Scott J. Reynolds

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (24)70.31 Total impact

  • K. C. Yam · A. Klotz · W. He · S. Reynolds

    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Academy of Management Journal
  • Scott J. Reynolds · Carolyn T. Dang
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    ABSTRACT: Though there are many factors that contribute to the perceived legitimacy of business ethics education, this research focuses on one factor that is given great attention both formally and informally in many business schools: student satisfaction with the course. To understand the nature of student satisfaction, the authors draw from multiple theories with central claims relating (met) expectations with satisfaction. The authors then compare student expectations of business ethics courses with instructor objectives and discover that business ethics courses are not necessarily designed to meet student expectations. The authors speculate that this general mismatch between student expectations and instructor objectives has material consequences. As one example, the authors analyze student evaluations from three business schools and identify a “business ethics course effect”: a negative association between business ethics courses and student evaluations. The authors discuss the implications for business ethics education of a situation where pedagogical objectives (“Educate!”) and market prescriptions (“Satisfy!”) point in different directions.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Business & Society
  • Scott J. Reynolds · Jared A Miller
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    ABSTRACT: In this brief review, we discuss foundational and recent research on the recognition of moral issues, an area generally referred to as moral awareness. Scholarly work in this area primarily focuses on three constructs: moral awareness, moral sensitivity, and moral attentiveness. Recent research on the antecedents of moral recognition has identified several biological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors; while research on the consequences of moral recognition is further validating the claims of the foundational theories on the topic. After discussing this recent work in some detail, we point to issues within the field that demand more scholarly attention.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined how leaders' customer interactions influence their tendency to abuse their followers. Specifically, we drew from ego-depletion theory to suggest that surface acting during customer interactions depletes leaders of their self-control resources, resulting in elevated levels of abusive supervision. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the effect of surface acting on abusive supervision is moderated by leaders' trait self-control, such that leaders with high trait self-control will be less affected by the depleting effects of surface acting than their peers. Results from a multiwave, multisource leader-follower dyad study in the service and sales industries provided support for our hypotheses. This research contributes to several literatures, particularly to an emerging area of study-the antecedents of leaders' abusive behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Applied Psychology
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    Joseph P Gaspar · Mark A. Seabright · Scott J. Reynolds · Kai Chi Yam
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Though the decision to behave immorally is situated within the context of prior immoral behavior, research has provided contradictory insights into this process. In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that the effects of prior immoral behavior depend on how individuals think about, or reflect on, their immoral behavior. In Experiment 1, participants who reflected counterfactually on their prior moral lapses morally disengaged (i.e., rationalized) less than participants who reflected factually. In Experiment 2, participants who reflected counterfactually on their prior moral lapses experienced more guilt than those who reflected factually. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, participants who reflected counterfactually lied less on unrelated tasks with real monetary stakes than those who reflected factually. Our studies provide important insights into moral rationalization and moral compensation processes and demonstrate the profound influence of reflection in everyday moral life.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Journal of Social Psychology
  • Scott J. Reynolds
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    ABSTRACT: With regard to the ethical organization, it is generally understood that "good" organizations 1) establish ethical standards; 2) regularly make those standards salient; 3) monitor behavior; and 4) reward and punish accordingly. While it is typical to think of these processes as occurring at conscious levels, I will discuss research that suggests that each process can, and does, occur at non-conscious levels-that an ethical culture exists and influences employees in ways that neither management nor employees likely recognize. Then I will discuss the expectations that should circumscribe a "good" organization.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The American criminal law review
  • K. C. Yam · A.C. Klotz · W. He · S. J. Reynolds

    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings
  • Kai Chi Yam · Scott J. Reynolds

