S. Dreizler

Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany

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Publications (349)663.94 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Through our HARPS radial velocity survey for planets around solar twin stars, we have identified a promising Jupiter twin candidate around the star HIP11915. We characterize this Keplerian signal and investigate its potential origins in stellar activity. Our analysis indicates that HIP11915 hosts a Jupiter-mass planet with a 3800-day orbital period and low eccentricity. Although we cannot definitively rule out an activity cycle interpretation, we find that a planet interpretation is more likely based on a joint analysis of RV and activity index data. The challenges of long-period radial velocity signals addressed in this paper are critical for the ongoing discovery of Jupiter-like exoplanets. If planetary in nature, the signal investigated here represents a very close analog to the solar system in terms of both Sun-like host star and Jupiter-like planet.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Stellar activity may induce Doppler variability at the level of a few m/s which can then be confused by the Doppler signal of an exoplanet orbiting the star. To first order, linear correlations between radial velocity measurements and activity indices have been proposed to account for any such correlation. The likely presence of two super-Earths orbiting Kapteyn's star was reported in Anglada et al. (2014, MNRAS 443L, 89A), but this claim was recently challenged by Robertson et al. (2015, ApJ 805L, 22R) arguing evidence of a rotation period (143 days) at three times the orbital period of one of the proposed planets (Kapteyn's b, P=48.6 days), and the existence of strong linear correlations between its Doppler signal and activity data. By re-analyzing the data using global optimization methods and model comparison, we show that such claim is incorrect given that; 1) the choice of a rotation period at 143 days is unjustified, and 2) the presence of linear correlations is not supported by the data. We conclude that the radial velocity signals of Kapteyn's star remain more simply explained by the presence of two super-Earth candidates orbiting it. We also advocate for the use of global optimization procedures and objective arguments, instead of claims lacking of a minimal statistical support.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a Jupiter-mass planet orbiting an M-dwarf star that gave rise to the microlensing event OGLE-2011-BLG-0265. Such a system is very rare among known planetary systems and thus the discovery is important for theoretical studies of planetary formation and evolution. High-cadence temporal coverage of the planetary signal combined with extended observations throughout the event allows us to accurately model the observed light curve. The final microlensing solution remains, however, degenerate yielding two possible configurations of the planet and the host star. In the case of the preferred solution, the mass of the planet is $M_{\rm p}$ = 1.0 $\pm$ 0.3 $M_{\rm J}$, and the planet is orbiting a star with a mass $M$ = 0.23 $\pm$ 0.07 $M_\odot$.The second possible configuration (2\sigma away) consists of a planet with $M_{\rm p}$ = 0.6 $\pm$ 0.2 $M_{\rm J}$ and host star with $M$ = 0.15 $\pm$0.06 $M_{\odot}$. The system is located in the Galactic disk 3-4 kpc towards the Galactic bulge. In both cases, with an orbit size of 2 AU, the planet is a "cold Jupiter" -- located well beyond the "snow line" of the host star. Currently available data make the secure selection of the correct solution difficult, but there are prospects for lifting the degeneracy with additional follow-up observations in the future, when the lens and source star separate.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the evolution of planetary systems, it is important to investigate planets in highly evolved stellar systems, and to explore the implications of their observed properties with respect to potential formation scenarios. Observations suggest the presence of giant planets in post-common-envelope binaries (PCEBs). A particularly well-studied system with planetary masses of 1.7 M_J and 7.0 M_J is NN Ser. We show here that a pure first-generation scenario where the planets form before the common envelope (CE) phase and the orbits evolve due to the changes in the gravitational potential is inconsistent with the current data. We propose a second-generation scenario where the planets are formed from the material that is ejected during the CE, which may naturally explain the observed planetary masses. In addition, hybrid scenarios where the planets form before the CE and evolve due to the accretion of the ejected gas appear as a realistic possibility.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Astronomische Nachrichten
