[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed an intervention program for HIV-infected Thai adolescents with two group sessions and two individual sessions, focusing on four strategies: health knowledge, coping skills, sexual risk reduction, and life goals. An audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) was administered to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding antiretroviral therapy management, reproductive health, and HIV-associated risk behavior. The program was implemented in two HIV clinics; 165 (84%) adolescents (intervention group) participated in the program; 32 (16%) completed the ACASI without participating in the group or individual sessions (nonintervention group). The median age was 14 years, and 56% were female. Baseline KAP scores of the intervention and nonintervention groups were similar. Two months after the intervention, knowledge and attitude scores increased (p < .01) in the intervention group, and the increase was sustained at 6 months. KAP scores did not change from baseline in the nonintervention group at 6 or 12 months after enrollment.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) at antenatal care (ANC) settings allows pregnant women to learn the HIV status of themselves and their partners. Couples can make decisions together to prevent HIV transmission. In Thailand, men were tested at ANC settings only if their pregnant partners were HIV positive. A CHTC program based in ANC settings was developed and implemented at 16 pilot hospitals in 7 provinces during 2009¿2010.Methods
Cross-sectional data were collected using standard data collection forms from all pregnant women and accompanying partners who presented at first ANC visit at 16 hospitals. CHTC data for women and partners were analyzed to determine service uptake and HIV test results among couples. In-depth interviews were conducted among hospital staff of participating hospitals during field supervision visits to assess feasibility and acceptability of CHTC services.ResultsDuring October 2009-April 2010, 4,524 women initiating ANC were enrolled. Of these, 2,435 (54%) women came for ANC alone; 2,089 (46%) came with partners. Among men presenting with partners, 2,003 (96%) received couples counseling. Of these, 1,723 (86%) men and all pregnant women accepted HIV testing. Among 1,723 couples testing for HIV, 1,604 (93%) returned for test results. Of these, 1,567 (98%) were concordant negative, 6 (0.4%) were concordant positive and 17 (1%) were HIV discordant (7 male+/female- and 10 male-/female+). Nine of ten (90%) executive hospital staff reported high acceptability of CHTC services.ConclusionsCHTC implemented in ANC settings helps identify more HIV-positive men whose partners were negative than previous practice, with high acceptability among hospital staff.
Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · BMC International Health and Human Rights
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine factors associated with caretaker's readiness to disclose an HIV diagnosis to their child, a prospective study was conducted among caretakers of HIV-infected children aged seven to 16 years who were receiving care at two paediatric HIV treatment centres in Bangkok. Caretakers were offered readiness preparation counselling and their perceptions on disclosure were assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Among caretakers who had participated in the readiness preparation process for at least one year, 71% (195/273) were ready for disclosure. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that child's age of nine years or older, child's severe immunosuppression, caretakers having prior discussion with their child about the illness, caretaker's perception that their child had the ability to understand the HIV diagnosis and to keep it secret, and caretaker's opinion that the proper age for disclosure is between seven and 12 years old were associated with caretaker's readiness for disclosure. These determinants may be useful for guiding disclosure readiness preparation counselling.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · International Journal of STD & AIDS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2006 Thailand national prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) guidelines recommended antiretroviral (ARV) regimen use during antenatal care (ANC) be based on CD4 results: highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) should be used for a CD4 < 200 cells/mm(3) and zidovudine/single-dose nevirapine should be used for a CD4 count > or = 200 cell/mm(3). We evaluated compliance with and outcomes of these guidelines. We conducted a retrospective chart review of HIV-infected women and their infants born during October 2006 - December 2007 at 27 hospitals in 11 provinces of Thailand. The infant HIV-infection status was determined using laboratory test results and death reports. Mother-infant pairs were classified as fully, partially, or non-compliant with PMTCT guidelines based on CD4 testing history and ARV received. Factors associated with compliance were analyzed using univariate and multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE). Among 875 mother-infant pairs reviewed, 387 mothers (44%) had ANC CD4 testing done, of whom 75 (19%) had a CD4 count < 200 cells/mm(3). Proportions of pairs fully, partially and non-compliant with guidelines were 38, 34 and 28%, respectively. A definitive infant HIV-infection status was determined in 578 infants (66%). The overall mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate was 5.1% [95% confidence interval (95%(CI): 3.8-6.9] and the MTCT rates for the fully, partially and non-compliant groups were 1.2% (95% CI: 0.4-3.3), 6.0% (95% CI: 3.7-9.5) and 9.5% (95% CI: 6.2-14.0; p<0.001). Factors associated with compliance were: have ANC, awareness of the mothers' HIV status before delivery, and having first ANC prior to 24 weeks gestation. Compliance with the 2006 national PMTCT guidelines was low, and the MTCT rates were high among non- and partially compliant mother-infant pairs. The simplified PMTCT guidellines introduced in 2010, might increase compliance with and improve outcomes for Thailand's PMTCT program.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC overall, among pregnant women, and among women ≤25 years.
