Shiwen Xu

Northeast Agricultural University, Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China

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Publications (45)91.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na+K+-ATPase, Ca++-ATPase, Mg++-ATPase, and Ca++Mg++-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na+K+-ATPase activity, Ca++-ATPase activity, and Ca++Mg++-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca++-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Biological Trace Element Research
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    ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) mainly performs its function through Se-containing proteins. Selenoprotein W (SelW), one member of the selenoprotein family, plays important roles in the normal function of the heart. To investigate the possible relationship between Se and SelW for the regulation of oxidative damage in chicken embryo myocardial cells, we treated myocardial cells with Se and H2O2. Then, the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine in the culture media, levels of SelW, inflammatory genes NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, p53, and the cell cycle were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between SelW and the levels of these factors was determined. The results indicated that Se treatment increased the expression of SelW (P < 0.05) and caused a downregulation of p53, NF-κB, and TNF-α (P < 0.05). In contrast, H2O2 increased the expression of p53, NF-κB, TNF-α, and LDH (P < 0.05) and induced early cell apoptosis, which was alleviated by treatment with Se. In addition, SelW had a positive correlation with the levels of inflammatory genes investigated. Taken together, our findings suggested that SelW is sensitive to Se levels and oxidative stress, and may play a role in the protective function of Se against oxidative damage and inflammation in chicken myocardial cells.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Biological trace element research
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    ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) deficiency induces hemolysis in chickens, but the molecular mechanism for this effect remains unclear. Se primarily elicits its function through the activity of selenoproteins, which contain the unique amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Se deficiency on the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines. One hundred eighty chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups (90 chickens per group). During the entire experimental period, chickens were allowed ad libitum consumption of feed and water. The chickens were fed either a Se-deficient diet (0.008 mg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or a Se-supplemented diet (as sodium selenite) at 0.2 mg/kg for 35 days. At the 35th day, the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines were examined in erythrocytes of 5 chickens per group, and the correlation was analyzed. The results showed that the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 7 cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12β, TGF-β4, and IFN-γ) decreased (P < 0.05), and the expression of 3 cytokines (IL-1γ, IL-6 and IL-7) was higher in the Se-deficient group. In both groups, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin 1 (Txnrd1), selenoprotein P1 (SELP), and selenoprotein synthetase (SPS2) were highly expressed compared to the other selenoproteins in chicken erythrocytes (P < 0.05). These data suggest that GPXs, Txnrd1, SELP, and SPS2 possibly play a more important role than the other selenoproteins. The increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1γ, IL-6, and IL-7) suggested that the immune system of chickens was damaged by the Se deficiency. Correlation analysis suggested that although the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 7 cytokines decreased and that of 3 cytokines increased, there was a close correlation between their expression levels and a Se diet. These results suggested that Se deficiency influenced the expressions of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines in chicken erythrocytes, revealing a relationship between Se and the chicken immune system. This study offers information regarding the mechanism of Se deficiency-induced hemolysis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Biological trace element research
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    ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) deficiency induces various types of diseases, including hemolytic anemia, which is one of the basic pathologies of erythrocyte damage. To investigate the effect of Se deficiency on chicken erythrocytes, we detected the effects of Se deficiency on the nitric oxide (NO) content and the levels of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in chicken erythrocytes, including Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90. One-day-old chickens (180) were randomly divided into two groups, a low-Se group (L group, fed with a 0.008 mg/kg Se diet) and a control group (C group, fed with a 0.2 mg/kg Se diet). Next, erythrocytes were collected at 35 days old, and the NO content, activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and levels of Hsps (27, 40, 60, 70, and 90) were examined. Compared with the C group, the NO and iNOS levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05), and the Hsps in the mRNA and protein levels were generally higher (P < 0.05) in the L group. Meanwhile, the correlation analysis showed that there were positive correlations between Hsps and NO. Thus, as typical damage biomarkers, NO and Hsps may play special roles in chicken erythrocyte injury by Se deficiency.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Biological trace element research
