Sioban SenGupta

University College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (13)44.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Diagnostic application of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in preimplantation genetic diagnosis for reciprocal and Robertsonian translocations has revealed 55-65% embryos with additional aneuploidies with or without translocation-related imbalances. The occurrence of these extra abnormalities with the balanced form of the translocation reduces the number of embryos suitable for transfer. Eighty-three embryos were followed up on days 5-7 of development from 23 infertile or sub-fertile carriers for whole chromosome and segmental aneuploidies present in addition to the balanced or unbalanced translocations detected on aCGH diagnosis. Embryos were analysed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (n = 63) and aCGH (n = 20). Meiotic aneuploidy affected 35% of embryos and 47% had mitotic events; 15% had both types. Meiotic and mitotic events were almost equal (60 versus 64), 97 affected whole chromosomes (58 meiotic, 39 mitotic) and 27 were segmental (two meiotic, 25 mitotic). In 85.5% of embryos with whole chromosome additional aneuploidies, the aneuploidy was present throughout or in more than 50% of cells. All embryos diagnosed as abnormal (translocation balanced or unbalanced) after aCGH diagnosis at cleavage stage would have remained unsuitable for transfer if tested at later stages of development. Additional aneuploidies merit full consideration when considering the choice of embryos to transfer.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Reproductive biomedicine online
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common indications for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for single gene disorders, giving couples the opportunity to conceive unaffected children without having to consider termination of pregnancy. However, there are no available standardized protocols, so that each center has to develop its own diagnostic strategies and procedures. Furthermore, reproductive decisions are complicated by the diversity of disease-causing variants in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene and the complexity of correlations between genotypes and associated phenotypes, so that attitudes and practices toward the risks for future offspring can vary greatly between countries. On behalf of the EuroGentest Network, eighteen experts in PGD and/or molecular diagnosis of CF from seven countries attended a workshop held in Montpellier, France, on 14 December 2011. Building on the best practice guidelines for amplification-based PGD established by ESHRE (European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology), the goal of this meeting was to formulate specific guidelines for CF-PGD in order to contribute to a better harmonization of practices across Europe. Different topics were covered including variant nomenclature, inclusion criteria, genetic counseling, PGD strategy and reporting of results. The recommendations are summarized here, and updated information on the clinical significance of CFTR variants and associated phenotypes is presented.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 27 May 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.99.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
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    ABSTRACT: Germinal mosaicism in a parent is considered to be a rare cause of aneuploidy in the offspring. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of pre-meiotic errors, indicative of germinal mosaicism, leading to aneuploidy compared with those that occur at meiosis I. The material consisted of 126 oocytes, unexposed to sperm, donated by 57 women with an average maternal age of 35. The oocytes were at various stages of maturity and were analysed by array comparative genomic hybridisation. Of these, 102 gave conclusive results, comprising 47 that were immature, at the germinal vesicle (GV) or metaphase I stage (MI); 34 complete metaphase II-first polar body (MII-PB) complexes together with 21 incomplete complexes. Oocytes at the GV or MI stage provide direct evidence of pre-meiotic aneuploidy. Complete MII-PB complexes with the expected reciprocal gains/losses provide information on MI errors; those with non-reciprocal gains have pre-meiotic errors. Overall, 29 oocytes were aneuploid, and the source of the error was known for 21. In 8 (from 7 women) the error was pre-meiotic consisting of 4 MI oocytes and 4 MII-PB complexes with non-reciprocal gains. The remaining 13 were the result of errors at meiosis I. Although pre-meiotic errors occurred in only 10% of informative oocytes, most notable was the fact that for those oocytes where the source of the error was known, 38% were caused by germinal mosaicism compared with 62% that were the outcome of a meiosis I error. None of the women with germinal mosaicism were infertile. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Cytogenetic and Genome Research