During October 2004–September 2006, HIV-infected women at 3 obstetrics and gynecology clinics were asked about sexual behaviors and STI symptoms, physically examined, and screened for chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify correlates of infections. NNS was calculated using standard methods.
Among 1,124 women, 526 (47.0%) had STI symptoms or signs, 469 (41.7%) had CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, and 133 (11.8%) had an STI. Correlates of having an STI included pregnancy and having STI signs. Among 469 women and 655 women with vs. without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, respectively, 43 (9.2%) vs. 31 (4.7%), 2 (0.4%) vs. 9 (1.4%), and 45 (9.6%) vs. 38 (5.8%) had CT, GC, or “CT or GC”, respectively; correlates included receiving care at university hospitals and having sex with a casual partner within 3 months. NNS for women overall and women ≤25 years old were 18 (95% CI, 13-25) and 11 (95% CI, 6-23), respectively; and for pregnant and non-pregnant women, 8 (95% CI, 4-24) and 19 (95% CI, 14-27), respectively.
STI prevalence among HIV-infected women, including CT and GC among those without symptoms or signs, was substantial. Screening for CT and GC, particularly for pregnant women, should be considered.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · BMC Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Most paediatric antiretroviral treatments (ARTs) in Thailand are limited to tertiary care hospitals. To decentralize paediatric HIV treatment and care, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital (CRH) strengthened a provincial paediatric HIV care network by training community hospital (CH) care teams to receive referrals of children for community follow-up. In this study, we assessed factors associated with death and clinical outcomes of HIV-infected children who received care at CRH and CHs after implementation of a community-based paediatric HIV care network.
Clinical records were abstracted for all children who initiated ART at CRH. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to assess CD4% and virological change among all children. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess factors associated with death. Treatment outcomes (CD4%, viral load (VL) and weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ)) were compared between CRH and CH children who met the criteria for analysis.
Between February 2002 and April 2008, 423 HIV-infected children initiated ART and 410 included in the cohort analysis. Median follow-up for the cohort was 28 months (interquartile range (IQR)=12 to 42); 169 (41%) children were referred for follow-up at CH. As of 31 March 2008, 42 (10%) children had died. Baseline WAZ (<−2 (p=0.001)) and baseline CD4% (<5% (p=0.015)) were independently associated with death. At 48 months, 86% of ART-naïve children in follow-up had VL<400 copies/ml. For sub-group analysis, 133 children at CRH and 154 at CHs were included for comparison. Median baseline WAZ was lower in CH children than in CRH children (p=0.001); in both groups, WAZ, CD4% and VL improved after ART with no difference in rate of WAZ and CD4% gain (p=0.421 and 0.207, respectively).
Children at CHs had more severe immunological suppression and low WAZ at baseline. Community- and tertiary care-based paediatric ART follow-ups result in equally beneficial outcomes with the strengthening of a provincial referral network between tertiary and community care. Nutrition interventions may benefit children in community-based HIV treatment and care.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report experience of HIVQUAL-T implementation in Thailand.
Twelve government hospital clinics.
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) aged ≥15 years with two or more visits to the hospitals during 2002-08.
HIVQUAL-T is a process for HIV care performance measurement (PM) and quality improvement (QI). The program includes PM using a sample of eligible cases and establishment of a locally led QI infrastructure and process. PM indicators are based on Thai national HIV care guidelines. QI projects address needs identified through PM; regional workshops facilitate peer learning. Annual benchmarking with repeat measurement is used to monitor progress.
Percentages of eligible cases receiving various HIV services.
