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Publications (66)22.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A study was carried out to characterize the nucleotide variability in the promoter of the IGF-1 gene in broiler line of chicken. A PCR product of 375bp was amplified and nucleotide variability was studied using PCR-SSCP technique in chicken control broiler line. Selected sample PCR products were also sequenced to confirm the variability in promoter sequence. Present study revealed that the IGF-1 promoter was monomorphic having similar SSCP pattern in all individuals. Growth data was also analyzed to study the growth performance of the chicken broiler line at different age. Growth performance of male and female differed significantly at six week of age.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Indian Journal of Animal Research
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    M. K. Padhi · R. N. Chatterjee · U. Rajkumar · M. Niranjan · S. Haunshi
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    ABSTRACT: Objective of the work was to develop a three-way cross foregg-type backyard chicken using male and female lines developed from exotic chickens. To improve the egg production further and to get colour plumage pattern, the two-way cross PD1 X IWI males were crossed with PD3 females to produce three-way cross (PD1 X IWI X PD3). The crossbred was evaluated for different traits upto 72 weeks of age. Sexual dimorphisms were evident from two weeks onwards for body weights and shank length differ significantly (P<.05) between male and female at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Male were reared upto 16 weeks of age, and at 16 weeks, body weight of male and female were 1670 and 1096g, respectively. Carcass quality measured at 16 week of age recorded 66.12% eviscerated carcass yield, 4.84% giblet and 0.30% abdominal fat. Egg production performance recorded from 17 to 72 weeks of age at 4 weeks interval showed significant (P<.05) difference between different periods, and peak egg production was recorded during 29-32 weeks. At 69-72 weeks period, the egg production per bird was 14.78 eggs. Egg production upto 40, 52, 64 and 72 weeks of age were 91.71, 105.84, 204.88 and 233.28 eggs, respectively. Age and weight at sexual maturity were 163.14 days and 1702g, respectively. Egg weight recorded at 4 weeks interval starting from 20 weeks of age showed linear increase upto 56 weeks of age with significant differences at different ages. The results indicate that the cross may be of use for egg-type poultry in the backyard. However, before large-scale propagation, the cross has to be evaluated in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
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    ABSTRACT: Carcass traits are of immense importance in chicken as some parts of the carcass particularly breast muscle and legs are mostly preferred by the consumers with good market price while the remaining parts have a lower price. Carcass traits primarily depend on the growth of the birds, which are controlled by the candidate genes. Activin receptor type 2A and 2B act as receptors for binding with the members of transforming growth factor superfamily like myostatin to expedite its biological functions. We analysed exon2 and exon4 of activin receptor type 2A and 2B genes in six chicken populations. Both the genes revealed the presence of four haplotypes in these chicken populations. Association studies revealed a significant effect of genotypes and haplotypes on certain carcass traits such as carcass weight, dressing %, back and neck weight, giblet weights, etc. It is concluded that the exons of ACVR2A and ACVR2B genes were polymorphic and potentially associated with certain carcass traits in chicken.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphism of promoter (Fragment 1, 2 and 3) of prolactin gene in four strains of White Leghorn chicken layers i.e. IWH, IWI, IWK and layer control was identified. Two alleles (A and B) were found in all the promoter fragments of the gene. In above mentioned layer populations, A allele was predominant. The genotypic and allelic distribution was significantly differed among the populations. Different demographic and divergent parameters were estimated in all the lines. It is concluded that all 3 fragments of promoter of prolactin gene was polymorphic in four strains of White Leghorn layer populations.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Indian Journal of Animal Research