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    ABSTRACT: We observed the Hubble Deep Field South with the new panoramic integral field spectrograph MUSE that we built and just commissioned at the VLT. The data cube resulting from 27 hours of integration covers one arcmin^2 field of view at an unprecedented depth with a 1 sigma emission line surface brightness limit of 1x$10^{-19}$ erg/s/cm$^2$/arcsec$^2$ and contains ~90,000 spectra. We present the combined and calibrated data cube, and we perform a first-pass analysis of the sources detected in the HDF-S imaging. We measured the redshifts of 189 sources up to a magnitude F814W = 29.5, increasing by more than an order of magnitude the number of known spectroscopic redshifts in this field. We also discovered 26 Lya emitting galaxies which are not detected in the HST WFPC2 deep broad band images. The intermediate spectral resolution of 2.3{\AA} allows us to separate resolved asymmetric Lya emitters, [O II] emitters, and C III] emitters and the large instantaneous wavelength range of 4500{\AA} helps to identify single emission lines. We also show how the three dimensional information of MUSE helps to resolve sources which are confused at ground-based image quality. Overall, secure identifications are provided for 83% of the 227 emission line sources detected in the MUSE data cube and for 32% of the 586 sources identified in the HST catalog of Casertano et al 2000. The overall redshift distribution is fairly flat to z=6.3, with a reduction between z=1.5 to 2.9, in the well-known redshift desert. The field of view of MUSE also allowed us to detect 17 groups within the field. We checked that the number counts of [O II] and Ly-a emitters are roughly consistent with predictions from the literature. Using two examples we demonstrate that MUSE is able to provide exquisite spatially resolved spectroscopic information on intermediate redshift galaxies present in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: PLATO 2.0 is a mission candidate for ESA's M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). It addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets like ours, able to develop life? The PLATO 2.0 instrument consists of 34 small aperture telescopes providing a wide field-of-view and a large photometric magnitude range. It targets bright stars in wide fields to detect and characterize planets down to Earth-size by photometric transits, whose masses can then be determined by ground-based radial-velocity follow-up measurements. Asteroseismology will be performed for stars <=11mag to obtain highly accurate stellar parameters, including masses and ages. The combination of bright targets and asteroseismology results in high accuracy for the bulk planet parameters: 2%, 4-10% and 10% for planet radii, masses and ages, respectively. The foreseen baseline observing strategy includes two long pointings (2-3 years) to detect and bulk characterize planets reaching into the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars and an additional step-and-stare phase to cover in total about 50% of the sky. PLATO 2.0 will observe up to 1,000,000 stars and detect and characterize hundreds of small planets, and thousands of planets in the Neptune to gas giant regime out to the HZ. It will therefore provide the first large-scale catalogue of bulk characterized planets with accurate radii, masses, mean densities and ages. This catalogue will include Earth-like planets at intermediate orbital distances, where surface temperatures are moderate. Coverage of this parameter range with statistical numbers of bulk characterized planets is unique to PLATO 2.0. ...
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Experimental Astronomy
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    ABSTRACT: We are carrying out a search for planets around a sample of solar twin stars using the HARPS spectrograph. The goal of this project is to exploit the advantage offered by solar twins to obtain chemical abundances of unmatched precision. This survey will enable new studies of the stellar composition -- planet connection. Here we used the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope to acquire high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of our sample stars. We measured the equivalent widths of iron lines and used strict differential excitation/ionization balance analysis to determine atmospheric parameters of unprecedented internal precision (DTeff=7K, Dlogg=0.019, D[Fe/H]=0.006dex, Dvt=0.016km/s). Reliable relative ages and highly precise masses were then estimated using theoretical isochrones. The spectroscopic parameters we derived are in good agreement with those measured using other independent techniques. The root-mean-square scatter of the differences seen is fully compatible with the observational errors, demonstrating, as assumed thus far, that systematic uncertainties in the stellar parameters are negligible in the study of solar twins. We find a tight activity-age relation for our sample stars, which validates the internal precision of our dating method. Furthermore, we find that the solar cycle is perfectly consistent both with this trend and its star-to-star scatter. We present the largest sample of solar twins analyzed homogeneously using high quality spectra. The fundamental parameters derived from this work will be employed in subsequent work that aims to explore the connections between planet formation and stellar chemical composition.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: CARMENES is a high resolution spectrograph to detect planets through the variation of radial velocity, destined for the Calar Alto Observatory in Almeria, Spain. The optical bench has a working temperature of 140K with a 24 hours stability of ±0,1K; goal ±0,01K. It is enclosed with a radiation shield actively cooled with thermalized nitrogen gas that flows through strategically positioned heat exchangers to remove its radiative load. The cooling system has an external preparation unit (N2GPU), which provides the nitrogen gas through actively vaporizing liquid nitrogen with heating resistances and a three stage circuit flow, each one controlled by an independent PID. Since CARMENES is still in the construction phase, a dedicated test facility has been built in order to simulate the instrument and correctly establish the N2GPU parameters. Furthermore, the test facility allows a wide range of configurations set-ups, which enables a full characterization of the N2GPU and the cooling system. The N2GPU has been designed to offer a wide temperature range of thermally stabilized nitrogen gas flow, which apart from CARMENES could also be used to provide ultra-high thermal stability in other cryogenic instruments. The present paper shows the testing of the cooling performance, the hardware used and the very promising results obtained.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2014