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    ABSTRACT: Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used pesticides in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. The spleen and head kidney in the bony fish are the major hematopoietic organs, and play a crucial part in immune responses. This study evaluated the subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the immune organs of common carp and compared the acute and subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the swimming speed (SS) of common carp. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h-LC50 of ATR and CPF for common carp was determined to be 2.142 and 0.582 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, acute and subacute toxicity of ATR and CPF in common carp resulted in hypoactivity. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 genes were induced in the spleen and head kidney of common carp exposed to ATR and CPF in the subchronic toxicity test. Our results indicate that ATR and CPF are highly toxic to common carp, and hypoactivity in common carp by acute and subchronic toxicity of ATR and CPF may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of triazine herbicide and organophosphorous pesticides to aquatic organisms. In addition, the results from the subchronic toxicity test exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that ATR and CPF exposure cause immunotoxicity to common carp. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the impacts of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the expression levels of heat shock proteins genes (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and pesticide residues in the kidney tissue. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 were induced in the kidney of common carp by ATR, CPF, and ATR/CPF mixture. The accumulated amounts of ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the kidney tissues exhibited dose-dependency. These results exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that the expression levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 may act as potential biomarkers for assessing the environmental ATR and CPF risk for carp.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are involved in different types of stress-induced injuries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Se deficiency on oxidative stress, ER stress and apoptosis in chicken livers. Chickens (1 day old, n = 180) were randomly divided into two groups: the L group [fed with a Se-deficient (Se 0.033 mg/kg) diet] and the control group [fed with a normal (Se 0.2 mg/kg) diet]. Factor-associated oxidative stress, catalase (CAT) activity, H2O2 production and the inhibition of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) in the chicken liver were determined on days 15, 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65, respectively. In addition, ER stress-related genes (GRP78, GRP94, ATF4, ATF6 and IRE) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase3 and Bcl-2) were examined by fluorescence quantitative PCR or western blot analysis. Apoptosis levels were also measured using ultrastructural observations and the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The results showed that CAT activity and ·OH inhibition were decreased and that H2O2 production was increased in the low-Se group, which demonstrated that oxidative stress occurred in the chicken liver. The ER stress-related genes (GRP78, GRP94, ATF4, ATF6 and IRE) and the apoptosis-related gene caspase3 were increased (p < 0.05), while Bcl-2 was decreased (p < 0.05) by Se deficiency. In addition, apoptosis and ER lesions were observed by ultrastructural observations of the chicken liver in the low-Se group. The level of apoptosis and the number of apoptotic cells increased with time. These results indicated that the oxidative-ER stress pathway participates in Se deficiency-induced apoptosis in the chicken liver.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · BioMetals
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    ABSTRACT: Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are the most common agrochemical in the freshwater ecosystems of the world. This study assessed the effects of ATR (4.28, 42.8 and 428 μg/L), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 μg/L) and combined ATR/CPF (1.13, 11.3 and 113 μg/L) on common carp head kidneys and spleens following 40 d exposure and 40 d recovery treatments. Nitric oxide (NO) content, activities of anti hydroxyl radical (AHR), anti superoxide anion (ASA), peroxidase (POD) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the mRNA levels of the autophagy genes (LC3-II, dynein, TOR) were determined. The results indicate that the antioxidant enzyme (AHR, ASA, POD and iNOS) activities and NO content in the head kidney and spleen of the common carp increased significantly after a 40 d exposure to ATR and CPF alone or in combination. The mRNA levels of LC3-II and dynein in common carp increased significantly after exposure to ATR and CPF alone, or in combination. Moreover, the mRNA levels of LC3-II and dynein decreased significantly after a 40-d recovery. However, the mRNA levels of TOR gene for all decreased significantly at the end of the exposure and the recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the oxidative stress-induced autophagic effects in the common carp by exposure to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF combination. The information presented in the present study may be helpful to understanding the mechanisms of autophagy induced by ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF combination in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Fish & Shellfish Immunology
