[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
Previous studies have shown that circulating adipokines may play an important role in the pathogenesis of some obesity related chronic disease such as dyslipidemia and type2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between vaspin, omentin-1 and retinol binding protein-4 levels with metabolic dyslipidemia (MD) criteria in obese and non-obese individuals.
The study was conducted on 170 obese and 81 non-obese individuals. After collecting the blood samples, serum levels metabolic parameters as well as three circulating adipokines and body composition were measured.
No significant difference was noted regarding the mean serum levels of omentin-1 and vaspin between the obese and non-obese groups, while, serum level of RBP4 was significantly higher in the non-obese group. We found the 0.22 increased risk of MD in obese individuals with higher RBP4 concentration. After the adjustment for confounding factors, this association was still significant. No significant association was noted between MD and its components relative risks with omentin-1 and vaspin levels.
Our study demonstrated that circulating RBP4 was significantly higher in the obese individuals which may increase the risk of MD in them. Further researches are needed to address this association.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaspin is a recently identified adipokine related to obesity and insulin sensitivity. The precise mechanism of vaspin in the body is not well known, and its function in resting metabolic rate (RMR) is even less understood. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of circulating vaspin on RMR in obese people.
A total of 222 obese participants were included in the current comparative cross-sectional study. Body composition was measured using body composition analyzer. RMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. For the measurement of vaspin serum concentrations, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day 24-h dietary recall.
Between low and high circulating vaspin groups, there was significant difference for sex (P = 0.03), fat percent (P = 0.008), RMR per weight (P < 0.001), and RMR per fat free mass (FFM) (P = 0.007). However, there was no statistical difference between the groups in dietary intake after adjustment for energy intake (P > 0.05). Furthermore, individuals with higher level of RMR had higher vaspin concentration. Weight, visceral fat, FFM, and fat mass had significant effect on increasing RMR (P < 0.05) but after adding vaspin as a covariate in the general linear model; visceral fat (P = 0.078) and fat mass (P = 0.339) missed their effectiveness.
Circulating vaspin level is higher in women than in men in obese individuals. Moreover, it was found that vaspin had mediator effect between visceral fat and fat mass associations with RMR in obese participants.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · European Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bioactive components of dietary phytochemicals are in the spotlight of research institutes, due to their significant antioxidant activities and health-promoting properties. Resveratrol is a polyphenol which is found abundantly in grapes and berries and has long been known as a chemo-preventive agent. The main purpose of this study was to provide a new mechanistic insight into the growth inhibition of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by resveratrol along with a DNA damage agent. It was found that the treatment of pre-B ALL cells by resveratrol in the presence or absence of doxorubicin resulted in decreased cell viability and a synergistic increase in cytotoxicity. Cell death was accompanied by a significant increase in phosphorylated p53 at serine 15 and accumulation of PTEN. In addition, resveratrol inhibited the over-expression of p-AKT and p-ERK1/2. These findings clearly demonstrated that resveratrol and doxorubicin synergistically increase the cytotoxicity of pre-B ALL cells via the hyper-activation of two important tumor suppressor proteins and two major signal transduction pathways.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Natural Medicines
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is a unique anti-atherogenic adipocytokine. Regulation of adiponectin secretion is dysfunctional in cardiovascular diseases. The current trial study assessed the effects of omega-3 fatty acids with or without vitamin E on adiponectin gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum adiponectin and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP; also called ap2 and FABP4) levels in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 67 male patients with CAD. First of the four group of participants received 4 g/day omega-3 fatty acids plus 400 IU/day vitamin E (OE), second group 4 g/day omega-3 fatty acids plus vitamin E placebo (OP), or both omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin E placebos (PP) for 8 weeks. Adiponectin gene expression and serum adiponectin and FABP4 levels were evaluated.
The combination of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E in patients with CAD affected their serum adiponectin and FABP4 levels and the adiponectin/FABP4 ratio significantly. In the OP group, serum adiponectin levels did not change significantly. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids with and without vitamin E had no significant effect on adiponectin gene expression.