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    ABSTRACT: This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ∼ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k × 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k × 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The fibers are continually actuated to reduce modal noise. The spectrographs are mounted on benches inside vacuum tanks located in the coudé laboratory of the 3.5m dome. Each vacuum tank is equipped with a temperature stabilization system capable of keeping the temperature constant to within ±0.01°C over 24 hours. The visible-light spectrograph will be operated near room temperature, while the near-IR spectrograph will be cooled to ∼ 140 K. The CARMENES instrument passed its final design review in February 2013. The MAIV phase is currently ongoing. First tests at the telescope are scheduled for early 2015. Completion of the full instrument is planned for the fall of 2015. At least 600 useable nights have been allocated at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope for the CARMENES survey in the time frame until 2018. A data base of M stars (dubbed CARMENCITA) has been compiled from which the CARMENES sample can be selected. CARMENCITA contains information on all relevant properties of the potential targets. Dedicated imaging, photometric, and spectroscopic observations are underway to provide crucial data on these stars that are not available in the literature.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: Exoplanets of a few Earth masses can be now detected around nearby low-mass stars using Doppler spectroscopy. In this paper, we investigate the radial velocity variations of Kapteyn's star, which is both a sub-dwarf M-star and the nearest halo object to the Sun. The observations comprise archival and new HARPS, HIRES and PFS Doppler measurements. Two Doppler signals are detected at periods of 48 and 120 days using likelihood periodograms and a Bayesian analysis of the data. Using the same techniques, the activity indicies and archival ASAS-3 photometry show evidence for low-level activity periodicities of the order of several hundred days. However, there are no significant correlations with the radial velocity variations on the same time-scales. The inclusion of planetary Keplerian signals in the model results in levels of correlated and excess white noise that are remarkably low compared to younger G, K and M dwarfs. We conclude that Kapteyn's star is most probably orbited by two super-Earth mass planets, one of which is orbiting in its circumstellar habitable zone, becoming the oldest potentially habitable planet known to date. The presence and long-term survival of a planetary system seems a remarkable feat given the peculiar origin and kinematic history of Kapteyn's star. The detection of super-Earth mass planets around halo stars provides important insights into planet-formation processes in the early days of the Milky Way.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    Lisa Nortmann · Stefan Dreizler · Jacob Bean
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    ABSTRACT: In response to the large number of exoplanet detections, the characterization of these planets has become a major focus of exoplanet science. Transiting planets are of particular interest as they allow us to investigate the transmission of their atmospheres. Our group uses ground-based facilities like the ESO/VLT to probe the atmosphere of hot Jupiters with the technique of spectrophotometry. In our preliminary results for the hot Jupiters WASP-17b and WASP-31b we find the reachable precision to be limited by instrumental systematic noise rather than photon noise. We discuss the source of the noise and suggest two approaches to correct it.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: NGC288 is a globular cluster with a well-developed blue horizontal branch covering the u-jump that indicates the onset of diffusion. It is therefore well suited to study the effects of diffusion in blue horizontal branch (HB) stars. We compare observed abundances with predictions from stellar evolution models calculated with diffusion and from stratified atmospheric models. We verify the effect of using stratified model spectra to derive atmospheric parameters. In addition, we investigate the nature of the overluminous blue HB stars around the u-jump. We defined a new photometric index sz from uvby measurements that is gravity-sensitive between 8000K and 12000K. Using medium-resolution spectra and Stroemgren photometry, we determined atmospheric parameters (T_eff, log g) and abundances for the blue HB stars. We used both homogeneous and stratified model spectra for our spectroscopic analyses. The atmospheric parameters and masses of the hot HB stars in NGC288 show a behaviour seen also in other clusters for