    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Business Ethics
  • Kai Chi Yam · Scott J. Reynolds · Jacob B. Hirsh
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted five studies to examine the effects of physiological deprivation on unethical behavior. Consistent with predictions from Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, we found that physiologically deprived participants engaged in unethical behavior related to obtaining physiological satiation. Contrary to models in which deprivation increases global unethical behavior, hungry and thirsty participants also engaged in less physiologically-unrelated unethical behavior compared to control participants (Studies 1–3). Studies 4 and 5 confirmed that the effects of physiological deprivation on both types of unethical behavior were mediated by a heightened engagement of the Behavioral Approach System (BAS). In addition, we found that the salience of an organizational ethical context acted as a boundary condition for the mediated effect. Participants reminded of the organizational ethical context were less likely to engage in need-related unethical behavior even when physiologically deprived. We conclude by considering the theoretical and practical implications of this research.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
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    Kai Chi Yam · Xiao-Ping Chen · Scott J. Reynolds
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    ABSTRACT: Whereas previous research has shown that ego depletion can lead to an increase in unethical behavior, we suggest that this effect hinges on the social consensus of the unethical behavior. Drawing from theories on social consensus and dual-process decision-making, we hypothesize and confirm that ego depletion is associated with increased unethical behavior of comparatively low social consensus. We then find that, as hypothesized, ego depletion is associated with decreased unethical behavior of high social consensus (Studies 1 and 2). Results further suggest that, controlling for state self-control resources, depleted participants are less likely to engage in unethical behavior of high social consensus as a result of increased subjective fatigue (Study 3). Taken together, our findings challenge a widely-held assumption about the negative effects of ego depletion on ethical decision making.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
  • Lumina S. Albert · Scott J. Reynolds · Bulent Turan
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    ABSTRACT: The literature on ethical decision-making is rooted in a cognitive perspective that emphasizes the role of moral judgment. Recent research in interpersonal dynamics, however, has suggested that ethics revolves around an individual’s perceptions and views of others. We draw from both literatures to propose and empirically examine a contingent model. We theorize that whether the individual relies on cognitions about the ethical issue or perceptions of others depends on the level of social consensus surrounding the issue. We test our hypotheses in three studies. Results suggest that not only does social consensus determine whether an individual relies on ethical cognitions about the issue or perceptions of others, but also that an individual’s view of self is an important moderator in these relationships. We conclude by considering implications of this research for theory and practice.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Business Ethics
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    Scott J. Reynolds · Carolyn T. Dang · Kai Chi Yam · Keith Leavitt
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    ABSTRACT: In contrast to other well-known cognitive models of moral decision-making, social cognitive theory posits that individuals can disengage from their own moral standards thereby allowing themselves to commit immoral acts. While previous research largely supports the general premise of moral disengagement, we suggest that direct tests of moral disengagement processes and the commensurate diminished role of moral knowledge are conspicuously absent. In five studies, we use multiple methods to capture both knowledge of the immorality of an act and theorized in situ processes of moral disengagement. Ultimately, we find no evidence of the proposed processes associated with moral disengagement. Furthermore, our data suggests that moral knowledge is a key driver of moral behavior in everyday situations and is not easily set aside. We conclude by discussing the implications of this research for theory and practice.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
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    Gary R. Weaver · Scott J. Reynolds · Michael E. Brown
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    ABSTRACT: In contrast to older, conventional accounts that treat ethical decision making and behavior as the result of deliberative and intendedly rational processes, a rapidly growing body of social science research has framed ethical thought and behavior as driven by intuition. We review this important new body of knowledge in terms of both the process and content of moral intuition. Then, to demonstrate its value to organizational scholars, we consider the potential impact of moral intuition research in four areas of organizational studies especially suited to insights from this research: leadership, organizational corruption, ethics training and education, and divestiture socialization. Our review and discussion suggest that the literature on moral intuition is incredibly rich, fruitful, and meaningful to a wide range of audiences.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Management
  • K. C. Yam · S. J. Reynolds

    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings
  • K. C. Yam · R. Fehr · S. J. Reynolds

    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings
  • Maureen L. Ambrose · Marshall J. Schminke · Scott J. Reynolds

    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
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    ABSTRACT: It is well understood that moral identity substantially influences moral judgments. However, occupational identities are also replete with moral content, and individuals may have multiple occupational identities within a given work role (e.g., engineer and manager). Consequently, we apply the lenses of moral universalism and moral particularism to categorize occupational identities and explore their moral prescriptions. We present and test a model of occupational identities as implicitly held and dynamically activated knowledge structures, cued by context and containing associated content about the absolute and/or relationship-dependent moral obligations owed by an actor to stakeholders. Results from one field study and two situated experiments with dual-occupation individuals indicate that moral obligations embedded in occupational identities influence actors’ work role moral judgments in a predictable and meaningful manner.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · The Academy of Management Journal
  • Scott J. Reynolds · Bradley P. Owens · Alex L. Rubenstein
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    ABSTRACT: To better illuminate aspects of stress that are relevant to the moral domain, we present a definition and theoretical model of “moral stress.” Our definition posits that moral stress is a psychological state born of an individual’s uncertainty about his or her ability to fulfill relevant moral obligations. This definition assumes a self-and-others relational basis for moral stress. Accordingly, our model draws from a theory of the self (identity theory) and a theory of others (stakeholder theory) to suggest that this uncertainty arises as a manager faces competing claims for limited resources from multiple stakeholders and/or across multiple role identities. We further propose that the extent to which the manager is attentive to the moral aspects of the claims (i.e., moral attentiveness) moderates these effects. We identify several consequences of managerial moral stress and discuss theoretical, empirical, and practical implications of our approach. Most importantly, we argue that this work paves an important path for considering stress through the lens of morality.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Business Ethics
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    Scott J Reynolds · Keith Leavitt · Katherine A DeCelles
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    ABSTRACT: We empirically examine the reflexive or automatic aspects of moral decision making. To begin, we develop and validate a measure of an individual's implicit assumption regarding the inherent morality of business. Then, using an in-basket exercise, we demonstrate that an implicit assumption that business is inherently moral impacts day-to-day business decisions and interacts with contextual cues to shape moral behavior. Ultimately, we offer evidence supporting a characterization of employees as reflexive interactionists: moral agents whose automatic decision-making processes interact with the environment to shape their moral behavior.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of Applied Psychology
  • Scott J Reynolds
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    ABSTRACT: This research draws from social cognitive theory to develop a construct known as moral attentiveness, the extent to which an individual chronically perceives and considers morality and moral elements in his or her experiences, and proposes that moral attentiveness affects a variety of behaviors. A series of 5 studies with undergraduates, MBA students, and managers were conducted to create and validate a reliable multidimensional scale and to provide evidence that moral attentiveness is associated with (a) the recall and reporting of self- and others' morality-related behaviors, (b) moral awareness, and (c) moral behavior. Results of the studies suggest that moral attentiveness has a significant effect on how individuals understand and act in their moral worlds.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Applied Psychology