Publications (11)34.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Both poly and mono ADP-ribosylation are common post-translational protein modifications. For example, poly ADP-ribosylation is involved in DNA repair mechanisms through the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes. While mono ADP-ribosylation has been known to trigger cell death exhibited by many bacterial toxins. Because of the wide role of ADP-ribosylation, the detection and analysis are very important for further understanding of the PARP family of enzymes and the molecular mechanisms leading to cell toxicity in the presence of bacterial enzymes. Here we describe a novel technique utilizing a capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based Western technology to detect and analyze ADP-ribosylated proteins. The method is based on a nano-volume size separation that is automated, quantitative, offers great sensitivity, and is high-throughput for potential use in PARP drug screening inhibitor assays. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: The development of a multivalent outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine where each strain contributes multiple key protein antigens presents numerous analytical challenges. One major difficulty is the ability to accurately and specifically quantitate each antigen, especially during early development and process optimization when immunoreagents are limited or unavailable. To overcome this problem, quantitative mass spectrometry methods can be used. In place of traditional mass assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), quantitative LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) can be used during early-phase process development to measure key protein components in complex vaccines in the absence of specific immunoreagents. Multiplexed, label-free quantitative mass spectrometry methods using protein extraction by either detergent or two-phase solvent were developed to quantitate levels of several meningococcal serogroup B protein antigens in an OMV vaccine candidate. Precision was demonstrated to be less than 15% RSD for the two-phase extraction and less than 10% RSD for the detergent extraction method. Accuracy was 70 to 130% for the method using a two-phase extraction and 90-110% for detergent extraction. The viability of MS-based protein quantification as a vaccine characterization method was demonstrated and advantages over traditional quantitative methods were evaluated. Implementation of these MS-based quantification methods can help to decrease the development time for complex vaccines and can provide orthogonal confirmation of results from existing antigen quantification techniques.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital infection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the leading causes of non-genetic birth defects, and development of a prophylactic vaccine against HCMV is of high priority for public health. The gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex mediates HCMV entry into endothelial and epithelial cells, and it is a major target for neutralizing antibody responses. To better understand the mechanism by which antibodies interact with the epitopes of the gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex resulting in viral neutralization, we expressed and purified soluble gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex and gH/gL from Chinese hamster ovary cells to >95% purity. The soluble gH/gL, which exists predominantly as (gH/gL)2 homodimer with a MW of 220 kDa in solution, has a stoichiometry of 1:1 and a pI of 6.0-6.5. The pentameric complex has a MW of 160 kDa, a stoichiometry of 1:1:1:1:1, and a pI of 7.4-8.1. The soluble pentameric complex, but not gH/gL, adsorbs 76% of neutralizing activities in HCMV human hyperimmune globulin, consistent with earlier reports that the most potent neutralizing epitopes for blocking epithelial infection are unique to the pentameric complex. Functionally, the soluble pentameric complex, but not gH/gL, blocks viral entry to epithelial cells in culture. Our results highlight the importance of the gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex in HCMV vaccine design and emphasize the necessity to monitor the integrity of the pentameric complex during vaccine manufacturing process. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Simple Western™ is a new technology that allows for the separation, blotting, and detection of proteins similar to a traditional western except in a capillary format. Traditionally, identity assays for biological products are performed using either an ELISA or a manual dot blot western. Both techniques are usually very tedious, labor-intensive, complicated for multivalent vaccines and can be difficult to transfer to other laboratories. An advantage this capillary western technique has over traditional manual dot blot western method is the speed and the automation of electrophoresis separation, blotting and detection steps which performed in 96 capillaries. This study describe details the development of an automated identity assay for a 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV15-CRM197) using capillary western technology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Analytical Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: To effectively support the development of a Chikungunya (CHIKV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, a sensitive and robust high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method that can quantitate CHIKV VLPs and monitor product purity throughout the manufacturing process is needed. We developed a sensitive reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method that separates capsid, E1, and E2 proteins in CHIKV VLP vaccine with good resolution. Each protein component was verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS). The post-translational modifications on the viral glycoproteins E1 and E2 were further identified by intact protein mass measurements with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The RP-HPLC method has a linear range of 0.51-12μg protein, an accuracy of 96-106% and a precision of 12% RSD, suitable for vaccine product release testing. In addition, we demonstrated that the RP-HPLC method is useful for characterizing viral glycoprotein post-translational modifications, monitoring product purity during process development and assessing product stability during formulation development.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Chromatography A