Omega-3 fatty acids with or without vitamin E improve adiponectin levels in patients, without any significant changes in adiponectin gene expression. This nutritional intervention may prevent complications in patients with CAD because of increased adiponectin levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reducing the levels of adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 can reduce the ability of adiponectin in preventing inflammatory processes. Therefore, researches need to find a way to increase the gene expression of adiponectin receptors for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial was conducted on 67 CAD male patients. Participants received 4g/day ω3 plus 400IU/day vitamin E (OE) or 4g/ day ω3 plus vitamin E placebo (OP) or both ω3 and vitamin E placebos (PP) for two months. The Gene expression of adiponectin receptors in PBMCs and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in serum were measured. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduced the serum level of hsCRP as well as consumption of combined omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E supplements. Gene expression of AdipoR2 significantly increased in OP and OE groups. Consumption of combined omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E had a significant effect on the gene expression of AdipoR1. However, omega-3 fatty acids did not change the gene expression of AdipoR1 significantly. Administration of omega-3 fatty acids with or without vitamin E for two months results in significant increases in the gene expression of adiponectin receptors and hence improves serum levels of inflammatory process in CAD patients.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased to a considering level in both developing and industrial countries. Social cognitive theory (SCT) is one of the most popular theories used to predict and combat adolescent obesity. Thus, the aim of this study was to use SCT to predict nutritional behaviors in adolescent girls in Iran. In this cross sectional study, valid and reliable questionnaires about nutritional regarding SCT constructs (Self-efficacy, Social support, Outcome expectations and Outcome expectancies) and meal frequency were filled by 172 overweight and obese girl adolescents.The mean of age and BMI were 13.4±0.6 and 28.2±3.6, respectively. BMI was inversely related to eating breakfast, morning and afternoon snacks (p<0.001). Nutritional self-efficacy and social support were significant predictors for eating breakfast, morning and evening snacks (p<0.001). Furthermore, outcome expectation was a significant predictor for eating breakfast and afternoon snack (p<0.05). Social cognitive theory offers a useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce skipping breakfast among obese adolescents. Most of SCT constructs were found to be important for eating breakfast. In future, more studies must be carried out in order to better explain predicting prevention behaviors of obesity in Iranian adolescents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Our goal was to assess the effects of weight loss on antioxidant enzymes of red blood cells and it's relation with vitamins A, E and C intake in 30 obese women.
Subjects and methods:
General information, anthropometric measurements, 3-day food recall, and fasting blood samples were collected from 30 obese women at the beginning of the study and after 3 months intervention. Weight loss was set at about 10% of their weight before the intervention.
Glutathione reductase and catalase activities showed a significant increase (P < 0.01) after weight reduction, but no significant changes were seen in the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. There was a positive linear correlation between daily vitamin C intake with superoxide dismutase enzyme after intervention (P = 0.004, r = 0.507). There was a negative linear correlation between vitamin E intake and glutathione peroxidase activity before intervention (P = 0.005, r = -0.5). A negative correlation was found between daily vitamin A intake and glutathione reductase enzyme before and after intervention (r = -0.385, r = -0.397, P < 0.05) respectively. No significant correlation was observed between vitamins A, C, E amounts and catalase activity.
Ten percent weight reduction can have a significant role in increasing antioxidant enzymes activities, especially glutathione reductase, and catalase enzymes in obese women. However, it is important to take into consideration a balanced amount of certain nutrients while administering a diet with limited energy.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims
Nesfatin-1 identified neuroendocrine peptide is involved in regulation of homeostasis via modulation of metabolism, energy homeostasis and food intake. We aimed to investigate the associations of circulating nesfatin-1 level with food intake, body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) and also examine the correlation between circulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and nesfatin-1 levels in obese and morbid obese subjects.
A total of 96 obese subjects (including 18 morbid obese subjects) were participated in the current cross-sectional study. We assessed the body composition with the use of Body Composition Analyzer. RMR was measured by means of the MetaCheck™, an instrument designed to measure RMR using indirect calorimetry. All baseline blood samples were obtained following an overnight fasting. Plasma concentrations of nesfatin-1 and circulating PPARγ were measured with the use of an ELISA method. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS.
We found significant associations between fat percent and circulating nesfatin-1 in obese and morbid obese subjects. There was main association between circulating nesfatin-1 and PPARγ concentration in obese subjects and it was more strong association in morbid obese participants. There was marginally significant differences between percent predicted RMR between different categorized nesfatin-1 levels. There were also higher intakes of calorie, carbohydrate and protein in obese group who had lower concentration of nesfatin-1.
Our data indicated the fat percent as main determinant factor in circulating nesfatin-1 level. It appears nesfatin-1 and PPARγ might be concurrently involved in adipogenesis pathway.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Clinical Research and Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) has direct and indirect function in adipokines production process. We aimed to assess the possible influence of circulating PPARgamma on relative risk of metabolic syndrome and also examine the association between circulating PPARgamma and adipokines levels among obese subjects.
A total of 96 obese subjects (body mass index (BMI) >=30) were included in the current cross-sectional study. We assessed the body composition with the use of Body Composition Analyzer BC-418MA - Tanita. The MetS (metabolic syndrome) was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. All baseline blood samples were obtained following an overnight fasting. Serum concentrations of adipokines including Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), omentin-1, vaspin, progranulin, nesfatin-1 and circulating PPARgamma was measured with the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Statistical analyses were performed using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS).
