral or renal stones, rates of postoperative UTI and fever were not reduced by preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Female gender and a high ASA score were specific risk factors for postoperative infection in this patient group.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of endourology / Endourological Society
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The progressive ageing of the world male population will further increase the need for tailored assessment and treatment of PCa patients. The determinant role of androgens and sexual hormones for PCa growth and progression has been established. However, several trials on androgens and PCa are recently focused on urinary continence, quality of life, and sexual function, suggesting a new point of view on the whole endocrinological aspect of PCa. During aging, metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity, can be associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammation of the prostate and with changes in the sex steroid pathways. These factors may affect both the carcinogenesis processes and treatment outcomes of PCa. Any treatment for PCa can have a long-lasting negative impact on quality of life and sexual health, which should be assessed by validated self-reported questionnaires. In particular, sexual health, urinary continence, and bowel function can be worsened after prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or hormone treatment, mostly in the elderly population. In the present review we summarized the current knowledge on the role of hormones, metabolic features, and primary treatments for PCa on the quality of life and sexual health of elderly Pca survivors.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · International Journal of Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: There exist no global standards for defining patient outcomes in renal stone surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of reporting of outcomes in studies investigating percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and to propose standardized consensus definitions for common outcomes. Methods: We performed a literature search in PubMed for randomized controlled studies that investigated PCNL between 2002 and 2012. All outcomes reported were analyzed for each study. Each article was examined to identify the definition of each reported patient outcome. Various aspects of patient outcomes were presented to a panel of 85 experts in a Delphi process consisting of three rounds. The experts were asked to select options that they believed would best describe each outcome. Finally, we composed recommendations for definition of the most common outcomes reported in PCNL studies. Results: Eighty-three RCTs were included in the review of patient outcomes. Stone-free rate (55, 63.9%), length of stay (47, 56.6%), complication rate (44, 53.0%), and changes in hemoglobin (40, 48.2%) were the most frequently reported outcomes in randomized controlled trials of PCNL. Only 24/53 (45.3%) studies had a formal definition of stone-free status. Only 31/40 (77.5%) studies, which reported change in hemoglobin, had a unit of measurement; however, 22/40 (55.0%) did not report the timing of postoperative hemoglobin measurement. A set of recommendations for defining patient outcomes in PCNL is presented for the 15 most commonly reported outcomes in PCNL. Conclusions: Wide variations and underspecification exist in the definition and reporting of outcomes in PCNL. We propose recommendations for the definition of outcomes based on a review of the literature and expert opinion. Standardization of outcome definition and reporting will improve the quality of urologic research.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of endourology / Endourological Society
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the impact of stapling devices use on overweight and obese bladder cancer patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC). Fifty-two overweight and 24 obese patients underwent open RC for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Bladder removal was performed using standard suture technique (SST) or multifire autosuture articulated vascular Endo-GIA (eG). Twenty-three overweight and 11 obese patients formed the SST arms and the remaining 29 overweight and 13 obese patients formed the eG arms. Intra and postoperative parameters and early postoperative complications (30 days) using the Clavien-Dindo classification were recorded. SST and eG arms of overweight and obese patients were comparable in intra and postoperative parameters. Both overweight and obese eG arms had significantly lower estimated blood loss, lower number of transfused packed red blood cells units (PRBC) and lower cystectomy intraoperative time compared with the SST ones (p < 0.05). In obese patients, staplers use led to significantly lower total length of stay compared with SST (p = 0.041). Complications rate was significantly higher in the obese group compared with the overweight group (58.33% versus 30.77%, p = 0.042). No difference in complications was found between the SST and eG arms of the overweight and obese patients. No deaths occurred. Staplers use in RC in overweight/obese patients is accompanied by significantly shorter intraoperative time, lower blood loss and lower number of transfused PRBC units, compared with SST. In obese patients, eG use led to shorter length of stay.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · The Canadian Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a retrospective study to determine the prognostic significance of age, gender, associated carcinoma in situ, stage, number of tumors, and tumor size for patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Data were evaluated on 144 high-risk patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with BCG immunotherapy after the initial treatment with transurethral resection. According to their response to BCG, patients were divided into groups, and the differences in factors, associated with recurrence and progression, were evaluated. Patients were categorized into two groups: group A, complete responders without recurrence and without progression, and group B, patients with recurrence and with progression. Furthermore, group B was divided into two subgroups: group B1, patients with recurrence, and group B2, patients with progression. Univariate analysis of group B showed that only tumor size of >3 cm diameter (hazard ratio (HR) 11.99; 95 % confidence interval (CI) range 5.69-25.3; p < 0.001) is associated with recurrence. After multivariate analysis, the same factor appeared to be prognostic for recurrence as well. In addition, group B2 was statistically correlated with group B1. Univariate analysis proved that tumor stage (Ta or T1) is the unique factor associated with progression (HR 6.4; 95 % CI 1.29-31.9; p = 0.02). Tumor stage seems to be associated with disease's progression after the multivariate analysis too. Tumor size and stage may serve as prognostic factors, because of its independent correlation with recurrence and progression for patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors treated with BCG.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Tumor Biology

Publication Stats

1k Citations
368.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007-2016
    • University of Thessaly
      • Ουρολογική Κλινική
      Iolcus, Thessaly, Greece
  • 2006-2015
    • General University Hospital of Larissa
      Lárissa, Thessaly, Greece
  • 2003-2013
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Department of Urology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Texas at Dallas
      Richardson, Texas, United States
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • Department of Urology
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
    • Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • General Hospital of Komotini "Sismanoglio"
      Komotina, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece
  • 2010
    • European Association of Urology
      Arnheim, Gelderland, Netherlands