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    ABSTRACT: Present study was undertaken to compare the male line of Vanaraja, Vanaraja and control broiler in respect to their juvenile traits and to study the genetic parameters in Vanaraja male line (PD1). Body weight, feed conversion, conformation traits and carcass quality were measured. Body weights showed significant difference between different genetic groups and lowest body weight recorded in Vanaraja followed by PD1 and control broiler. The gain in body weights at 2 weeks interval showed significant difference between genetic groups and also differ significantly at different periods within a genetic group. All the conformation traits studied showed significant differences between genetic groups and for increase in shank and keel length during different periods. FCR was significantly better in PD1 and control broiler than Vanaraja. Carcass quality traits measured at 12 weeks of age showed significant difference for abdominal fat% and back+neck% between PD1 and Vanaraja. Vanaraja recorded significantly lower abdominal fat% compared to PD1. Heritability estimates for juvenile body weights in PD1 were moderate in magnitude. All conformation traits showed low to moderate estimates of heritability in magnitude for the traits measured at different ages. Correlations for body weights with different conformation traits were high in magnitude. Correlations between the same traits measured at different weeks showed positive and high correlation. The results revealed that the selection in PD1 may improve the performance of the line and also improve the performance in Vanaraja which is being used as dual purpose backyard poultry through utilization of heterosis for different traits.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Indian journal of animal sciences
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, 4 new crosses, viz. PD1× PD4 (A), PD1 × PB2 (B), PD1x PD3 (C) and PD1 × IWI (D) were developed and evaluated under intensive system of rearing. Body weights, conformation traits were evaluated during starter and growing period and production performance were measured up to 72 weeks of age. Body weights at day 0, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 weeks of age in the starter period and at 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 weeks of age during growing period differed significantly between crosses in both male and female. Irrespective of age, cross B recorded higher body weight compared to other crosses. Shank length and keel length measured at 6, 8, 18 and 20 weeks of age in both the sexes differed significantly between the crosses. The maximum shank and keel lengths were achieved by 20 weeks of age. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) from 0-8 weeks of age was the best in B followed by A, C and D. The age at sexual maturity (ASM), weight at sexual maturity, body weight and shank length at 40 weeks of age, egg production up to 72 weeks of age differed significantly between different crosses. Egg weights measured at different weeks of age also differed significantly between the crosses. The egg production up to 72 weeks of age was the highest in C followed by D, A and B. Mortality % was lowest in D at different period. The results indicated that B may be useful for coloured meat type birds in rural areas whereas C and D cross may be useful for egg type as well as dual purpose backyard poultry. Cross A may be useful for dual type backyard poultry.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Indian journal of animal sciences
  • M.K. Padhi · R.N. Chatterjee · U. Rajkumar · T.K. Bhattacharya · S.K. Bhanja
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to investigate growth, conformation, production and reproduction performance of PD1 (Vanaraja male line). The data collected for different periods from the birds were produced using 50 sires and 250 dams through pedigreed mating. Body weight was 640.21 g and shank length 75.39 mm at 6 weeks of age in pooled sex. In female the shank length increases faster up to 12 weeks of age and at 20 weeks it reached the maximum length, whereas other traits like body weight, keel length and breast angle increased up to 20 weeks of age. The ASM was 188 days and egg production up to 40 weeks of age was 46.29 eggs with egg weight at 40 weeks 54.61 g. The fertility % and hatchability % on total egg set and fertile egg set were 90.46, 83.20, and 91.38%, respectively. The heritability estimates for juvenile body weight and conformation traits are low in magnitude. Growing period body weight showed moderate heritability estimates, whereas, conformation traits during growing period showed low to moderate heritability estimates. Egg production and age at sexual maturity showed low heritability estimates. Fertility and hatchability % showed moderate heritability estimates. Genetic and phenotypic correlation were estimated between different traits at different period and showed varying levels of correlations estimates. The results indicated that PD1 line has the potential for further improvement and to be used as male line to produce backyard variety and to increase the performance of Vanaraja commercial.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Indian journal of animal sciences
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    T K Bhattacharya · R N Chatterjee · K Dushyanth · C Paswan · R Shukla · M Shanmugam
