[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast carcinomas are an uncommon neoplastic condition in men, accounting for only 1% of all breast cancers, and less than 1% of all malignancies in men. A 70-year-old man who presented a right breast mass was found to have infiltrating ductal carcinoma. We herein report the case with a review of the literature.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gecko proteins have been used as an anti-tumor agent in oriental medicine without scientific background. Although anti-tumor effects of Gecko proteins on several cancers were recently reported, the effect of Gecko proteins on bladder cancer has not been investigated. Thus, we explored the anti-tumor effect of Gecko proteins and its cellular mechanisms in human bladder cancer 5637 cell. Gecko proteins significantly reduced the viability of 5637 cell without cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Gecko proteins increased the Annexin-V staining and the amount of condensed chromatin, demonstrating Gecko proteins-induced cell death was caused by apoptosis. Gecko proteins suppressed Akt activation and overexpression of constitutively active form of myristoylated Akt prevented Gecko proteins-induced death of 5637 cell. Furthermore, Gecko proteins activated caspase 9 and caspase 3/7. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Gecko proteins suppressed the Akt pathway and activated the intrinsic caspase pathway to lead to apoptosis of bladder cancer cell.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P34 has long been known as one of major allergenic proteins in soybean. Recently, two low-P34 soybean accessions, PI603570A and PI567476, were identified. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of a significant reduction of P34 protein level in PI567476, we performed comparative analysis of the P34 cDNAs and genomic sequences from low-P34 and normal soybean accessions. While no sequence variation was detected in P34 coding regions of the soybean accessions tested, the P34 gene from PI567476 contains ‘ATGT’ 4-bp insertion in front of the start codon. We also found the length polymorphism of ‘TA’ repeats in the P34 promoter regions among accessions. Northern and western blot analysis revealed that, even though mRNA levels of P34 are similar in low-P34 and normal soybean accessions, lower accumulation of P34 protein is only detected in the low-P34 accession, suggesting that the genetic polymorphisms in P34 promoters have a more significant effect on translation efficiency than transcription of the P34 gene. Transient expression analysis showed that the P34 promoter of PI567476 has significantly reduced activity compared to that of normal accession, cv. Clark. In addition, the chimeric promoter generated by introducing the 4-bp insertion in front of the start codon of the P34 gene from normal Clark accession showed markedly reduced activity. The results suggest that lower accumulation of P34 protein in low-P34 accession is largely due to the reduced translation efficiency caused by the 4-bp insertion in the P34 promoter, thus providing direct evidence for the molecular mechanism to explain the regulation of P34 gene expression in various soybean accessions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-tumor activity of the proteins from Gecko (GP) on cervical cancer cells, and its signaling mechanisms were assessed by viable cell counting, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and Western blot analysis. GP induced the cell death of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner while it did not affect the viability of normal cells. Western blot analysis showed that GP decreased the activation of Akt, and co-administration of GP and Akt inhibitors synergistically exerted anti-tumor activities on HeLa cells, suggesting the involvement of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in GP-induced cell death of the cancer cells. Indeed, the cytotoxic effect of GP against HeLa cells was inhibited by overexpression of constituvely active form of Akt in HeLa cells. The candidates of the functional proteins in GP were analyzed by Mass-spectrum. Taken together, our results suggest that GP elicits anti-tumor activity against HeLa cells by inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is a major source of protein for human and animal nutrients. However, soybean seed also contains a number of allergenic proteins, which limit its extensive usage in the food industry. P34 (Gly m Bd 30K), a low-leveled but highly conserved seed storage protein, has been described as a major allergen in soybean seed. Recently, two low P34 soybean accessions, PI603570A and PI567476, were identified by extensive screening of soybean germplasm. We have surveyed spatiotemporal expression pattern of P34 protein in low P34 accession, PI567476, and cultivated soybean accession, Clark, using antibody against P34. Immunoblot analysis showed not only seed specific expression pattern of P34, but also significantly reduced expression of P34 in PI567476 compared to Clark. Additionally, we performed proteomic analysis to compare protein compositions between PI567476 and Clark accessions. Although the overall distribution pattern of the protein spots was similar in both soybean accessions, 19 protein spots showing different intensity between both accessions were detected and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). PI567476 accession exhibited altered expression of several seed storage proteins including allergens and seed maturation-related proteins. The detailed analysis for composition of seed storage proteins of the PI567476 accession provides valuable information in use of this soybean germplasm for breeding of low allergenic elite soybean lines, which is expected to enhance food safety and make soy products available to allergen-sensitive individuals.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipofibromatosis is a recently described rare benign fibrofatty tumor of childhood. It typically forms as an ill defined, slowly growing, painless mass. We present here the case of lipofbromatosis that occurred in a 21-year-old male who had complained of a bulging enlarged mass involving the right thigh and prepatella area for the previous 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an ill-defined reticular infiltration in the subcutaneous layer with subtle linear enhancement and high T2 signal intensity. The mass was surgically excised and it displayed an 11.0 × 5.5 × 1.5 cm-sized adipose appearance without encapsulation. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of alternating streaks of mature adipose tissue and a fibroblastic component that mainly involved the septa of adipose tissue. On immunohistochemical study, the fibroblastic component was positive for S-100, CD99, CD34, actin and bcl-2. He has shown an eventful recovery for 6 months after surgery.
Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · The Korean Journal of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background : Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in immune reactions. This study was designed to identify the distribution patterns of DCs and regulatory T-cells (Tregs) in cutaneous lymphomas. Methods : Immunohistochemistry was used to determine langerin expression on Langerhans cells, CD11b on inflammatory DCs, CD209 and CD11c on dermal DCs, CD303 on plasmacytic DCs, and Foxp3 on Tregs in 81 cases of cutaneous lymphomas. Results : Various DCs and Tregs were identified in most cutaneous lymphomas. Plasmacytic DCs, inflammatory DCs and Tregs were identified mainly in tumor areas, whereas dermal DCs were distributed both in the tumor and stromal areas. Among DCs, dermal DCs were most prominently identified in the cutaneous lymphomas not only in the tumor area but also in the stroma. The intense stromal infiltration of dermal DCs was consistent finding in T-cell lymphomas. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), not otherwise specified also showed intense stromal infiltration of dermal DCs, but stromal infiltration in DLBCL, leg type was relatively scant. Conclusions : The results suggest that all types of DCs and Tregs are involved in cutaneous lymphoma tumor immunity. Among them dermal DCs may play a dominant role.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · The Korean Journal of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 68-year-old man underwent total gastrectomy for stomach cancer. On the follow-up FDG PET/CT image18months later, intense
focal 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake was noted in the right parapharyngeal space. This lesion showed intermediate signal intensity
on T1-weighted image and heterogeneous high signal intensity on T2-weighted image. The mass was heterogenously enhanced by
gadolinium enhancement. This lesion was pathologically confirmed as pleomorphic adenoma by excision. This case highlights
the fact that both benign and malignant lesions in the parotid gland may exhibit intense FDG activity and the need for pathologic
confirmation of parotid gland lesions for accurate disease staging.
KeywordsParapharyngeal space-FDG-PET-Pleomorphic adenoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infantile hemangioendothelioma is the most common benign mesenchymal tumor of the liver presenting during the first 6 months of life. Serum alpha fetoprotein is an important tumor marker for hepatoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and germ cell tumors. However, it is rarely elevated in patients with hepatic infantile hemangioendothelioma. In such cases, surgery may be done to rule out malignancies when alpha fetoprotein levels are high. The etiology of the elevated alpha fetoprotein level has not yet been elucidated. We report 2 cases of solitary hepatic infantile hemangioendothelioma and demonstrate immunohistochemically that hepatocytes near or entrapped within the tumor were the source of the increased serum levels of alpha fetoprotein explaining the unusual clinical presentation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Responses of plants to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination were determined with fifty-five Korean wild plants. Responsiveness of species was evaluated based on germination and shoot weight and shoot length of plants grown in soil spiked with four PAHs (pyrene, fluorene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene). Seeds of test plants were germinated with mixtures of PAHs of 0, 10, 30, 100, 300 mg kg(-1) spiked in soil. Seed germination of test plants changed when subjected to PAHs. As compared to control germination percentages ranged from 0 (completely inhibited) to 242.9% (highly promoted) of control at 300 mg kg(-1) of PAHs. In germination responses, Fabaceae plants were much less affected (105% of control) compared to species belonging to Caryophyllaceae (18.7% of control), which showed highly susceptible responses. Results demonstrated that seed germination was affected by species-specific responses to PAHs. In seedling growth experiments on Bromus tectorum and Veronica persica, species classified as highly susceptible in germination experiments, a low No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of 10 mg kg(-1) was observed. On the other hand, NOEC was 100 mg kg(-1) in Bromus japonicus and Cerastium holosteoides var. hallaisanense, which were also classified as highly susceptible by the germination experiment. However, most species classified as susceptible showed high NOEC of greater than 10 mg kg(-1). EC(50) values of test species ranged from 2.87 x 10(2) (Humulus japonicus) to 8.05 x 10(81) mg kg(-1) (Bidens bipinnata) based on shoot length. The wide range of EC(50) for shoot weight suggests that shoot weight is more appropriate as an endpoint for PAHs toxicity than shoot length for determining the susceptibility of plant species to PAHs. It was confirmed that dose-response of plants to PAHs spiked soil can be used to estimate critical concentration of PAHs inhibiting early establishment of plants in contaminated fields.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of Environmental Monitoring