  • Jianping Qu · Ming Li · Fuqing Zhao · Ci Liu · Ziwei Zhang · Shiwen Xu · Shu Li
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    ABSTRACT: Avermectin (AVM) is used in agriculture and veterinary medicine for the prevention of parasitic diseases; AVM is the active component of some insecticidal and nematicidal products. Residues of AVM drugs or their metabolites in livestock feces have toxic effects on non-target aquatic and terrestrial organisms. In this study, changes in the levels of autophagy related genes and ultrastructure in pigeon brain tissues after subchronic exposure to AVM for 30, 60 and 90 d were investigated. The decrease in the mRNA levels of TORC1 and TORC2 and increase in the mRNA levels of LC3, Beclin 1, Dynein, ATG5 and ATG4B and the increase in the protein levels of LC3, Beclin 1 and Dynein in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the pigeon brain were observed. The number of autophagic vacuoles in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe increased significantly with the concentration of AVM and the exposure time. We found that the changes in the levels of autophagy related genes and the ultrastructure in the cerebrum were more obvious than in the cerebellum and the optic lobe. The results suggest that AVM could induce autophagy in pigeon brain tissues. The information presented in this study is helpful for understanding the mechanism of AVM-induced autophagy in birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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    ABSTRACT: Under normal conditions, autophagy occurs at basal levels but can be induced rapidly in response to stress conditions and extracellular signals. Increasing experimental evidence indicates that the expression of autophagy-related genes play very important roles in toxicology. Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are the most common agrochemical in the freshwater ecosystems of the world. This study assessed the effects of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the liver of common carp. Carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to ATR and CPF, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the mRNA and protein levels of autophagy-related genes in the liver. In addition, we also investigated the change in ultrastructure in the liver. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 B (LC3B) and dynein were significantly induced in the treated groups compared to the solvent control group. Transmission electron microscope assays indicated that autolysosomes were observed in the exposure and recovery groups. These results indicated that ATR and CPF could induce autophagy in carp liver. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to study the autophagy effects caused by sub-chronic exposure to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF combination in common carp. The information presented in the present study may provide new insights into the mechanisms used by fish to adapt to stressful environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine the role of Selenoprotein W (Sepw1) in modulating the expression of other selenoproteins. In the present study, we silenced and overexpressed the expression of Sepw1 in chicken myoblasts and subsequently treated the myoblasts with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and H2O2. Thereafter, the levels of expression of 25 selenoproteins and the activities of certain antioxidative enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were analyzed. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to define the most important parameters that could be used as key factors. The results indicated that as a highly expressed selenoprotein (only lower than Gpx1, Selk, Sels and Sep15), Sepw1 could interact with H2O2 (P < 0.05) and influence the expression of some selenoproteins (Gpx3, Gpx4, Txnrd1, Selt, Selh, Sepp1, Sels and Sep15, P < 0.05) and the sensitivity of the cells to H2O2. Both the overexpression and silencing of Sepw1 influenced the mRNA levels of selenoproteins. However, the responses of selenoproteins to altered Sepw1 expression were different. The results indicated that Sepw1 played a special role in H2O2 metabolism and may modulate the expression of certain selenoproteins through the redox pathway. Therefore, these results indicate that Sepw1 is an essential antioxidative selenoprotein in chicken myoblasts.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · RSC Advances
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in animal. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on DNA methylation in the brain and gonad of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the levels of global DNA methylation and the expression of methylation enzymes (DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methylcytosine binding domain 2 (MBD2)) in the brain and gonad tissues. The results revealed that a significant global DNA hypomethylation in the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture was observed compared to the control fish. The MBD2 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the brain and gonad of the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture, in contrast, the DNMTs mRNA expression was down-regulated. The information regarding the effects of ATR and CPF on DNA methylation status generated in this study is important for pesticides toxicology evaluation. However, the effect of ATR and CPF on the methylation status of specific genes, as well as its detailed mechanism requires further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) deficiency