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The objectives of the study were to detect polymorphism in the coding region of the IGF1 gene, explore the expression profile and estimate association with growth traits in indigenous and exotic chickens. 2. A total of 12 haplotypes were found in Cornish, control layer and Aseel breeds of chicken in which the h1 haplotype was most frequent. 3. Nucleotide substitutions among haplotypes were found at 21 positions in the IGF1gene in which 4 substitutions resulted in non-synonymous mutations in the receptor binding domain of the IGF1 protein. 4. The haplogroup showed a significant effect on body weight at 24 and 42 d of age in the control layer line, body weight at 42 d and daily weight gain between 29 to 42 d in the control broiler line, daily weight gain between 29 to 42 d in Cornish, and body weights at 42 d as well as daily weight gain between 29 to 42 d in Aseel birds. 5. IGF1 expression varied among the breeds during embryonic and post-hatch periods. The expression among the haplogroups varied in different chicken tissues. The effect of haplogroups on myofibre number in pectoral muscle was non-significant, although there was significant variation in numbers between d 1 and 42, and between broiler and layer lines. 6. It was concluded that the coding region of the IGF1 gene was polymorphic, expressed differentially during the pre-hatch and post-hatch periods, and haplogroups showed significant association with growth traits in chicken.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · British Poultry Science
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    ABSTRACT: Vanaraja male line (PD1) was evaluated for different production traits up to 60 weeks of age and egg quality traits were recorded at different ages. Body weight at 20 and 40 weeks of age were 2037 and 2903 g, respectively. Least square estimate for age at sexual maturity was 180.30 days. Egg production up to 40 and 60 weeks of age were 42.34 and 92.06 eggs, respectively. There was increase of 2.07 mm shank length between 16 to 20 weeks of age. Heritability estimates for age at sexual maturity, body weight at 20 and 40 weeks of age, egg production upto 40 weeks and egg weight at 32 weeks of age were low in magnitude. However, heritability estimates for Shank length at 20 and first egg weight showed moderate to high heritability. Genetic correlation between shank length and egg production up to 40 weeks of age was positive, however, body weight at 40 weeks of age with egg production showed negative correlation and moderate in magnitude. Egg quality parameters showed significant difference between different age of measurements and as the age increases the egg quality parameters decreases. Results indicated that most of the production traits in PD1 line have less additive genetic variation which should be considered in the selection programme. © 2015, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The Indian journal of animal sciences
  • T K Bhattacharya · R N Chatterjee · K Dushyanth · R Shukla
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    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to characterize myostatin gene in broiler and layer chicken and to explore mRNA expression profile in these two varieties of chicken. The myostatin cDNAs of broiler and layer varieties were cloned and sequenced. The total length of the cDNA was 1128 bp. The differences of nucleotides between PB-1 broiler and IWI layer were C > 65 > T, C > 306 > T and C > 1094 > T while those between CB broiler and IWI layer were C > 65 > T, C > 195 > G, G > 234 > A, C > 306 > T, T > 939 > C, C > 961 > T, G > 966T and C > 1094 > T. The amino acid differences of myostatin protein between PB-1 and IWI strains were alanine > 22 > valine and proline > 365 > leucine while those between CB and IWI strains were alanine > 22 > valine, histidine > 321 > tyrosine and proline > 365 > leucine. The phylogenetic study revealed closeness of PB-1 and control broiler forming a cluster, which was also closely related to IWI layer chicken formed a separate cluster. The gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The gene expression profile in muscle was different between broiler and layer strains. Between two broiler strains, the pattern of expression was similar. Between IWI layer and either PB-1 or CB broilers, differences in expression was found at different time points, particularly at second, fourth and seventh weeks of age. The myostatin expression was significantly associated with body weights in chicken. It is concluded that myostatin gene sequences varied at nucleotide as well as amino acid level between broiler and layer chicken varieties and the gene also expressed differentially in these two varieties.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Molecular Biology Reports
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    ABSTRACT: India although has achieved self sufficiency in food grains, it has to solve the problems of protein-energy malnutrition for millions of people. Presently, poultry industry has emerged as a big hope, which can meet not only the protein requirement to millions but can provide employment and thereby, livelihood security. India is the 3rd largest producer of eggs and holds 5th position in poultry meat production in the world. Developments like emergence of molecular markers, structural and functional genomics, bioinformatics etc. in the field of the biotechnology have provided ample opportunity to peep into the molecular architecture of the individual birds. Improvement of poultry birds all together can be achieved through conventional breeding approach, but amalgamation of conventional and molecular approach can generate further improvement of birds in sustainable manners, which in turn augment productivity of the poultry very rapidly and efficiently bypassing the impact of climate change being faced by the whole world today.