We found main association between circulating PPARgamma and body composition in obese population. The risk of metabolic syndrome in subjects with higher concentration of PPARgamma was 1.9 fold in compared with lower concentration of PPARgamma after adjustment for age, sex and BMI. There was significant association between PPARgamma and adipokines, specially nesfatin-1 and progranulin. Defined adipokines pattern among participants demonstrated the markedly higher concentration of vaspin, RBP4 and nesfatin-1 in participants with MetS compared to non-MetS subjects.
It appears all of studied adipokines might have association with PPARgamma level and might simultaneously be involve in some common pathway to make susceptible obese subjects for MetS.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soy milk replacement in the diet might have beneficial effects on waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors for overweight and obese subjects. Therefore, we are going to determine the effects of soy milk replacements on the waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese female adults.
In this crossover randomized clinical trail, 24 over weight and obese female adults were on a diet with soy milk or the diet with cow's milk for four weeks. In the diet with soy milk only one glass of soy milk (240 cc) was replaced instead of one glass of cow's milk (240 cc). Measurements were done according to the standard protocol.
WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE REDUCED SIGNIFICANTLY FOLLOWING SOY MILK PERIOD (MEAN PERCENT CHANGE IN SOY MILK PERIOD FOR WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE: -3.79 ± 0.51 vs. -1.78 ± 0.55 %; P = 0.02 in the cow's milk period). Blood pressure, weight, liver enzymes and glycemic control indices did not changed significantly after soy milk period compared to the cow's milk period.
Among over weight and obese patients, soy milk can play an important role in reducing waist circumference. However, soy milk replacement had no significant effects on weight, glycemic control indices, liver enzymes, fibrinogen and blood pressure in a short term trial.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · International journal of preventive medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine melatonin effects on sleep patterns, symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficiency in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Children with age range of 7-12 years who had a combined form of ADHD were randomly divided in to 2 groups according to gender blocks. One group took melatonin (3 or 6mg) combined with methylphenidate (Ritalin) (1mg/kg), and the other group took placebo combined with methylphenidate (1mg/kg). ADHD rating scale and sleep patterns questionnaires were completed. Research hypotheses were assessed at the baseline, the second, fourth and eighth weeks after the treatment.
The mean sleep latency and total sleep disturbance scores were reduced in melatonin group, while the scores increased in the placebo group (p≥0.05). Data analysis, using ANOVA with repeated measures, did not show any statistically significant differences between the two groups in ADHD scores.
Administration of melatonin along with methylphenidate can partially improve symptoms of sleep disturbance. However, it does not seem to reduce attention deficiency and hyperactivity behavior of children with ADHD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the arterial wall. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) seems to have an important role in atherosclerotic plaque formation.This study was performed to investigate the effects of ox-LDL as well as PHA on proliferation and gene expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with atherosclerosis compared to healthy controls. Proliferation of PBMCs was assessed by BrdU assay, while gene expression was assessed by real-time PCR.Both PHA and ox-LDL significantly induced proliferation of PBMCs of patients and controls. PBMCs from controls showed significantly higher proliferation when stimulated with ox-LDL compared to patients. Expression of TGF-β was significantly lower in PBMCs from patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). Following simulation with PHA, TGF-β and Foxp3 gene expression levels in patients and controls were significantly decreased (p<0.001). Expression of Foxp3 in PBMCs treated with ox-LDL was significantly decreased in patients and controls.Decreased expression of TGF-β and Foxp3 genes after ox-LDL stimulation may be due to more sensitivity of Treg cells than effector T cells to ox-LDL. Presence of ox-LDL within atheroma could be associated with the diminished population of Treg cells in the atherosclerotic patients.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Axonal sensory peripheral neuropathy is the major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel.Omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on neurological disorders from their effects on neurons cells and inhibition of the formation of proinflammatory cytokines involved in peripheral neuropathy.
This study was a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing incidence and severity of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN). Eligible patients with breast cancer randomly assigned to take omega-3 fatty acid pearls, 640 mg t.i.d during chemotherapy with paclitaxel and one month after the end of the treatment or placebo. Clinical and electrophysiological studies were performed before the onset of chemotherapy and one month after cessation of therapy to evaluate PIPN based on "reduced Total Neuropathy Score".
Twenty one patients (70%) of the group taking omega-3 fatty acid supplement (n = 30) did not develop PN while it was 40.7%( 11 patients) in the placebo group(n = 27). A significant difference was seen in PN incidence (OR = 0.3, .95% CI = (0.10-0.88), p = 0.029). There was a non-significant trend for differences of PIPN severity between the two study groups but the frequencies of PN in all scoring categories were higher in the placebo group (0.95% CI = (-2.06 -0.02), p = 0.054).
Omega-3 fatty acids may be an efficient neuroprotective agent for prophylaxis against PIPN. Patients with breast cancer have a longer disease free survival rate with the aid of therapeutical agents. Finding a way to solve the disabling effects of PIPN would significantly improve the patients' quality of life.