Across 12 participating hospitals, HIV care caseloads were 4855 in 2002 and 13 887 in 2008. On average, 10-15% of cases were included in the PM sample. Percentages of eligible cases receiving CD4 testing in 2002 and 2008, respectively, were 24 and 99% (P< 0.001); for ARV treatment, 100 and 90% (P= 0.74); for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis, 94 and 93% (P= 0.95); for Papanicolau smear, 0 and 67% (P< 0.001); for syphilis screening, 0 and 94% (P< 0.001); and for tuberculosis screening, 24 and 99% (P< 0.01). PM results contributed to local QI projects and national policy changes.
Hospitals participating in HIVQUAL-T significantly increased their performance in several fundamental areas of HIV care linked to health outcomes for PLHA. This model of PM-QI has improved clinical care and implementation of HIV guidelines in hospital-based clinics in Thailand.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · International Journal for Quality in Health Care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STIs), sexual risk behaviors, and factors associated with risk behaviors among HIV-infected MSM attending a public STI clinic serving MSM in Bangkok, Thailand. Between October 2005-October 2007, 154 HIV-infected MSM attending the clinic were interviewed about sexual risk behaviors and evaluated for STIs. Patients were examined for genital ulcers and had serologic testing for syphilis and PCR testing for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Results showed that sexual intercourse in the last 3 months was reported by 131 men. Of these, 32% reported anal sex without a condom. STIs were diagnosed in 41%. Factors associated with having sex without a condom were having a steady male partner, having a female partner and awareness of HIV status <1 month. Sexual risk behaviors and STIs were common among HIV-infected MSM in this study. This highlights the need for increased HIV prevention strategies for HIV-infected MSM.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · AIDS and Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As increasing numbers of children initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART), a systematic process is needed to measure and improve pediatric HIV care quality.
Pediatric HIVQUAL-T, a model for performance measurement and quality improvement (QI), was adapted from the U.S. HIVQUAL model by incorporating Thai national guidelines as standards. In each of five pilot-site hospitals in Thailand in 2005-2007, clinical data abstracted from patient records were used to identify priority areas for QI. Improvement strategies were designed by clinic teams in different care system areas, and indicators were remeasured in 2006 and 2007.
At the five hospitals, 1119 HIV-infected children younger than 15 years of age received care in 2005, 1183 in 2006, and 1,341 in 2007--of whom 460, 435, and 418, respectively, were selected for chart abstraction. Of the eligible children, > or = 95% received clinical monitoring, annual CD4 count monitoring, ART, and adherence and growth assessments; 60%-90% received Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis, tuberculosis (TB) screening, oral health assessments, and HIV disclosure. Indicators with a score < or = 40% in 2005 but with significant improvement (p < .05) in 2006-2007 following QI activities were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prophylaxis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and immunization screenings.
Despite the promulgation of national guidelines, performance rates of some pediatric HIV indicators needed improvement. The pediatric HIVQUAL-T model facilitates use of hospital data for pediatric HIV care improvement and indicates that the U.S. HIVQUAL model is adaptable to developing countries.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: f Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai 50180; g Bamrasnaradura Infectious Disease Institute, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000; h Bureau of AIDS, TB, and STIs, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000; i World Health Organization, Thailand Office, Bangkok 11000; j Thai AIDS Society, Bangkok 10330, Thailand Thailand has been one of the leading developing countries to implement a national program to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Although the recent transmission rate has been low, the goal is to eliminate MTCT altogether. The Thai National HIV Guidelines Working Group issued treatment guidelines to prevent MTCT in Thailand in March 2010. These guidelines will be implemented nationwide within a year. The most important aspects of these new guidelines are as follows: Treatment in HIV-infected pregnant women who have not been on antiretroviral treatment prior to pregnancy. Antepartum treatment is recommended for all pregnant women regardless of CD4 count with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) containing zidovudine (AZT) + lamivudine (3TC) + lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). Treatment should be started immediately irrespective of gestational age in women with CD4 count <350 cells/ mm 3 , and as early as 14 weeks of gestation in those with CD4 count >350 cells/mm 3 . After delivery, women with baseline CD4 count <350 cells/mm 3 are referred for long-term care and HAART according to the National Adult HIV Treatment and Care Guidelines 2010. Women with CD4 count >350 cells/mm 3 do not need HAART and can stop all drugs after delivery. The treatment in infants includes AZT syrup for four weeks and exclusive formula feeding. Treatment in HIV-infected pregnant women who conceive while on HAART. Women who are stable on HAART should continue the treatment during the whole period of pregnancy. Those who are taking efavirenz (EFV) and present