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India - Section B: Biological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Coloured broiler breeders are becoming popular in recent years because of the preference for a range of poultry products as well as the welfare issues in the poultry industry. The female broiler breeders are continuously improved for various economic traits. Amongst these, egg quality trait is very essential for the production of healthy and viable chicks. This study investigates the egg quality parameters in a synthetic coloured broiler breeder female line at different age groups. The study revealed that the egg quality is optimum for setting the eggs for hatching from 40 week onwards as the egg size and internal egg parameters attain the minimum standards for the production of a healthy chick.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
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    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to assess genetic heterogeneity among 14 chicken populations using 16 microsatellite markers. All the microsatellite loci except MCW048 were polymorphic. The number of alleles varied from 2 to 6. The polymorphic information content of the microsatellite markers varied from 0.21 to 0.87. The average observed number of alleles across the microsatellites varied from 3 to 3.8, while effective number of alleles varied from 1.9 to 3.0. The average observed and expected heterozygosities were in the range of 0.3-0.6 and 0.4-0.6, respectively. The markers, MCW049, MCW044, MCW041, ADL176, MCW059, ADL136 and MCW110 showed heterozygosity excess and ADL158, MCW043, ADL102, MCW014, ADL023, ADL210 and MCW007 markers revealed heterozygosity deficiency in the populations. The genetic distance between layer and broiler lines was found to be high ranging from 0.22 to 0.38. The Indigenous populations were more closely related to broiler lines than layer ones. In conclusion, it is stated that Indigenous, broiler and layer chicken populations were heterogeneous in nature and Indigenous chicken populations were distantly related from the broiler and layer chicken populations.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
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    ABSTRACT: Chickens (Gallus gallus) were the first avian species selected for whole genome sequencing because of their economic value, use as a food source, livelihood security and research importance. Any living organism contains a galaxy of genes which express all the phenotypes or characters by encoding proteins and peptides, and playing regulatory roles in the biological system. Functional genomics in turn, is a multidisciplinary approach to identify and demonstrate the functional roles of genes and other regulatory molecules such as microRNA and CpG methylation in biological pathways. In the last two decades, the chicken genome database has made significant advancements in accruing large amounts of genomic information through employing advanced bio-informatic tools. Several techniques such as cDNA microarray, serial analysis of gene expression, massively parallel signature sequencing, cDNA subtractive hybridisation and next generation sequencing have been utilised to investigate the genome-wide expression profile instead of revealing expression pattern of one or a few genes in various avian species. Expressed sequence tag or cDNA sequences are the key factors for identification of novel genes and understanding the complex molecular cascades of ontology. A large-scale cDNA library has been constructed from embryonic and adult tissues and consequently identified the presence of about 19,000 functional genes in chickens. The micro RNAs play crucial role in gene expression and to date, approximately 496 micro RNAs have been characterised. The non-coding RNA alters gene expression involved in cellular process, by modulating the chromatin architecture, transcription, RNA splicing, editing, translation and turnover. Functional genomics studies have been extensively used to identify genes associated with several production traits, immuno-genetic mechanism, host-pathogen interaction, pathogen biology etc. Nutrigenomics have determined the genomic mechanism involved in feed utilisation, metabolism and cholesterol synthesis etc., which ultimately reveal potential applications for improving the nutritional efficiency of birds. This review discusses the tools and utility of functional genomics approaches in chicken.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · World's Poultry Science Journal
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    M K Padhi · R N Chatterjee · U Rajkumar · S Haunshi
