[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de substituição do milho pelo farelo de palma forrageira na dieta de novilhos mestiços sob suplementação em pastagens de Urochoa brizantha na fase de recria. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Princesa do Mateiro, no município de Ribeirão do Largo, Bahia. Foram utilizados 40 novilhos mestiços com peso corporal médio de 261 ± 7,46 kg, distribuídos em quatro grupos, para avaliação de quatro níveis de substituição do milho moído pelo farelo de palma forrageira, 0,00; 30,00; 60,00; e 90,00%. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente por meio de análise de variância e de regressão, a 5% de probabilidade de erro. O aumento da quantidade de farelo de palma na dieta provocou efeito quadrático no tempo de pastejo e no tempo destinado a outras atividades. Houve efeito quadrático da dieta sobre o número de períodos de pastejo, o número de períodos de cocho e para os tempos totais de alimentação e mastigação, ao contrário dos números de períodos destinados a outras atividades e à ruminação não foram influenciados pelos níveis de farelo de palma. A taxa de bocados, o número de bocados por deglutição e o número de bocados por dia aumentaram de forma crescente, enquanto o tempo de deglutição e o número de bolos ruminados por dia decresceram com o aumento dos níveis de farelo palma forrageira dieta. As eficiências de alimentação e ruminação da matéria seca, fibra em detergente neutro, proteína bruta e carboidratos não-fibrosos não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de substituição do milho moído pelo farelo de palma. Níveis próximos a 60% de farelo de palma forrageira provavelmente promoveu maior degradação da fibra, proporcionando aos animais mais tempo para a interação social entre o grupo, um melhor aproveitamento e possivelmente melhor conversão alimentar.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · SEMINA: CIENCIAS AGRARIAS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objetivou-se determinar a correlação linear existente entre os ácidos graxos consumidos e depositados no músculo Longissimus dorsi de 35 bovinos machos não castrados, mestiços, com predominância da raça Nelore, com peso inicial médio de 428,0 ± 32,11 kg, terminados em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco dietas e sete animais por dieta durante 74 dias. As dietas consistiram de níveis de inclusão da glicerina (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12%) na matéria seca (MS). Os animais foram pesados a cada 28 dias para avaliação do ganho de peso médio diário (GMD) e ajuste das dietas. Amostras do capim Brachiaria decumbens, dos suplementos, assim como do músculo Longissimus dorsi foram analisadas para avaliação do perfil de ácidos graxos. A correlação foi realizada estimando-se os coeficientes de correlação linear de Pearson. Os resultados encontrados demonstram a existência de correlações entre os ácidos graxos consumidos com aqueles depositados no músculo dos animais. As correlações observadas modificaram o perfil dos ácidos graxos da carne com redução da concentração dos ácidos graxos monoinsaturados e aumento da concentração dos ácidos graxos da série ? – 6, assim como da razão entre os ácidos graxos da série ? - 6 e ? - 3. Não foram verificadas correlações com os ácidos graxos hipercolesterêmicos (láurico, miristico e palmítico) do músculo dos bovinos suplementados com glicerina de baixa pureza.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · SEMINA: CIENCIAS AGRARIAS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate replacing levels of soybean meal with castor meal in diets for lambs on the productive and metabolic parameters. Fifty uncastrated Santa Inês lambs with an initial body weight of 26.52±4.76. kg and four-to-six months of age were confined in feedlots and fed diets containing castor seed meal (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) replacing soybean meal. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and ten replicates. The intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, non-fibrous carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients decreased linearly (P<0.05), whereas the intake of neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, both in body weight or metabolic weight basis increased linearly (P<0.05). The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, non-fibrous carbohydrates, total carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients decreased linearly (P<0.05), and the digestibility of crude protein was not influenced (P>0.05). There was no effect (P>0.05) on the daily and total weight gains and feed conversion. Hepatic parameters were not affected. The consumed-, absorbed- and retained-nitrogen values decreased linearly (P<0.05), but had no effect on the liver metabolism. Despite the decreased intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance, castor seed meal can replace up to 50% of soybean meal without changing lambs' blood parameters or performance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study aimed to study morphogenic and structural characteristics of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania) intercropped with Estilosantes Campo Grande (Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala) or fertilized with nitrogen. The pasture was managed under continuous stocking and variable stocking rate. Were used a randomized complete blocks with split plots and three replications. The treatments were: Tanzania grass + Stylosanthes; Tanzania grass + 75 Kg N.ha.year(-1); Tanzania grass + 150Kg N.ha.year-1; Tanzania grass + 225 Kg N.ha.year-1. Were used urea and ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source. The morphogenetic evaluations were conducted in the spring and summer. Were evaluated 15 tillers per paddock, twice a week for four weeks per season in study. The morphogenic characteristics were not affected by nitrogen fertilization or consortium, except the leaf elongation rate (LER). The highest values for this variable were observed in the spring in the fertilized pastures. Therefore, it is concluded that nitrogen fertilization influences the leaf elongation rate (LER) of Tanzania grass, and this one when is intercropped with Stylosanthes Campo Grande show morphogenic characteristics similar when fertilized with nitrogen, except for rate leaf elongation.