temperatures between 9000K and 14000K. Outside this temperature range, however, they instead follow the results found for such stars in omega Cen. The abundances derived from our observations are for most elements (except He and P) within the abundance range expected from evolutionary models that include the effects of atomic diffusion and assume a surface mixed mass of 10^-7 M0. The abundances predicted by stratified model atmospheres are generally significantly more extreme than observed, except for Mg. When effective temperatures, surface gravities, and masses are determined with stratified model spectra, the hotter stars agree better with canonical evolutionary predictions. Our results show definite promise towards solving the long-standing problem of surface gravity and mass discrepancies for hot HB stars, but much work is still needed to arrive at a self-consistent solution.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Stefan Dreizler · Aviv Ofir
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    ABSTRACT: Kepler-9 was the first case where transit timing variations have been used to confirm the planets in this system. Following predictions of dramatic TTVs - larger than a week - we re-analyse the system based on the full Kepler data set. We re-processed all available data for Kepler-9 removing short and long term trends, measured the times of mid-transit and used those for dynamical analysis of the system. The newly determined masses and radii of Kepler-9b and -9c change the nature of these planets relative to the one described in Holman et al. 2010 (hereafter H10) with very low, but relatively well charcterised (to better than 7%), bulk densities of 0.18 and 0.14 g cm$^3$ (about 1/3 of the H10 value). We constrain the masses (45.1 and 31.0 M$_\oplus$, for Kepler-9b and -9c respectively) from photometry alone, allowing us to see possible indications for an outer non-transiting planet in the radial velocity data. At $2R_\oplus$ Kepler-9d is determined to be larger than suggested before - suggesting that it is a low-mass low-density planet. The comparison between the H10 analysis and our new analysis suggests that small formal error in the TTV inversion may be misleading if the data does not cover a significant fraction of the interaction time scale.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: From 1979 to 2001, the magnetic axis of the white dwarf in the polar DP Leo slowly rotated by 50 deg in azimuth, possibly indicating a small asynchronism between the rotational and orbital periods of the magnetic white dwarf. We have obtained phase-resolved orbital light curves between 2009 and 2013, which show that this trend has not continued in recent years. Our data are consistent with the theoretically predicted oscillation of the magnetic axis of the white dwarf about an equilibrium orientation, which is defined by the competition between the accretion torque and the magnetostatic interaction of the primary and secondary star. Our data indicate an oscillation period of ~60 yr, an amplitude of about 25 deg, and an equilibrium orientation leading the connecting line of the two stars by about 7 deg.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report photometric observations of the eclipsing close binary CSS21055 (SDSS J141126+200911) that strongly suggest that the companion to the carbon-oxygen white dwarf is a brown dwarf with a mass between 0.030 and 0.074 Msun. The measured orbital period is 121.73min and the totality of the eclipse lasts 125s. If confirmed, CSS21055 would be the first detached eclipsing WD+BD binary. Spectroscopy in the eclipse could provide information about the companion's evolutionary state and atmospheric structure.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Dominik R. G. Schleicher · Stefan Dreizler
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    ABSTRACT: The close binary system NN Serpentis must have gone through a common envelope phase before the formation of its white dwarf. During this phase, a substantial amount of mass was lost from the envelope. The recently detected orbits of circumbinary planets were suggested to be inconsistent with planet formation before the mass loss. We explore whether new planets may have formed from the ejecta of the common envelope, and derive the expected planetary mass as a function of radius. We employ the model of \citet{Kashi11} to estimate the amount of mass that is retained during the ejection event, and infer the properties of the resulting disk from the conservation of mass and angular momentum. The resulting planetary masses are estimated from models with and without radiative feedback. We show that the observed planetary masses can be reproduced for appropriate model parameters. Photoheating can stabilize the disks in the interior, potentially explaining the observed planetary orbits on scales of a few AU. We compare the expected mass scale of planets for 11 additional systems with observational results and find hints for two populations, one consistent with planet formation from the ejecta of common envelopes, and a separate population that may have formed earlier. The formation of the observed planets from the ejecta of common envelopes seems feasible. The model proposed here can be tested through refined observations of additional post-common envelope systems. While it appears observationally challenging to distinguish between the accretion on pre-existing planets and their growth from new fragments, it may be possible to further constrain the properties of the protoplanetary disk through additional observations of current planetary candidates and post-common envelope binary systems.