during the first trimester should have EFV switched to another drug. Whenever possible, AZT should be used during pregnancy. Treatment in infants is similar to the above scenario. Treatment in women who present in labor without antenatal care. Single-dose nevirapine (SD-NVP) 200 mg must be given immediately along with oral AZT 300 mg every three hours until delivery, or oral AZT 600 mg given as a single dose. The tail therapy of AZT + 3TC + LPV/r for four weeks should be given unless these women have a CD4 count of <350 cells/mm 3 and therefore require life-long HAART. SD-NVP should not be given if the women are to deliver within two hours. The infants in this situation should receive AZT + 3TC + NVP for four weeks. Treatment during delivery and mode of delivery. During labor, oral AZT 300 mg every three hours or oral AZT 600 mg given as a single dose is recommended regardless of antepartum antiretroviral (ARV) regimen or the woman's history of AZT resistance. Elective caesarean section is suggested in women who did not receive HAART (including those without antenatal care), received HAART for less than four weeks prior to delivery, had poor adherence, or had incomplete viral suppression at 36 weeks of gestation.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Asian biomedicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are limited reports of public sector scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV-infected children. We describe patient outcomes for HIV-infected children initiating ART in Thailand from 2000 to 2005.
ART-naive patients <15 years old initiating ART from January 2000 to December 2005 were included; follow-up was through March 2007. Survival probabilities were estimated with Kaplan-Meier and hazard ratios for death and loss to follow-up (LTFU) with Cox proportional hazards models.
Analysis included 3409 children. Median follow-up time was 1.7 years (interquartile range = 1.0-2.5). Median age at ART initiation was 7.3 years, weight-for-age z score was -2.0, CD4% was 5.0%. ART was initiated in 1428 (41.9%) children at regional/university hospitals and in 689 (20.2%) at district/community hospitals. At last visit, 346 (10.1%) were LTFU and 305 (9.0%) had died. Age <1 (P = 0.008), weight-for-age z score <-2.0 (P < 0.001), CD4% <5% (P < 0.001), and clinical stage C (P < 0.001) were associated with death; district/community hospital patients had a lower hazard of death (P = 0.011). Clinical stage C (P = 0.052) and regional/university hospital (P < 0.001) were associated with increased LTFU.
Pediatric ART has been successfully scaled-up in Thailand, including to district/community hospitals. Late entry to care is associated with poorer outcomes, and earlier ART initiation should be prioritized.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We offered voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for HIV and syphilis to women attending three public sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bangkok, Thailand from May 2004 to June 2006. The testing was performed at either one of three STI clinics in Bangkok or at mobile VCT in the same area as the outreach activity. Six-hundred eighty-four women were tested. The HIV prevalences among the street-based sex workers, brothel-based sex workers and other women in these areas not reporting sex work who tested in the clinics were 45.8% (38/83), 4.2% (10/236) and 9.9% (28/284), respectively. The prevalences of syphilis in these groups were 13.3%, 2.1%, and 2.6%, respectively. Street-based sex work and longer duration of sex work were independent risk factors for HIV in-fection (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). HIV and syphilis prevalences were 21.0% and 3.7% among 81 street-based sex workers accepting mobile VCT, The street-based sex workers in Bangkok had substantially higher HIV and syphilis prevalences than other sex workers. Street-based sex workers should be sampled during routine surveillance to obtain systematic information on disease preva-lence and risk behaviors in this group.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We surveyed the rate of chlamydial and gonococcal infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive patients in Thailand as well as the current status of antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and determined the prevalence of penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) in Thailand. A total of 1,158 endocervical swabs from 824 HIV-seropositive patients were collected to detect both organisms by Gen-Probe. The prevalences of chlamydial and gonococcal infection were 9.7 and 1.3%, respectively. Susceptibility of 122 gonococcal isolates to 6 drugs was determined by the disk diffusion method. None of the isolates was susceptible to penicillin or tetracycline. With respect to fluoroquinolones, more than 90% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. No gonococcal isolate with resistance to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone was detected. Among the 122 isolates, 83.6% or 102 isolates were PPNG, and most (79.5%) of these 122 isolates were further identified as PPNG plus tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, with only 4.1% being PPNG alone. All of the 102 isolates identified as PPNG contained the bla(TEM) gene. We then performed a preliminary molecular study and identified, for the first time in Thailand, a PPNG isolate producing beta-lactamase and containing the bla(TEM) gene which was identical to the beta-lactamase TEM protein of Salmonella enterica identified as TEM-135.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Almost half of all new HIV infections in Thailand occur among low-risk partners of people infected with HIV, so it is important to include people infected with HIV in prevention efforts.