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    ABSTRACT: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogenic disorders currently involves polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods, which must be robust, sensitive and highly accurate, precluding misdiagnosis. Twelve adverse misdiagnoses reported to the ESHRE PGD-Consortium are likely an underestimate. This retrospective study, involving six PGD centres, assessed the validity of PCR-based PGD through reanalysis of untransferred embryos from monogenic-PGD cycles. Data were collected on the genotype concordance at PGD and follow-up from 940 untransferred embryos, including details on the parameters of PGD cycles: category of monogenic disease, embryo morphology, embryo biopsy and genotype assay strategy. To determine the validity of PCR-based PGD, the sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. Stratified analyses were also conducted to assess the influence of the parameters above on the validity of PCR-based PGD. The analysis of overall data showed that 93.7% of embryos had been correctly classified at the time of PGD, with Se of 99.2% and Sp of 80.9%. The stratified analyses found that diagnostic accuracy is statistically significantly higher when PGD is performed on two cells versus one cell (P=0.001). Se was significantly higher when multiplex protocols versus singleplex protocols were applied (P=0.005), as well as for PGD applied on cells from good compared with poor morphology embryos (P=0.032). Morphology, however, did not affect diagnostic accuracy. Multiplex PCR-based methods on one cell, are as robust as those on two cells regarding false negative rate, which is the most important criteria for clinical PGD applications. Overall, this study demonstrates the validity, robustness and high diagnostic value of PCR-based PGD.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 4 December 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.277.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
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    ABSTRACT: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was first performed over 20 years ago and has become an accepted part of genetic testing and assisted reproduction worldwide. The techniques and protocols necessary to carry out genetic testing at the single-cell level can be difficult to master and have been developed independently by the laboratories worldwide offering preimplantation testing. These factors indicated the need for an external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for monogenic disease PGD. Toward this end, the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology came together with United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Services for Molecular Genetics, to create a pilot EQA scheme followed by practical EQA schemes for all interested parties. Here, we detail the development of the pilot scheme as well as development and findings from the practical (clinical) schemes that have followed. Results were generally acceptable and there was marked improvement in results and laboratory scores for those labs that participated in multiple schemes. Data from the first three schemes indicate that the EQA scheme is working as planned and has helped laboratories improve their techniques and result reporting. The EQA scheme for monogenic PGD will continue to be developed to offer assessment for other monogenic disorders.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 14 November 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.244.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the effect of mosaicism in the array comparative genomic hybridization result during preimplantation genetic screening after blastocyst biopsy. Experimental study. University laboratory. MATERIAL(S): Epithelial cell lines. Mixing of euploid and aneuploid cells to create mosaic trophectoderm and blastocyst models. The level of aneuploidy in samples with different ratios of aneuploid cells was measured after array comparative genomic hybridization. A shift from normality was present when the level of aneuploid cells in the sample was >25%. Aneuploidy could be confidently called when the level of aneuploid cells was >50%. This study determined that aneuploidy in mosaic samples can be detected by array comparative genomic hybridization and that the result may also indicate the proportion of the aneuploid cells present in the sample.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Fertility and sterility
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    ABSTRACT: Since 2004, there have been 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) mainly for advanced maternal age (AMA), which have shown no benefit of performing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). Ten of the RCTs have been performed at the cleavage stage and one at the blastocyst stage. It is probable that the high levels of chromosomal mosaicism at cleavage stages, which may result in the tested cell not being representative of the embryo, and the inability to examine all of the chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization, have contributed to the lack of positive outcome from the RCTs. We suggest that future RCTs should examine alternative biopsy timing (polar body and/or trophectoderm biopsy), and should apply technologies that allow more comprehensive testing to include all chromosomes (microarray-based testing) to determine if PGS shows an improvement in delivery rate. Currently there is no evidence that routine PGS is beneficial for patients with AMA and conclusive data (RCTs) on repeated miscarriage, implantation failure and severe male factor are missing. To evaluate benefits of PGS, an ESHRE trial has recently been started on patients with AMA using polar body biopsy and array-comparative genomic hybridization, which should bring more information on this patient group in the near future.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Human Reproduction