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · SEMINA: CIENCIAS AGRARIAS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake instead of soybean meal. A total of 32 Nellore young bulls with an initial body weight of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were individually housed in stalls and fed Tifton 85 hay with four concentrate mixtures containing 0, 33, 66, or 100 % peanut cake substituting for soybean meal. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (with 15 % crude protein) and isocaloric (with 65 % total digestible nutrients), with a 40:60 forage:concentrate ratio, in the form of total mixed diet. The experimental period was 90 days, and data were collected every 28 days. Feeding behavior was assessed by means of observation and recording of the daily time spent feeding, ruminating, and idling, quantification of the periods and calculation of variables related to mastication characteristics as well as feeding and rumination efficiencies. Substitution of soybean meal for peanut cake in the diets caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber but did not affect the behavioral activities of the young bulls. Peanut cake may therefore replace up to 100 % of soybean meal in the diet of feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls because it does not affect the feeding behavior of these animals.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Tropical Animal Health and Production
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to verify the effect of nutritional management that alternates periods of energy/protein restriction and refeeding of grazing crossbred heifers during their prepuberty on the hormonal profile and blood parameters. The study was conducted at Princesa do Mateiro farm in Ribeirão do Largo, in the southwest region of the state of Bahia. Twenty crossbred heifers 5/8 Dairy Guzerat x 3/8 Dutch with an average age of 12 months and average body weight of 187 ± 13.74 kg were used at the beginning of the experiment. It lasted 238 days, 14 out of them were for the animals' adaptation. The animals were kept in rotational grazing of Brachiariabrizantha cv. Marandú pastures and randomly assigned to two treatments: Control (T100) = animals receiving concentrate supplement to supply 100% of the nutrients requirement to gain 750 g day-1 of live weight and Compensatory Nutrition (CN). The animals of the CN treatment alternated periods of Restriction (T80) = receiving concentrate supplement to meet 80% of the demand for nutrients of the (T100) and periods of Refeeding (T120) = getting concentrate supplement to supply 120% of the nutrient requirements of the (T100 The final plasma concentrations of IGF-I, glucose and urea were higher (P<0.05) in the animals undergoing compensatory nutrition (CN) treatment. The insulin, cholesterol, progesterone and protein levels of the animals from Control and CN nutritional systems did not changed (P>0.05). There were positive correlations (P<0.05) between IGF-I, insulin, glucose and cholesterol, and a negative correlation (P<0.05) between IGF-I and urea. There were also positive correlation (P<0.05) between insulin and glucose and positive correlation (P<0.05) between glucose and cholesterol. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05) of the urea with cholesterol, progesterone and protein. Progesterone also showed a positive correlation (P<0.05) with the protein.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · SEMINA: CIENCIAS AGRARIAS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate the effects of replacement corn by jackfruit silage on intake, coefficient of apparent digestibility and performance in diets for feedlot confined lambs. Santa Inês crossbred castrated male lambs were used, in the completely randomized design. The replacement levels were 0. 333. 666. 1000 g kg-1 in dry matter (DM) of corn as the concentrate component. The intake DM, crude protein (CP) (g day-1), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in g kg-1 and g kg-1 body weight (BW) increased linearly with replacement. The intake of organic matter (OM), ethereal extract (EE), total carbohydrates (TC) and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) decreased linearly, while for total digestible nutrients (TDN) quadratic behavior with replacement. The coefficients of apparent digestibility of OM, TC and NFC decreased linearly with replacement, while the coefficient of digestibility of CP and TDN showed quadratic behavior with replacement. The BW and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement of corn for jackfruit silage. The jackfruit silage can be used to replace corn in diets of lambs and their use is dependent on economic factors, the availability of fruit and purpose of animal productivity to be reached.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · SEMINA: CIENCIAS AGRARIAS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P < 0.05), but did not affect the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake. The feeding and rumination efficiencies had a quadratic response (P < 0.05). The experimental diets did not affect (P > 0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on the time per feeding activity and on the chewing periods. Substitution of soybean meal for detoxified CSM reduces the DM intake but does not change the ingestive behavior.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Tropical Animal Health and Production