This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01049295).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the effects of soy milk replacement in the diet on inflammatory markers among non-menopausal overweight and obese female adults. We evaluated the effects of soy milk compared to cow's milk on inflammation and lipid profiles among non-menopausal overweight and obese female adults. METHODS: This cross-over randomized clinical trial was conducted on 24 overweight or obese women. There were two 4-week trial periods (soy milk period and cow's milk period). In the soy milk period, only one glass of soy milk (240 cc) was replaced instead of one glass of cow's milk (240 cc). RESULTS: Fat contents in soy milk and cow's milk were 1 g per 100 ml and 1.5 g per 100 ml, respectively. Serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) level reduced significantly following soy milk period (mean percent change in soy milk period vs. cow's milk period: -11.22 ± 3.85% vs. -1.18 ± 2.82%; p = 0.01). Inflammatory factors and other lipid profiles did not change significantly after the soy milk period compared to the cow's milk period. In addition, soy milk could not reduce the weight of non-menopausal overweight and obese fe-male adults. CONCLUSIONS: Soy milk replacement had beneficial effects on LDL levels in a short term trial among overweight and obese women. However, it had no significant effects on inflammatory markers and other lipid profiles among these non-menopausal overweight and obese adults.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of research in medical sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Today, early diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies and their surgical resection is becoming more feasible. One of the important side effects in upper GI tract malignancies is malnutrition which has direct relationship with postoperative complications. Nonetheless, there is no easy regimen of nutrition for these patients especially for the first week after operation. Accordingly we present a simple method for improving feeding such patients via tube jejunostomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early enteral feeding (EEF) on postoperative course after complete resection of upper gastrointestinal tract malignancy and reconstruction.
Between September 2005 to September 2008, 60 consecutive patients (22 female, 38 male) with upper GI tract malignancies who had undergone complete resection and reconstruction enrolled in this study. The patients randomly divided equally in two groups of control and EEF. Control group was treated with traditional management of nil by mouth and intravenous fluids for the first five postoperative days and then with liquids and enteral regular diet when tolerated. In EEF group the patients were fed by tube jejunostomy from 1st postoperative day and assessed for nutritional status before surgery and 5 days after surgery. Both groups were monitored on the basis of weight gain, clinical and paraclinical parameters and postoperative complications.
Sixty patients were randomly divided to two equal groups. Surgical procedures were similar in two groups and no significant difference in demographic and basic nutritional status were found. On 5th postoperative day serum albumin was 4.2±0.4 g/dl in EEF and 3.6±0.3 g/dl in control group (p= 0.041). Also serum transferrin was 260.8±2.5 mg/dl and 208±1.8 mg/dl in EEF and control group respectively (p < 0.001). Moreover, hospital stay was shorter in EEF group (7.7±3.1 vs. 14±2.5 days, p = 0.009).There were four (13.3%) anasatomotic leakages in control group and one (3.3%) in EEF group (p = 0.353). Also there was six (20%) wound infection in control group and three (10%) in EEF group (p = 0.472).
The EEF by tube jejunostomy can be an effective method of feeding patients in postoperative days of resection of GI malignancies. Postoperative hospital stay would be shorter and the level of laboratory parameters especially serum transferrin is higher in EEF in comparison with control group. It also may reduce postoperative complications such as wound infection and enterocutaneous fistula.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the resting energy expenditure in different macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) genotypes and to identify the in vitro effects of Alpinia officinarum Hance extract (AOHE) on MIF expression in obese and nonobese persons.
In the fasting state, obese and nonobese persons were assessed for the measurement of resting energy expenditure rate (REE) by indirect calorimetry. We compared it with the expected amount ([REE measured by indirect calorimetry / predicted REE according to Harris Benedict equations] x 100). Participants were classified into those with normal REE (≥100) vs those with impaired REE (<100). Body composition was analyzed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed using specific primer pairs for MIF messenger RNA, and β-actin was used as the internal control.
The study included 69 obese and 103 non-obese participants. The proportions of MIF genotypes were slightly different in obese and nonobese participants. However, the proportions of MIF genotypes were significantly different in participants with normal REE and those with low REE. The MIF gene was highly expressed in the obese group compared with MIF expression in the nonobese group. Body fat mass and MIF expression were higher in participants with the GG genotype than in the other genotype groups. MIF expression was inversely associated with REE in both groups (r = -0.36, P = .04). After treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with AOHE, MIF expression differed according to MIF genotype.
Our results indicate that AOHE is a major modulator of MIF-dependent pathologic conditions in obesity and are consistent with mounting evidence that defines a regulating role for MIF in cytokine production in an inflammatory state in in vitro studies.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Endocrine Practice