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    ABSTRACT: Padhi, M.K., Chatterjee, R.N., Rajkumar, U. and Haunshi, S. 2014. A study on bilateral asymmetry in PD1, control broiler and Vanaraja commercial chickens. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 49(1): 52-55. The study was conducted on 814 chicks of PD1, 124 Control broiler and 128 Vanaraja commercial chickens for 7 weeks body weight and bilateral asymmetries for shank length (SL) and shank width (SW). The inheritance of these traits in PD1 were studied. Body weight and trait size for SL and SW were significantly (P<0.05) higher in Control broiler followed by PD1 and Vanaraja irrespective of sexes except trait size for SL in PD1 and control broiler were non significant. Males recorded significantly (P<0.05) higher body weight and trait size in all the three genetic groups. Fluctuating asymmetry and relative asymmetries for SL and SW differed significantly (P<0.05) between genetic groups irrespective of sexes. Most of the bilateral asymmetry traits were significantly (P<0.05) lower in control broiler than PD1 and Vanaraja. Males recorded significantly (P<0.05) higher fluctuating, bilateral and directional asymmetries for SL in PD1. In control broiler and Vanaraja no significant (P<0.05) differences were observed between sexes for any of the bilateral asymmetry traits studied. The heritability estimates of different bilateral asymmetries in pooled sex were found to be low (0.00 to 0.17). Genetic and phenotypic correlation estimates between different traits were measured. Lower bilateral asymmetries in control broiler compared to PD1 and Vanaraja suggest that Control broiler being an unselected population the asymmetries were less compared to PD1 which was selected for shank length and Vanaraja which is a crossbred. Developmental stability was best in Control broiler followed by PD1 and Vanaraja.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
  • M.K. Padhi · R.N. Chatterjee
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    ABSTRACT: Present study was undertaken to evaluate male birds of 4 different crossbreds chicken (PD1 × PD4 (A), PD1 × PB2(B), PD1 × PD3 (R), PD1 × IWI (W)) for different carcass quality parameters at 10 and 18 weeks of age. At 10 and 18 weeks of age 8 and 6 birds each from each genetic group, respectively, were sacrificed to measure different carcass quality traits. Effects of age on each genetic group in respect to different carcass quality traits were also studied. All the traits on weight basis differed significantly between the genetic groups at 10 weeks of age. However, at 18 weeks of age pre slaughter body weight, shank, gizzard, giblet weight and all the cut up parts weight differed significantly. At 10 weeks of age statistical significance between different genetic groups was observed for feather, head, shank, eviscerated yield, liver, gizzard, abdominal fat and giblet%. Abdominal fat% was lowest in A. At 18 weeks of age head, shank,eviscerated and liver% differed significantly between genetic groups. Highest eviscerated% was obtained in B with lowest abdominal fat. Age effect was significant for eviscerated yield, liver, gizzard and abdominal fat in B. In R head,shank, liver, gizzard and giblet% reduced significantly at 18 weeks of age. Cut up parts percentage expressed as % of eviscerated weight showed significant difference between genetic groups for legs % at 10 weeks of age. Age showed significant effect for back and legs % in A and B, whereas R and W showed significant effect of age for neck and legs % and back and neck %, respectively. The results indicated that genetic groups and age significantly affect different carcass quality traits and B male recorded better eviscerated yield compared to other genetic groups. Legs cut % increases with increase of slaughter age.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The Indian journal of animal sciences
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    T K Bhattacharya · R N Chatterjee
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    ABSTRACT: An experiment was carried out on myostatin gene with the objectives of identification of polymorphism in the myostatin gene and estimation of the effect of polymorphism on growth traits in chickens. Single-stranded conformation polymorphism followed by sequencing was performed to reveal polymorphism of the gene. A total of 13 haplotypes were observed across 3 chicken lines (PB-1 and CB as broiler lines and IWI as the layer line). Myostatin haplogroups had a significant effect on BW at 28, 42, and 49 d of age in the PB-1 line. The significant association of haplogroups was observed with BW at d 14 and 49 in the CB line. In the IWI layer line, the myostatin gene was polymorphic but had no significant association with growth traits. It is concluded that the myostatin gene was polymorphic and had a significant effect on growth traits in broiler chickens.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Poultry Science
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    ABSTRACT: Broiler male line (PB-1) and female line (PB-2) were under continuous mass selection for 6 week body weight and independent culling level was applied for 40 week egg production in female line. Data obtained over 5 generations on juvenile body weights and production traits was analyzed to evaluate the short-term direct and correlated responses in both lines. In male line, genetic responses for 6 WK body weight, 20 WK body weight, 40WK body weight, age at sexual maturity, 32 WK egg weight, 40 WK egg weight and 40 WK egg production were 31.6±21.31 g, -80.10±111.98 g, -38.60±102.58 g, 0.50±2.31days, 0.24±2.40 g,-0.49±0.81 g and 1.80±4.69eggs respectively. On genetic scale 6 WK body weight was improved significantly (P<0.05). Body weight at 20 WK and 40 WK were decreased and there was a marginal gain in ASM and egg production up to 40 weeks of age. On phenotypic scale in male line, body weights at 6 WK, 20 WK and 40 WK were