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate the fermentation parameters, chemical composition and fractionation of carbohydrates of sugarcane silages treated with urea and calcium oxide (CaO). Upon ensiling, the treatments applied to the sugarcane were: 1% urea; 0.5% urea + 0.5% CaO; and 1% CaO, in relation to a control silage, without additive. The chemical additives (urea and CaO) were added at ensiling, in an amount calculated based on the fresh matter (as is). A completely randomized design consisting of four treatments (silages) and nine replicates was adopted. The material was conditioned in PVC mini-silos for five months. At the end of the storage period, silos were weighed again and samples were collected to quantify the losses caused by fermentation, dry matter recovery, pH, and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3) of the silages and to evaluate the chemical composition and fractionation of carbohydrates. The silage with 1% CaO showed the highest recovery of dry matter, and in terms of carbohydrate fractionation, it showed the highest levels of soluble and potentially soluble carbohydrates. Addition of 1% CaO during ensiling reduces the fermentation losses of sugarcane silages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of crude glycerin (CG) in the diet of Nellore heifers grazing Brachiaria brizantha during the dry season, on nutrients intake and digestibility, performance, reproductive efficiency and economic viability. Sixty Nelore heifers with initial average weight of 285.89 ± 18.74 kg and approximately 19 ± 2 months of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets containing 0.0; 4.0; 8.0; 12.0 and 16.0% of CG inclusion in the diet. The average dry matter (DM) daily intake showed decreasing linear effect (P <0.05), whereas for one % inclusion of GB decreased to 0.097 kg of DM intake day-1. The DM digestibility of the diet, had no significant effect (P>0.05), with a mean value of 50.93%. The average daily gain (ADG) of heifers showed decreasing linear effect (P<0.05). For one % of GB included in the diet was reduced 0.0065 kg day-1 of gain. The reproductive rates (rate of pregnant and semen doses by pregnant), were not affected (P>0.05) by dietary inclusion of GB, with average values of 75% and 1.29 doses pregnant-1, respectively. The economic viability indicators were not positive in the short and medium term. Supplements for over 0.7% of the PC in animals maintained in Brachiaria brizantha with low nutritional quality, it is not recommended to include GB, since its inclusion in any level reduced around 15% weight gain. However, depending on the cost of coproduct, it can be includes up to 16% in the diet, even considering this drop in performance.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · SEMINA: CIENCIAS AGRARIAS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of steers on Brachiaria brizantha pasture fed diets with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Thirty-two crossbred steers in the finishing phase with average weight of 420 ± 8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment. Their behavior was assessed every 5 min for 24 h, in the middle of the experimental period. Variance and regression analyses at 0.05 % probability were adopted. The times spent grazing and ruminating reduced linearly (P <0.05), whereas the times spent at the trough (eating) and on other activities increased linearly (P <0.05) as the supplementation levels were elevated. The total feeding and chewing times decreased linearly (P <0.05) as the concentrate levels in the diet were elevated. By increasing the supplementation levels, the number of bites per day decreased linearly (P <0.05), and the feed efficiency of dry matter increased quadratically. Rumination efficiency of dry matter increased linearly (P <0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Grazing and rumination activities are reduced when the time devoted to other activities and at the trough are increased, as a result of the substitution effect.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Tropical Animal Health and Production
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the dry matter intake, digestibility of diet components, performance, feed conversion, carcass characteristics and economics aspects of inclusion with low purity glycerin supplementation on cattle finished on pasture with Brachiaria decumbens. We used 35 male cattle bulls, predominantly Nellore, with initial body weight of 428.0 ± 32.11 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and seven replications. Treatments consisted of glycerin inclusion levels (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12%) in the dry matter (DM). The animals were weighed every 28 days to assess the weight gain (ADG) and adjust the diet. At the end of the experiment the animals were weighed to obtain the average final body weight (BWF) and slaughtered to evaluate the carcass yield (HCY) and carcass traits. The economic analysis was conducted in relation to weight gain in kilos, in order to verify the feasibility of the use of diets with five levels of glycerin, without considering other fixed and operational costs. Increased linearly (P <0.05) levels of glycerin on the intake and digestibility of ether extract and ADG. Linear effect (P <0.05) on the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (CDFDN), crude protein (CDCP) and feed conversion (FC). No effects were observed (P <0.05) the inclusion of glycerin on carcass traits evaluated. The inclusion of glycerin reduced the cost of production of meat at sign when the price of this ingredient represented up to 70% of the price of corn. Glycerin low purity can be included in the diet of cattle uncastrated finishing the pasture with improved performance and increased economic benefits.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · SEMINA: CIENCIAS AGRARIAS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The behavior of crossbreed cows, milked in the presence or absence of their calves, was analyzed. The trial was conducted on the Dairy Cattle Sector of UESB School of Animal Science in Itapetinga BA Brazil. Twenty crossbreed Holstein x Gir cows were distributed in a randomized block design with 10 replications for each treatment for the experimental period of 31 days, during lactation. Results were analyzed by nonparametric chi-square test at 5% significance, except the variables time at the milking sector and milk production which were evaluated by analysis of variance and F test at 5% probability. Although cows with the presence of calves during milking had higher reactivity, behavioral activities and more time in the milking sector, milk production was not affected.
Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Acta Scientiarum Animal Sciences