induces pancreatic atrophy in chickens, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary Se deficiency on the expressions of 25 selenoproteins and the content of nitric oxide (NO) and examined the relationship between selenoproteins and NO. Chickens (180; 1 day old) were randomly divided into two groups, low (L) group (fed with Se deficient (Se 0.033 mg/kg) diet) and control (C) group (fed with normal (Se 0.2 mg/kg) diet). Then, pancreas was collected at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days, and the content of NO, the activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of 25 selenoproteins and iNOS were measured. The results showed that 25 selenoproteins were decreased (P < 0.05) by Se deficiency. Among them, thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1), selenoprotein S (SELS), selenoprotein U (SELU), selenoprotein X1 (SEPX1), and selenoprotein synthetase 2 (SPS2) were highly and extensively expressed than other types of selenoproteins in pancreas of chickens (P < 0.05). Thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), selenoprotein I (SELI), iodothyronine deiodinase 1 (DIO1), selenoprotein P1 (SEPP1), selenoprotein W1 (SEPW1), selenoprotein O (SELO), selenoprotein T (SELT), selenoprotein M (SELM), selenoprotein X1 (SEPX1), and SPS2 were excessively decreased (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, NO content, iNOS activity, and mRNA level were increased strikingly compared with C group (P < 0.05). The correlation analysis suggested that NO had a strong negative correlation with GPX1, glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2), GPX3, DIO1, selenoprotein K (SELK), SELI, SEPX1, and SPS2. These results suggested that Se deficiency induced pancreatic injury by influencing NO and selenoproteins in pancreas of chickens. Thus, it offers some information on the mechanism of pancreatic injury induced by Se deficiency.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Biological Trace Element Research
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) deficiency on the expressions of heat shock proteins (Hsp90, 70, 60, 40, and 27) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in neutrophils of broilers. One hundred eighty 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into two groups and were fed on a low-Se diet (0.008 mg/kg Se) or a control diet (0.2 mg/kg Se), respectively. Then, the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Hsp90, 70, 60, 40, and 27, induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and NO levels were examined. The results showed that Se deficiency increased the mRNA levels of Hsps and iNOS and induced higher level of NO in chicken neutrophils (P < 0.05). It showed that the expression of Hsp40 increased higher than other Hsps in neutrophils, which indicated that it might play the crucial protective role in neutrophils. In addition, correlation analysis showed that iNOS had the biggest correlation with Hsp60, which indicated that Hsp60 might play an important function in inhibiting the production of NO, and the correlation coefficient between Hsp60 and Hsp70 was over 0.9, which indicated that they might have a synergistic effect. These results suggested that the level of NO and Hsp expression levels in neutrophils can be influenced by Se deficiency. And Hsp40 might play the crucial protective role in neutrophils induced by Se deficiency.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Biological Trace Element Research
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium could induce the damage of endoplasmic reticulum. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Cadmium on messenger RNA expressions of endoplasmic reticulum resident selenoproteins, selenoprotein K, selenoprotein N, selenoprotein S, and selenoprotein T, in cultured chicken lymphocytes and the antagonistic effect of Selenium. Chicken splenic lymphocytes were treated with 10(-7) mol/L Selenium, 10(-6) mol/L Cadmium, and the mixture of 10(-6) mol/L Selenium and 10(-7) mol/L Cadmium in the culture medium for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h, respectively. Then, we detected the messenger RNA expressions of selenoprotein K, selenoprotein N, selenoprotein S, and selenoprotein T by using real-time polymerase chain reaction method. The results indicated that Selenium significantly increased the expressions of selenoprotein K, selenoprotein N, selenoprotein S, and selenoprotein T, which were reduced by Cadmium in chicken splenic lymphocytes. It indicated that endoplasmic reticulum was one target of Cadmium toxication, and Cadmium toxicity might be related to the reduced expressions of selenoprotein K, selenoprotein N, selenoprotein S, and selenoprotein T in chicken lymphocytes. Selenium reserved the protective role by increasing the expressions of selenoprotein K, selenoprotein N, selenoprotein S, and selenoprotein T. The present study provided a useful clue to investigate the possible pathogenesis of Cadmium toxicity.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Biological Trace Element Research