increased, but non-significant, while, ASM, egg weight at 32 and 40 weeks of age were decreased, but non-significant. Egg production to 40 weeks of age was improved significantly (P<0.05). In female line genetic responses for 6 WK body weight, 20 WK body weight, 40 WK body weight, ASM, 32 WK egg weight, 40 WK egg weight and 40 WK egg production were 32.22±12.55 g, -44.30±122.79 g, -78.70±28.29 g, 1.70±2.99days, -0.09±0.73 g, 0.61±0.71 g and 0.35±2.92eggs respectively. On genetic scale 6 WK body weight was improved but non-significant. Body weight at 20 WK, 40 WK and egg weight at 32 WK were decreased, but non-significant. There was marginal genetic gain in ASM, 40 WK egg weight and 40 WK egg production. On phenotypic scale in female line body weights at 6WK, 20WK and 40WK were improved, but non-significant, while egg production was improved significantly (P<0.05), ASM and egg weight at 32 WK and 40WK were decreased, but non-significant.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · The Indian journal of animal sciences
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    M K Padhi · R N Chatterjee · S Haunshi · U Rajkumar
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    ABSTRACT: Egg quality traits were measured at 28, 40, 52, 64 and 72 weeks of age in Vanaraja male line (PD1) utilizing 20 to 40 eggs at different ages. Egg weight, colour index, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index, shell thickness, yolk weight, albumen weight, shell weight, yolk %, albumen % and yolk to albumen ratio differ significantly (P<0.05) at different age of measurements. Egg weight increases linearly upto 52 weeks of age and then it remain stable. Colour index significantly lower during beginning and end of the measurements. Shell thickness was lower during 28 and 40 weeks of age. Yolk weight increases as the age advances, whereas albumen weight decreased significantly at 72 weeks of age compared to 40, 52 and 64 weeks of age. Shell weight increases as the age advances. Yolk % and yolk to albumen ratio increases as the age of measurements increases. Egg weight was negatively correlated with yolk % and positively correlated with albumen % irrespective of age. Yolk to albumen ratio was negatively correlated with egg weight irrespective of age of measurements. Correlation coefficient between egg weight with yolk, albumen and shell weight were positive. Haugh unit and albumen ratio was negatively correlated with egg weight at 64 and 72 weeks of age. The results indicates that the age of the birds significantly affect different parameters of egg quality and as the age advances, at the end of cycle most of the quality parameters decreased in magnitude and the yolk content increases compared to the albumen content Key words: egg quality, egg weight, Vanaraja, yolk to albumen ratio. Backyard poultry farming with improved variety is gaining popularity in our country. The improved birds are mostly crossbred which are developed to perform better in the backyard system of rearing. The egg size and its quality is an important attributes in backyard poultry. The egg size and its component are influenced by a number of genetic and non genetic factors (Washburn, 1990). The yolk % is affected by breed or strain within a breed, age of hen and egg size (Campo, 1995; Suk and Park, 2001). So the present study was undertaken to see the effect of hen age on egg quality and also the correlation of egg weight with different egg quality parameters at different ages. The breeds used for the study is Vanaraja male line (PD1) which is selected for higher shank length at six weeks of age since last five generation. The hens were reared in individual cages with standard meat type breeder management and feeding practices. Eggs for the present study were collected randomly (20 to 40 eggs) late afternoon at 28, 40, 52,64 and 72 weeks of age and were kept at room temperature overnight for evaluation in the next day. Eggs were weighed and length and breadth were measured in digital vernier callipers. Then the eggs were broken and different parameters like yolk height, albumen height, yolk width, albumen width and length were recorded. The yolk colour were measured as per the Roche yolk colour fan. Shell thickness was randomly measured from three different parts of eggs using a micrometer and averaged. Weight of yolk was recorded and the shell weight were recorded after drying the egg for 48 hours. Albumen weight was determined by subtracting the yolk and shell weight from the original egg weight. Shape index, albumen index, yolk index and Haugh unit were calculated using standard formulae. Yolk: albumen ratio and albumen, yolk and shell % were calculated. The data were analysed as per Snedecor and Cochran (1994).
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
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    ABSTRACT: A comparative study on terminal crosses involving DDL and PB-2 females with PB-1 males was evaluated for growth and immune parameters. The present findings showed the advantages of dwarf gene with respect to feed efficiency, fertility, hatchability and maintenance cost etc. These results confirmed the economic benefits of the dwarf dam line though the growth rate was lower.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · The Indian veterinary journal