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background : IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide, and the clinical course of IgAN shows marked variability. Many efforts have made to histologically predict the clinical outcome. There are two methods to classify IgAN. One is mainly based on the glomerular changes, such as the WHO and the Lee and Haas classification systems. The other is a morphologic semi-quantitative scoring system, which counts the changes of the glomerular, tubulointerstitial and vascular structures, respectively. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the WHO classification property reflects the various morphologic findings of IgAN. Methods: We analyzed 354 cases of IgAN by both the WHO classification system and the semiquantitative scoring system and evaluated the correlations of these two methods. Results : The severity of the glomerular lesions (glomerulosclerosis, capsular adhesion and mesangial matrix expansion) and the tubulointerstitial lesions (interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial lymphocytic infiltration) are strongly correlated with the increase of the WHO classes of IgAN (Spearman's rho [R] >= 0.5, p < 0.05). There is a weak correlation between crescent formation and the increase of the WHO classes (R=0.3, p < 0.05). Conclusions : This study shows that the WHO classification well reflects the severity of various morphologic findings and this suggests a complementary role for the semi-quantitative scoring system in classifying IgAN.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · The Korean Journal of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous study suggested that OsBWMK1, a gene which encodes a member of the rice MAP kinase family, generates transcript variants which show distinct expression patterns in response to environmental stresses. The transcript variants are generated by alternative splicing and by use of alternative promoters. To test whether the two alternative promoters, pOsBWMK1L (promoter for the OsBWMK1L splice variant) and pOsBWMK1S (promoter for the OsBWMK1S splice variant), are biologically functional, we analyzed transgenic plants expressing GUS fusion constructs for each promoter. Both pOsBWMK1L and pOsBWMK1S are biologically active, although the activity of pOsBWMK1S is lower than that of pOsBWMK1L. Histochemical analysis revealed that pOsBWMK1L is constitutively active in most tissues at various developmental stages in rice and Arabidopsis, whereas pOsBWMK1S activity is spatially and temporally restricted. Furthermore, the expression of pOsBWMK1S::GUS was upregulated in response to hydrogen peroxide, a plant defense signaling molecule, in both plant species. These results suggest that the differential expression of OsBWMK1 splice variants is the result of alternative promoter usage and, moreover, that the mechanisms controlling OsBWMK1 gene expression are conserved in both monocot and dicot plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background : The cytological examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using conventional cytology with a cytocentrifuge (cytospin) is an important method for evaluating the involvement of leukemia in the CNS. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is now a widen used cytological method not only for gynecological and non-gynecological specimens, but its application to CSF for the identification of leukemic cell has not yet been reported. In this study, we tried to compare conventional cytology with using a cytospin with LBC and Papanicolaou (Pap) staining. We also examined the modified LBC with Wright staining to assess whether this modified method can be useful for diagnosing Leukemia. Methods : We studied 30 cases of CSF that were obtained from 16 patients, including 17 cases of acute myeloid leukemia, 12 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 1 case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We applied conventional cytology with a cytocentrifuge (cytospin), LBC with Pap staining and modified LBC with Wright staining. Results : The morphological features of the LBC with Pap staining showed difficulty for interpretation when compared with conventional cytology with a cytospin, and mainly because of cellular shrinkage. The modified LBC with Wright staining showed good morphological features. Conclusions: We suggest that modified LBC with Wright staining may be useful for examining CSF.