Risk for HIV transmission was assessed among people with HIV attending routine care at the National Infectious Disease Institute in Thailand. Sexual risk behaviour, sexually transmitted infection (STI-syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and genital ulcers) prevalence and HIV disclosure status were assessed. Patients were provided with STI care, risk-reduction and HIV disclosure counselling.
Baseline data were assessed among 894 consecutive people with HIV (395 men and 499 women) from July 2005 to September 2006. Unprotected last sex with a partner of unknown or negative HIV status (unsafe sex) was common (33.2%) and more likely with casual, commercial or male-to-male sex partners than with steady heterosexual partners (p = 0.03). People receiving antiretroviral treatment were less likely to report unsafe sex (p<0.001). Overall, 10.7% of men and 7.2% of women had a STI (p = 0.08). More women than men had disclosed HIV status to their steady partners (82.5% vs 65.9%; p = 0.05).
Indicators for HIV transmission risk were common among people attending HIV care in Bangkok. Efforts need to be strengthened to reduce unsafe casual and commercial sex and to increase HIV disclosure from men to their partners. A strategy for STI screening and treatment for people with HIV in Thailand should be developed.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Sexually transmitted infections
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), tetanus, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in injecting drug users (IDUs), risk factors associated with infection and the feasibility of HBV vaccine delivery in HBV seronegatives.
Cross-sectional seroprevalence survey of 1535 IDUs recruited from 17 Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) methadone clinics and HBV vaccination of seronegatives.
Prevalence of antibody to HBV, tetanus, HAV and HIV was 87.8%, 68.1%, 60.2% and 35.9%, respectively. Prevalence of HBV and HAV increased with increasing age; prevalence of tetanus decreased with increasing age. Being HIV seropositive was related inversely to income and being tetanus seronegative. Of the 189 HBV seronegative IDUs, 81.0% completed the vaccine series. IDUs with HIV had a 6.5-fold odds of vaccine non-response.
These data underscore the need for, and feasibility of, vaccine delivery in this population and support targeting efforts at high-risk age groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of the 9.2 million new TB cases occurring each year, about 10% are in children. Because childhood TB is usually non-infectious and non-fatal, national programs do not prioritize childhood TB diagnosis and treatment. We reviewed data from a demonstration project to learn more about the epidemiology of childhood TB in Thailand.
In four Thai provinces and one national hospital, we contacted healthcare facilities monthly to record data about persons diagnosed with TB, assist with patient care, provide HIV counseling and testing, and obtain sputum for culture and susceptibility testing. We analyzed clinical and treatment outcome data for patients age < 15 years old registered in 2005 and 2006.
Only 279 (2%) of 14,487 total cases occurred in children. The median age of children was 8 years (range: 4 months, 14 years). Of 197 children with pulmonary TB, 63 (32%) were bacteriologically-confirmed: 56 (28%) were smear-positive and 7 (4%) were smear-negative, but culture-positive. One was diagnosed with multi-drug resistant TB. HIV infection was documented in 75 (27%). Thirteen (17%) of 75 HIV-infected children died during TB treatment compared with 4 (2%) of 204 not known to be HIV-infected (p < 0.01).
Childhood TB is infrequently diagnosed in Thailand. Understanding whether this is due to absence of disease or diagnostic effort requires further research. HIV contributes substantially to the childhood TB burden in Thailand and is associated with high mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three commonly used pain scales, the visual analogue scale, the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale, and the Faces Pain Scale Revised were administered to 122 Thai children, of whom half were HIV infected, in order to assess their validity. These scales presented moderate to good correlation and moderate agreement, sufficient for valid use in Thai children.
Preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Archives of Disease in Childhood
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutations was determined among 95 human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai children who were treated with dual nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. Almost all children had resistance to at least 1 NRTI, and approximately half of the children had resistance to multiple NRTIs. Cross-resistance to stavudine and azidothymidine was universal.
Preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Clinical Infectious Diseases