[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is the most common form of genetic iron loading disease. It is mainly related to the HFE C282Y/C282Y homozygous genotype that is however a necessary but not a sufficient condition to develop clinical and even biochemical HH. This suggests that modifiers genes are likely involved in the expressivity of the disease. Our aim was to identify such modifier genes.
Patients and methods
We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using DNAs collected from 474 unrelated C282Y homozygotes. Associations were examined for both quantitative iron burden indices and clinical outcomes with 534,213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotypes, with replication analyses in an independent sample of 748 C282Y homozygotes from four different European centres.
One SNP met genome-wide statistical significance for association with transferrin concentration (rs3811647, GWAS p-value of 7×10−9 and replication p-value of 5×10−13). This SNP located within intron 11 of TF gene had pleiotropic effect on serum iron (GWAS p-value of 4.9×10−6 and replication p-value of 3.2×10−6). Both serum transferrin and iron levels were associated with serum ferritin levels, amount of iron removed and global clinical stage (p<0.01). Serum iron levels were also associated with fibrosis stage (p<0.0001).
This GWAS, the largest one performed so far in unselected HFE-HH patients, identified the rs3811647 polymorphism in the TF gene as the only SNP significantly associated with iron metabolism through serum transferrin and iron levels. Because these two outcomes were clearly associated with the biochemical and clinical expression of the disease, an indirect link between the rs3811647 polymorphism and the phenotypic presentation of HFE-HH is likely.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to understand mechanisms involved in osteoporosis observed during iron overload diseases, we analyzed the impact of iron on a human osteoblast-like cell line. Iron exposure decreases osteoblast phenotype. HHIPL-2 is an iron-modulated gene which could contribute to these alterations. Our results suggest osteoblast impairment in iron-related osteoporosis.
Iron overload may cause osteoporosis. An iron-related decrease in osteoblast activity has been suggested.
We investigated the effect of iron exposure on human osteoblast cells (MG-63) by analyzing the impact of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) and iron citrate (FeCi) on the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism or associated with osteoblast phenotype. A transcriptomic analysis was performed to identify iron-modulated genes.
FAC and FeCi exposure modulated cellular iron status with a decrease in TFRC mRNA level and an increase in intracellular ferritin level. FAC increased ROS level and caspase 3 activity. Ferroportin, HFE and TFR2 mRNAs were expressed in MG-63 cells under basal conditions. The level of ferroportin mRNA was increased by iron, whereas HFE mRNA level was decreased. The level of mRNA alpha 1 collagen type I chain, osteocalcin and the transcriptional factor RUNX2 were decreased by iron. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the mRNA level of HedgeHog Interacting Protein Like-2 (HHIPL-2) gene, encoding an inhibitor of the hedgehog signaling pathway, was decreased in the presence of FAC. Specific inhibition of HHIPL-2 expression decreased osteoblast marker mRNA levels. Purmorphamine, hedgehog pathway activator, increased the mRNA level of GLI1, a target gene for the hedgehog pathway, and decreased osteoblast marker levels. GLI1 mRNA level was increased under iron exposure.