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency induces muscular dystrophy in chicken, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Se deficiency on the expressions of 25 selenoproteins. One-day-old broiler chickens were fed either an Se deficiency diet (0.033 mg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or a diet supplemented with Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.2 mg/kg for 55 days. Then, the mRNA levels of 25 selenoproteins in chicken muscles were examined, and the principal component was further analyzed. The results showed that antioxidative selenoproteins especially Gpxs and Sepw1 were highly and extensively expressed than other types of selenoproteins in chicken muscles. In 25 selenoproteins, Gpxs, Txnrd2, Txnrd 3, Dio1, Dio 3, Selk, Sels, Sepw1, Selh, Sep15, Selu, Selpb, Sepp1, Selo, Sepx1, and SPS2 were downregulated (P < 0.05), and other selenoproteins were not influenced (P > 0.05). Se deficiency decreased the expressions of 19 selenoproteins (P < 0.05), 11 of which were antioxidative selenoproteins. And, principal component analysis (PCA) further indicated that antioxidative selenoproteins, especially Gpx3, Gpx4, and Sepw1, may play crucial roles in chicken muscles. However, compared with these antioxidative selenoproteins, some other lower expressed selenoproteins (Dio1, Selu, Selpb, Sepp1) were excessively decreased (more than 60 %, P < 0.05) by Se deficiency. Thus, it may save the limited Se levels and be beneficial to remain the level of some crucial selenoproteins. These results suggested that Se deficiency mainly influenced the expressions of antioxidative selenoproteins in chicken muscles. And, antioxidative selenoproteins especially Gpxs and Sepw1 may play a crucial role in chicken muscles. Thus, it helps us focus on some specific selenoproteins when studying the role of Se in chicken muscles.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Biological Trace Element Research
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    ABSTRACT: Pesticide exposure has repeatedly been associated with cancers, although the molecular mechanisms behind this association are largely undetermined. Abnormal DNA methylation plays a key role in the process of some disease. However, little was known about the effect of pesticides on DNA methylation in the common carp. In this study, we investigated the mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methyl-CpG-binding protein DNA-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) as well as the DNA methylation levels in the liver, kidney and gill of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after 40-d exposure to atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone or in combination, and a 40-d recovery period. Juvenile common carp were exposed to various concentrations of ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428 μg/L), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 μg/L), and an ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113 μg/L). The results revealed that the levels of genomic DNA methylation decreased in all tissues after 40 d of exposure to ATR and CPF either individually or in combination. Moreover, the mRNA expression of DNMTs was down-regulated in all treatment groups. In contrast, the mRNA expression of MBD2 was up-regulated. These results demonstrated that long-term exposure to ATR, CPF and ATR/CPF mixtures could disrupt genomic DNA. It might imply that DNA methylation is involved in the toxicity caused by ATR and CPF in the common carp.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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    ABSTRACT: Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are toxic and subject to long-term in vivo accumulation in different aquatic species throughout the world. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF exposure on cytokines in the head kidney and spleen of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the mRNA expression of IL-6fam (IL-6), IL-8, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β1 (TGF-β) in the head kidney and spleen tissues. These results showed that the expression of cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in the head kidney and spleen was upregulated following ATR, CPF and mixed ATR/CPF exposure compared with the control group. The expression of IL-10 and TGF-β mRNA was significantly inhibited in both head kidney and spleen of carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. The results suggested that long-term exposure of ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture in aquatic environments can induce the dysregulation of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. The information regarding the effects of ATR and CPF on cytokine mRNA expression generated in this study will be important information for pesticides toxicology evaluation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Biological Trace Element Research
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible correlation of selenoprotein W (SelW) with inflammatory injury induced by dietary selenium (Se) deficiency in chicken. One-day-old male chickens were fed either a commercial diet or a Se-deficient diet for 55 days. Then, the expression levels of SelW messenger RNA (mRNA) and inflammation-related genes (NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and PTGES) in chicken skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, and thigh muscle) were determined at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days old, respectively. In addition, the correlation between SelW mRNA expression and inflammation-related genes were assessed. The results showed that dietary Se deficiency reduced the mRNA expression of SelW in chicken wing, pectorals, and thigh muscles. In contrast, Se deficiency increased the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes in chicken skeletal muscle tissues at different time points. The Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes were significantly negative related to SelW (p < 0.05). These data showed that Se deficiency induced the inflammatory response in chicken skeletal muscle. As one important selenoprotein gene in skeletal muscles, SelW may play a role in the regulation of inflammation reaction in Se-deficiency myopathy.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Biological Trace Element Research