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    ABSTRACT: The quality of DNA obtained from single cells for molecular analysis is primarily dependent on cell type and cell lysis. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) amplifies the DNA isothermally with the use of Phi29 polymerase and random hexamer primers. The efficiency and accuracy of MDA was assessed on different cell types (buccal cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts) using two multiplex PCR reactions that have been applied in clinical preimplantation genetic diagnosis cases (DM triplex-DM1, APOC2, Dl9S112 and CF triplex-DF508del, IVS8CA, IVS17TA). These results were compared using the DM triplex with MDA products from single blastomeres. Cells were lysed using a modified protocol excluding dithiothreitol in the alkaline lysis buffer. The MDA amplification efficiency for buccal cells was 82.0% (41/50) compared with 96.0% (48/50) for lymphocytes and 100% (20/20) for fibroblasts. The average allele dropout (ADO) rates were 31.0% for buccal cells, 20.8% for lymphocytes and 20.0% for fibroblasts with high inter-locus variation across all cell types (5.0-45.5%). Overall, MDA on single lymphocytes and fibroblasts lysed using the modified protocol produced DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for subsequent molecular analysis by PCR and gave results comparable with MDA products from blastomeres, in contrast to buccal cells.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Reproductive biomedicine online
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    ABSTRACT: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy screening (preimplantation genetic screening—PGS) has been used to detect chromosomally normal embryos from subfertile patients. The main indications are advanced maternal age (AMA), repeated implantation failure, repeated miscarriages and severe male factor infertility. Many non-randomized PGS studies have been published and report an increase in implantation rate, and/or a decrease in miscarriage rate. Recently, two randomized controlled trials have been conducted on patients with AMA as the only indication. Neither study showed a benefit in performing PGS using live birth rate as the measure of success. The debate on the usefulness of PGS is ongoing; the only effective way to resolve the debate is to perform more well-designed and well-executed randomized clinical trials.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Human Reproduction
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · British Journal of Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: To report two cases of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) where cross-over between the DMPK locus and a linked polymorphic marker APOC2 was detected. Embryos from in vitro fertilisation (IVF) were biopsied at day 3 of development and single blastomeres collected. Diagnosis was performed by duplex or triplex fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction (F-PCR) to amplify DMPK and APOC2 loci, or DMPK with APOC2 and D19S112 polymorphic markers. A total of 22 oocytes were retrieved from the two patients, 20 were inseminated of which 15 fertilized (75%) and were suitable for biopsy on day 3. A diagnosis was obtained for 12 embryos (80%) and was confirmed in all un-transferred embryos. Crossover between DM1 and APOC2 was detected in two embryos from the two different couples. Transfer of two embryos took place in both cases resulting in two pregnancies. Each couple have had a healthy baby. The above cases highlight the importance of using more than one linked polymorphic marker in PGD-PCR protocols and emphasize the danger of using APOC2 as the sole marker to identify the DM1 mutation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Prenatal Diagnosis
  • Souraya Jaroudi · Sioban SenGupta
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    ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells have developed complex mechanisms to identify DNA damage and activate the required response to maintain genome integrity. Those mechanisms include DNA damage detection, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis which operate together to protect the conceptus from DNA damage originating either in parental gametes or in the embryo's somatic cells. DNA repair in the newly fertilized preimplantation embryo is believed to rely entirely on the oocyte's machinery (mRNAs and proteins deposited and stored prior to ovulation). DNA repair genes have been shown to be expressed in the early stages of mammalian development. The survival of the embryo necessitates that the oocyte be sufficiently equipped with maternal stored products and that embryonic gene expression commences at the correct time. A Medline based literature search was performed using the keywords 'DNA repair' and 'embryo development' or 'gametogenesis' (publication dates between 1995 and 2006). Mammalian studies which investigated gene expression were selected. Further articles were acquired from the citations in the articles obtained from the preliminary Medline search. This paper reviews mammalian DNA repair from gametogenesis to preimplantation embryos to late gestational stages.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
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