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is a major component of fetal bovine serum (FBS), which is commonly used as a culture medium during vaccine production. Because BSA can cause allergic reactions in humans the World Health Organization (WHO) has set a guidance of 50 ng or less residual BSA per vaccine dose. Vaccine manufacturers are expected to develop sensitive assays to detect residual BSA. Generally, sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are used in the industry to detect these low levels of BSA. We report the development of a new improved method for residual BSA detection using the Simple Western(TM) technology to analyze residual BSA in an attenuated virus vaccine. The method is based on automated Capillary Western and has linearity of two logs, > 80% spike recovery (accuracy), intermediate precision of CV < 15%, and LOQ of 5.2 ng/mL. The final method was applied to analyze BSA in four lots of bulk vaccine products and was used to monitor BSA clearance during vaccine process purification.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Analytical Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, science has greatly improved in the area of protein sizing and characterization. Efficient high-throughput methods are now available to substitute for the traditional labor-intensive SDS-PAGE methods, which alternatively take days to analyze a very limited number of samples. Currently, PerkinElmer (Caliper) has designed an automated chip-based fluorescence detection method capable of analyzing proteins in minutes with sensitivity similar to standard SDS-PAGE. Here, we describe the use and implementation of this technology to characterize and screen a large number of formulations of target glycoproteins in the 14-200 kDa molecular weight range.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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    ABSTRACT: Many CE-based technologies such as imaged capillary IEF, CE-SDS, CZE, and MEKC are well established for analyzing proteins, viruses, or other biomolecules such as polysaccharides. For example, imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (charge-based protein separation) and CE-SDS (size-based protein separation) are standard replacement methods in biopharmaceutical industries for tedious and labor intensive IEF and SDS-PAGE methods, respectively. Another important analytical tool for protein characterization is a Western blot, where after size-based separation in SDS-PAGE the proteins are transferred to a membrane and blotted with specific monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. Western blotting analysis is applied in many areas such as biomarker research, therapeutic target identification, and vaccine development. Currently, the procedure is very manual, laborious, and time consuming. Here, we evaluate a new technology called Simple Western™ (or Simon™) for performing automated Western analysis. This new technology is based on CE-SDS where the separated proteins are attached to the wall of capillary by a proprietary photo activated chemical crosslink. Subsequent blotting is done automatically by incubating and washing the capillary with primary and secondary antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase and detected with chemiluminescence. Typically, Western blots are not quantitative, hence we also evaluated the quantitative aspect of this new technology. We demonstrate that Simon™ can quantitate specific components in one of our vaccine candidates and it provides good reproducibility and intermediate precision with CV <10%.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: The first full length IgG produced in Pichia pastoris was reported in late 1980. However, use of a wild-type Pichia expression system to produce IgGs with human-like N-linked glycans was not possible until recently. Advances in glycoengineering have enabled organisms such as Pichia to mimic human N-glycan biosynthesis and produce IgGs with human glycans on an industrial scale. Since there are only a few reports of the analytical characterization of Pichia-produced IgG, we summarize the results known in this field, and provide additional characterization data generated in our laboratories. The data suggest that Pichia-produced IgG has the same stability as that produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. It has similar aggregation profiles, charge variant distribution and oxidation levels as those for a CHO IgG. It contains human N-linked glycans and O-linked single mannose. Because of the comparable biophysical and biochemical characteristics, glycoengineered Pichia pastoris is an attractive expression system for therapeutic IgG productions.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · mAbs
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    ABSTRACT: N-glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) at asparigine residue 297 plays a critical role in antibody stability and immune cell-mediated Fc effector function. Current understanding pertaining to Fc glycosylation is based on studies with IgGs that are either fully glycosylated [both heavy chain (HC) glycosylated] or aglycosylated (neither HC glycosylated). No study has been reported on the properties of hemi-glycosylated IgGs, antibodies with asymmetrical glycosylation in the Fc region such that one HC is glycosylated and the other is aglycosylated. We report here for the first time a detailed study of how hemi-glycosylation affects the stability and functional activities of an IgG1 antibody, mAb-X, in comparison to its fully glycosylated counterpart. Our results show that hemi-glycosylation does not impact Fab-mediated antigen binding, nor does it impact neonatal Fc receptor binding. Hemi-glycosylated mAb-X has slightly decreased thermal stability in the CH2 domain and a moderate decrease (∼20%) in C1q binding. More importantly, the hemi-glycosylated form shows significantly decreased binding affinities toward all Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) including the high-affinity FcγRI, and the low-affinity FcγRIIA, FcγRIIB, FcγRIIIA and FcγRIIIB. The decreased binding affinities to FcγRs result in a 3.5-fold decrease in antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). As ADCC often plays an important role in therapeutic antibody efficacy, glycosylation status will not only affect the antibody quality but also may impact the biological function of the product.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Glycobiology
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    ABSTRACT: Chromatographic separation plays a key role in the identification, quantification, and characterization of protein variants. Here we describe separation of species containing two post-translational modifications (glycosylation and methionine oxidation) in the Fc fragment of a monoclonal antibody. The method is based on cation-exchange chromatography under mildly acidic conditions that destabilize mainly the CH2 domain. Our data suggest that the separation is not mediated by the chemical modification itself, but rather by subtle structural changes induced by the chemical modification in the domain-decoupled conformation that monoclonal antibodies adopt around pH 4. Compared to other procedures already described in the literature, this method demonstrates an improved separation and allows purification of species in the native fold for additional functional characterization. This approach of separation under conditions where the protein assumes an alternative conformation could find a more general utility for the separation of chemical modifications in proteins.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Chromatography A