We showed that in human MG-63 cells, iron exposure impacts iron metabolism and osteoblast gene expression. HHIPL-2 gene expression modulation may contribute to these alterations. Our results support a role of osteoblast impairment in iron-related osteoporosis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Osteoporosis International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solar radiation is one of the most common threats to the skin, with exposure eliciting a specific protective cellular response. To decrypt the underlying mechanism, we used whole genome microarrays (Agilent 44K) to study epidermis gene expression in vivo in skin exposed to simulated solar radiation (SSR). We procured epidermis samples from healthy Caucasian patients, with phototypes II or III, and used two different SSR doses (2 and 4 J/cm(2)), the lower of which corresponded to the minimal erythemal dose. Analyses were carried out five hours after irradiation to identify early gene expression events in the photoprotective response. About 1.5% of genes from the human genome showed significant changes in gene expression. The annotations of these affected genes were assessed. They indicated a strengthening of the inflammation process and up-regulation of the JAK-STAT pathway and other pathways. Parallel to the p53 pathway, the p38 stress-responsive pathway was affected, supporting and mediating p53 function. We used an ex vivo assay with a specific inhibitor of p38 (SB203580) to investigate genes the expression of which was associated with active p38 kinase. We identified new direct p38 target genes and further characterized the role of p38. Our findings provide further insight into the physiological response to UV, including cell-cell interactions and cross-talk effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Picoeukaryotes represent an important, yet poorly characterized component of marine phytoplankton. The recent genome availability for two species of Ostreococcus and Micromonas has led to the emergence of picophytoplankton comparative genomics. Sequencing has revealed many unexpected features about genome structure and led to several hypotheses on Ostreococcus biology and physiology. Despite the accumulation of genomic data, little is known about gene expression in eukaryotic picophytoplankton.
We have conducted a genome-wide analysis of gene expression in Ostreococcus tauri cells exposed to light/dark cycles (L/D). A Bayesian Fourier Clustering method was implemented to cluster rhythmic genes according to their expression waveform. In a single L/D condition nearly all expressed genes displayed rhythmic patterns of expression. Clusters of genes were associated with the main biological processes such as transcription in the nucleus and the organelles, photosynthesis, DNA replication and mitosis.
Light/Dark time-dependent transcription of the genes involved in the main steps leading to protein synthesis (transcription basic machinery, ribosome biogenesis, translation and aminoacid synthesis) was observed, to an unprecedented extent in eukaryotes, suggesting a major input of transcriptional regulations in Ostreococcus. We propose that the diurnal co-regulation of genes involved in photoprotection, defence against oxidative stress and DNA repair might be an efficient mechanism, which protects cells against photo-damage thereby, contributing to the ability of O. tauri to grow under a wide range of light intensities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although hepcidin expression was shown to be induced by the BMP/Smad signaling pathway, it is not yet known how iron regulates this pathway and what its exact molecular targets are. We therefore assessed genome-wide liver transcription profiles of mice of 2 genetic backgrounds fed iron-deficient, -balanced, or -enriched diets. Among 1419 transcripts significantly modulated by the dietary iron content, 4 were regulated similarly to the hepcidin genes Hamp1 and Hamp2. They are coding for Bmp6, Smad7, Id1, and Atoh8 all related to the Bmp/Smad pathway. As shown by Western blot analysis, variations in Bmp6 expression induced by the diet iron content have for functional consequence similar changes in Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation that leads to formation of heteromeric complexes with Smad4 and their translocation to the nucleus. Gene expression variations induced by secondary iron deficiency or iron overload were compared with those consecutive to Smad4 and Hamp1 deficiency. Iron overload developed by Smad4- and Hamp1-deficient mice also increased Bmp6 transcription. However, as shown by analysis of mice with liver-specific disruption of Smad4, activation of Smad7, Id1, and Atoh8 transcription by iron requires Smad4. This study points out molecules that appear to play a critical role in the control of systemic iron balance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell division often occurs at specific times of the day in animal and photosynthetic organisms. Studies in unicellular photosynthetic algae, such as Chlamydomonas or Euglena, have shown that the photoperiodic control of cell division is mediated through the circadian clock. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We have studied the molecular basis of light-dependent control of cell division in the unicellular green alga Ostreococcus. We found that cell division obeys a circadian oscillator in Ostreococcus. We provide evidence suggesting that the clock may, at least in part, regulate directly cell division independently of the metabolism. Combined microarray and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the main core cell cycle gene expression revealed an extensive transcriptional regulation of cell division by the photoperiod in Ostreococcus. Finally, transcription of the main core cell cycle genes, including cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases, was shown to be under circadian control in Ostreococcus, suggesting that these genes are potential targets of the circadian clock in the control of cell division.