Preview · Article · Apr 2009 · The Korean Journal of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soybean (Glycine max L.) Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) protein is an antinutritional factor. The objective of this research was to confirm a SSR marker tightly linked to the Ti locus in four different F5 populations. Four female parents (Glycine max L. cv. Jinpumkong2, Hannamkong, GS06, 20M183) of TiTi (KTI protein present) genotype and one male parent C242 of titi (KTI protein absent) genotype were used. Four different populations of F2 plants free of KTI protein were advanced to the Fe generation. Satt228 marker analysis showed the four female parents had the allele 1 (AA genotype) while the C242 male parent has the allele 2 (BB genotype). In seed, four parents had KTI protein and C242 had not KTI protein of 21.5 kDa. A total of 391 F5 plants derived from the four crosses (273 plants from Jinpunkong2 x C242, 17 plants from Hannamkong x C242, 45 plants from GS06 x C242, and 56 plants from 20M183 x C242) all have the allele 2 (BB genotype) for Satt228 marker. The 391 individual F6 seeds harvested from same individual F5 plants are also absent of the KTI protein. Complete cosegregation between the Satt228 marker allele and the Ti locus was observed in these four different populations.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Genes & genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The quantitative levels of intracellular cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-gamma (ie, the number of bound PE-conjugated antibody molecules/cell) of leukemic cells and bone marrow T cells (bmT cells) of acute leukemia patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. One hundred, thirty-one (95 AML, 25 ALL, 11 ABL) patients were studied. The leukemic cell IL-4 level was highest in the monocytic AML group (1735 +/- 1056) and lowest in the dysplastic AML group (960 +/- 545). The IFN-gamma level was highest in the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) group (495 +/- 159), and lowest in the ALL group (252 +/- 119). The IL-10 level was not significantly different among the diagnosis groups. In bmT cells, the IL-10 level was highest in the dysplastic AML group (972 +/- 1049) and lowest in the APL group (397 +/- 352). The leukemic cell cytokine levels were lowest and bmT cell cytokine levels were highest in the dysplastic AML group. There were no significant correlations of these cytokine levels with 2-yr survival rate, complete remission (CR) rate, or relapse rate. The cytokine levels of bmT cells at the time of CR became normal and were not different among the diagnosis groups. In summary, leukemic cell and bmT cell cytoplasmic expression profiles of IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-gamma are characteristic for each diagnostic group of acute leukemia patients and the profiles of bmT cells are normal at the time of CR.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Annals of clinical and laboratory science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The traditional triple test for breast cancer diagnosis is physical examination, mammography, and aspiration cytology. However, the accuracy of mammography on young women with nonatrophied breasts is poor compared with that for women older than 50 years, and additional methods for diagnosis of breast cancer are needed.
To investigate whether carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 15-3, and CA 125 concentrations in breast aspiration fluid are useful as breast cancer biochemical markers and whether APC and cyclin D2 gene promoter hypermethylation could be regarded as a breast cancer molecular marker.
CEA, CA 15-3, and CA 125 concentrations were measured, and methylation status of the APC gene promoter 1A and the promoter region of the cyclin D2 gene were analyzed using a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay of ex vivo breast aspiration fluid obtained from 49 samples of excised breast tissue.
The specimens were collected during a 1-year period in the tertiary care teaching hospital in Seoul, Korea.
Forty-nine patients with breast masses were surgically treated. Thirty-four patients had breast cancer, and 15 had benign breast disease.
Aspiration fluid CEA concentrations were significantly higher in breast cancer cases than in cases of benign breast disease (mean, 69.90 ng/mg protein vs 0.68 ng/mg protein, respectively; P < .001). At 90% specificity of the assay (CEA, 2.13 ng/mg protein), the corresponding sensitivity for breast cancer detection was 62%, according to the receiver operating characteristic curve drawn. The APC gene promoter 1A and the promoter region of the cyclin D2 gene were methylated in 42% (14/33) and 70% (23/33) of the breast cancer aspiration fluid samples, respectively. A cumulative incidence of methylation of these 2 genes was 85% (28/33). The APC and cyclin D2 gene promoters were both unmethylated in the aspiration fluids from 19 women with nonmalignant breast disease.
Breast aspiration fluid CEA concentration and the methylation of the APC gene promoter 1A and the promoter region of the cyclin D2 gene can be used as tumor markers to overcome some of the limitations of aspiration cytology. In combination with the mammogram and physical examination, assays for these markers could be used to help determine a definitive diagnosis when cytologic results are suspicious for malignancy.
No preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plasma soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) level was higher in 137 patients with acute leukemia (1,489 +/- 1,798 U/ml, including 98 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 1,063 +/- 1,414 U/ml, and 39 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 2,561 +/- 2,194 U/ml), compared to 49 normal control subjects, 421 +/- 151 U/ml). The ALL patients showed elevated plasma sIL-2R levels more frequently than the AML patients (92.3% vs 44.9%). No patient with either hypoplastic AML or AML with multilineage dysplasia and only 1 of 13 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) had an elevated plasma sIL-2R level. All the My+ ALL patients (15 cases) showed elevated plasma sIL-2R levels. Plasma sIL-2R levels were significantly lower after chemotherapy in the ALL patients, but were not significantly lower in the AML patients. IL-2R was expressed on the leukemic cells in 36 (53.7%) of 67 AML and in 9 (21.4%) of 42 ALL cases. None of the AML M3, M4, M5, M6, or M7 subgroups showed IL-2R expression. The My+ ALL patients (42.9%, 6/14) showed IL-2R expression more frequently than the other ALL subgroups (10.7%, 3/28) (p = 0.025). The plasma sIL-2R level was correlated with the proportion of leukemic cells expressing IL-2R in acute leukemia. However, there were many cases, particularly ALL cases, who had elevated plasma sIL-2R levels without IL-2R expression on their leukemic cells. These results suggest that the plasma sIL-2R level is a valuable marker for monitoring ALL after chemotherapy, particularly in My+ ALL cases, and that the T cell immune reaction to leukemia appears to be much higher in ALL patients than in AML patients.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · Annals of clinical and laboratory science