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: [ABRIDGED]: Aims: two candidates in the KOI 1574 system are relatively long-period (about 114d and 191d) and in 5:3 resonance. We therefore search for TTVs in this particularly promising system. Methods: The full Kepler data was used, allowing to search for TTVs as well as for additional transit-like signals. Results: We detect strong anti-correlated TTVs of the 114d and 191d signals, dynamically confirming them as members of the same system. Dynamical simulations reproducing the observed TTVs allow us to also determine the masses of the planets. KOI 1574.01 (hereafter Kepler-87 b) was found to have a radius of 13.49 +/- 0.55 R_earth and a mass of 324.2 +/- 8.8M_earth, and KOI 1574.02 (Kepler-87 c) was found to have a radius of 6.14 +/- 0.29R_earth and a mass of 6.4 +/- 0.8M_earth. Both planets have low densities of 0.729 and 0.152 g cm^-3, respectively, which is non-trivial for such cold and old (7-8 Gyr) planets. Specifically, Kepler-87 c is the lowest- density planet in the super-Earth mass range. Both planets are thus particularly amenable to modeling and planetary structure studies, and also present an interesting case were ground-based photometric follow-up of Kepler planets is very desirable. Finally, we also detect two more short period super-Earth sized planetary (< 2R_earth) candidates in the system, making the relatively high multiplicity of this system notable against the general paucity of multiple systems in the presence of giant planets like Kepler-87 b.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of transiting extrasolar planets are of key importance for understanding the nature of planets outside our solar system because their masses, diameters, and bulk densities can be measured. An important part of transit-search programmes is the removal of false-positives. The critical question is how many of the candidates that passed all previous tests are false positives. For our study we selected 25 CoRoT candidates that have already been screened against false-positives using detailed analysis of the light curves and seeing-limited imaging, which has transits that are between 0.7 and 0.05% deep. We observed 20 candidates with the adaptive optics imager NaCo and 18 with the high-resolution infrared spectrograph CRIRES. We found previously unknown stars within 2 arcsec of the targets in seven of the candidates. All of these are too faint and too close to the targets to have been previously detected with seeing-limited telescopes in the optical. Our study thus leads to the surprising results that if we remove all candidates excluded by the sophisticated analysis of the light-curve, as well as carrying out deep imaging with seeing-limited telescopes, still 28-35% of the remaining candidates are found to possess companions that are bright enough to be false-positives. Given that the companion-candidates cluster around the targets and that the J-K colours are consistent with physical companions, we conclude that the companion-candidates are more likely to be physical companions rather than unrelated field stars.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present new photometric observations of WASP-15 and WASP-16, two transiting extrasolar planetary systems with measured orbital obliquities but without photometric follow-up since their discovery papers. Our new data for WASP-15 comprise observations of one transit simultaneously in four optical passbands using GROND on the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope, plus coverage of half a transit from DFOSC on the Danish 1.54m telescope, both at ESO La Silla. For WASP-16 we present observations of four complete transits, all from the Danish telescope. We use these new data to refine the measured physical properties and orbital ephemerides of the two systems. Whilst our results are close to the originally-determined values for WASP-15, we find that the star and planet in the WASP-16 system are both larger and less massive than previously thought.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Publication Stats

4k Citations
663.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004-2015
    • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
      • Institute for Astrophysics
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2003-2015
    • Universitätsmedizin Göttingen
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2011
    • University of Tasmania
      • School of Mathematics & Physics
      Hobart Town, Tasmania, Australia
  • 2008
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Institut für Arbeit und Gesundheit
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 1997-2008
    • University of Tuebingen
      • Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Tübingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 1993-2004
    • Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1994-2003
    • Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg
      Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2002
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Tromsoe
      Tromsø, Troms, Norway
  • 1999
    • Universität Potsdam
      • Chair for Astrophysics
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 1993-1997
    • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
      • Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics (ITAP)
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany