[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & Aims
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I−restricted CD8+ T cells are required for clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. MHC class I expression is up-regulated by type I and II interferons (IFNs). However, little is known about the effects of HCV infection on IFN-induced expression of MHC class I.
We used the HCV cell culture system (HCVcc) with the genotype 2a Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 strain to investigate IFN-induced expression of MHC class I and its regulatory mechanisms. HCVcc-infected Huh-7.5 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, metabolic labeling, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting analyses. Protein kinase R (PKR) was knocked down with lentiviruses that express small hairpin RNAs. The functional effects of MHC class I regulation by HCV were demonstrated in co-culture studies, using HCV-specific CD8+ T cells.
Although the baseline level of MHC class I was not affected by HCV infection, IFN-induced expression of MHC class I was notably attenuated in HCV-infected cells. This was associated with replicating HCV RNA, not with viral protein. HCV infection reduced IFN-induced synthesis of MHC class I protein and induced phosphorylation of PKR and eIF2α. IFN-induced MHC class I expression was restored by small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of PKR in HCV-infected cells. Co-culture of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells and HCV-infected cells that expressed HLA-A2 demonstrated that HCV infection reduced the effector functions of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells; these functions were restored by small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of PKR.
IFN-induced expression of MHC class I is attenuated in HCV-infected cells by activation of PKR, which reduces the effector functions of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells. This appears to be an important mechanism by which HCV circumvents antiviral adaptive immune responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is one of the survival processes of cancer cells, especially in stressful conditions such as starvation, hypoxia and chemotherapeutic agents. However, its roles in tumor survival have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we found for the first time that JAK2/STAT3 was activated in HeLa cells when they were starved or treated with rapamycin. STAT3 activation was associated with autophagic processes, because it was completely inhibited by 3-methyladenine, partially inhibited by knockdown of molecules associated with autophagic processes and blocked by antioxidants, DPI, a Nox inhibitor and knockdown of p22 phox, indicating that ROS generated by Nox that was activated during autophagic processes activated JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Activated STAT3 directly bound to IL6 promoter and increased IL6 mRNA and protein secretion. Finally, the conditioned media, which included IL6, from starved HeLa cells promoted cancer cell survival in both normal and starved conditions, confirmed by clonogenic, proliferation and cell death assays. These data together indicate that the autophagic process in cancer cells can contribute to their survival by JAk2/STAT3 activation and subsequent secretion of growth factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, HepG2-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-stable cells that did not overexpress HBx and HBx-deficient mutant-transfected cells were analyzed for their expression of HBV-induced, upregulated adipogenic and lipogenic genes. The mRNAs of CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), adiponectin, liver X receptor α (LXRα), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were expressed at higher levels in HepG2-HBV and lamivudine-treated stable cells and HBx-deficient mutant-transfected cells than in the HepG2 cells. Lamivudine treatment reduced the mRNA levels of PPARγ and C/EBPα. Conversely, HBV replication was upregulated by adiponectin and PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone treatments and was downregulated by adiponectin siRNAs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that HBV replication and/or protein expression, even in the absence of HBx, upregulated adipogenic or lipogenic genes, and that the control of adiponectin might prove useful as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In brain tissue, astrocytes play defensive roles in central nervous system integrity by mediating immune responses against pathological conditions. Type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase alpha (PIP5K alpha) that is responsible for production of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI[4,5]P2) regulates many important cell functions at the cell surface. Here, we have examined whether PIP5K alpha is associated with astrocyte inflammatory responses. Gangliosides are releasable from damaged cell membranes of neurons and capable of inducing inflammatory responses. We found that treatment of primary cultured astrocytes with gangliosides significantly enhanced PIP5K alpha mRNA and protein expression levels. PI(4,5)P2 imaging using a fluorescent tubby (R332H) expression as a PI(4,5)P2-specific probe showed that ganglioside treatment increased PI(4,5)P2 level. Interestingly, microRNA-based PIP5K alpha knockdown strongly reduced ganglioside-induced transcription of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and TNFalpha. PIP5K alpha knockdown also suppressed ganglioside-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and the degradation of I kappaB-alpha, indicating that PIP5K alpha knockdown interfered with the ganglioside-activated NF-kappaB signaling. Together, these results suggest that PIP5K alpha is a novel inflammatory mediator that undergoes upregulation and contributes to immune responses by facilitating NF-kappaB activation in ganglioside-stimulated astrocytes.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Experimental and Molecular Medicine