[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retinoblastoma (RB) gene specifies a nuclear phosphoprotein (pRb 105), which is a prototype tumor suppressor inactivated in a variety of human tumors. Recent studies suggest that RB is also involved in embryonic development of murine central nervous and hematopoietic systems. We have investigated RB expression and function in human adult hematopoiesis--i.e., in liquid suspension culture of purified quiescent hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) induced by growth factor stimulus to proliferation and unilinage differentiation/maturation through the erythroid or granulocytic lineage. In the initial HPC differentiation stages, the RB gene is gradually induced at the mRNA and protein level in both erythroid and granulopoietic cultures. In late HPC differentiation and then precursor maturation, RB gene expression is sustained in the erythroid lineage, whereas it is sharply downmodulated in the granulocytic series. Functional studies were performed by treatment of HPC differentiation culture with phosphorothioate antisense oligomer targeting Rb mRNA; coherent with the expression pattern, oligomer treatment of late HPCs causes a dose-dependent and selective inhibition of erythroid colony formation. These observations suggest that the RB gene plays an erythroid- and stage-specific functional role in normal adult hematopoiesis, particularly at the level of late erythroid HPCs.
Full-text · Article · Jun 1995 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly purified progenitors (including erythroid [BFU-E], granulo-monocytic [CFU-GM], multipotent [CFU-GEMM] progenitors, as well as multipotent progenitors with self-renewal capacity [CFU-B]) express high-affinity growth factor receptors (GFRs), with prevalent interleukin-3 receptors (IL-3Rs) (2,700/cell), a > or = 10-fold lower number of IL-6Rs (145/cell) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptors (GM-CSFRs) (300/cell), and a barely detectable level of erythropoietin (Ep) receptors (75/cell). Hematopoietic growth factor (HGF) dosages inducing peak clonogenetic effects are associated with partial/subtotal occupancy of the homologous HGF receptor (HGFR). Cross-reactivity between GFRs and heterologous GFs (including IL-6, IL-3, GM-CSF, Ep, and the kit ligand [KL]) was explored by competition experiments on purified progenitors with radiolabeled and excess cold HGFs at +4 degrees C. No cross-reaction was observed between IL-6R, IL-3R, EpR, and the heterologous GFs, whereas the GM-CSFR showed cross-reactivity with IL-3 and, to a lesser extent, KL. Modulation of GFRs was examined after 18 or 40 hours of incubation with GF(s) at 37 degrees C, followed by ligand-binding assay at 20 degrees C. IL-6, IL-3, GM-CSF, and Ep induce a marked down-modulation of their own receptors. Interestingly, each GF induces the transactivation of the R(s) for the "distal" GF(s): (1) IL-6 induces transactivation of IL-3R, but not of GM-CSFR/EpR; (2) IL-3 causes a rapid upmodulation of GM-CSFR/EpR ("pure" progenitors treated with IL-3 show upmodulation of GM-CSFR alpha-chain mRNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction); whereas (3) GM-CSF induces the transactivation of the EpR. This chain upmodulation of HGFRs may underlie the synergistic interactions between the HGFs in clonogenetic culture. It is emphasized that KL does not induce upmodulation of the other GFRs. Finally, Ep, GM-CSF, and IL-3 do not modulate the expression of the "proximal" HGFRs (ie, GM-CSFR/IL-3R/IL-6R, IL-3R/IL-6R, and IL-6R, respectively). These results allow insight into the cellular basis of hematopoiesis, ie, the complex and coordinate interactions between HGFs and their receptors. They are compatible with a model of cascade transactivation via upmodulation of GFRs in the initial key steps of hematopoietic differentiation, whereby the action of each GF enhances the effect of the distal GF(s) by a multistep chain-potentiation mechanism.