R T Higashida

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (395)1669.89 Total impact

  • Lingzhong Meng · Melanie Hall · Fabio Settecase · Randall T Higashida · Adrian W Gelb
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral oximetry is normally placed on the upper forehead to monitor the frontal lobe cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2). We present a case in which the SctO2 was simultaneously monitored at both frontal and parietal regions during internal carotid artery (ICA) stenting. Our case involves a 79-year-old man who presented after a sudden fall and was later diagnosed with a watershed ischemic stroke in the distal fields perfused by the left middle cerebral artery. He had diffuse atherosclerotic occlusive lesions in the carotid and cerebral arterial systems including an 85 % stenotic lesion in the left distal cervical ICA. The brain territory perfused by the left ICA was devoid of collateral flow from anterior and posterior communicating arteries due to an abnormal circle of Willis. During stenting, the SctO2 monitored at both frontal and parietal regions tracked the procedure-induced acute flow change. However, the baseline SctO2 values of frontal and parietal regions differed. The SctO2-MAP correlation was more consistent on the stroked hemisphere than the non-stroked hemisphere. This case showed that SctO2 can be reliably monitored at the parietal region, which is primarily perfused by the ICA. SctO2 of the stroked brain is more pressure dependent than the non-stroked brain.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Anesthesia
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    ABSTRACT: A 13-year-old boy with meningiomatosis, McCune-Albright syndrome, and gray platelet syndrome presented with an enlarging "lump" on his right forehead. A head CT scan revealed a polyostotic fibrous dysplasia involving the entire skull. A 3.4-cm right frontal osseous cavity and an overlying right forehead subcutaneous soft-tissue mass were seen, measuring 5.2 cm in diameter and 1.6 cm thick. Ultrasound of the cavity and overlying mass showed swirling of blood and an arterialized waveform. MRI revealed an en plaque meningioma underlying the cavity. An intraosseous pseudoaneurysm fed by 3 distal anterior division branches of the right middle meningeal artery (MMA) with contrast extravasation was found on angiography. Two MMA feeders were embolized with Onyx, with anterograde filling of the intraosseous cavity with Onyx. A small pocket of residual intracavity contrast filling postembolization from a smaller third MMA feeder eventually thrombosed and the forehead lump regressed.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: In the endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations, ethanol sclerotherapy is seldom used due to safety concerns. However, when limited reflux of an embolic agent is permissible or when there is a long distance to the target, ethanol may be preferable. We reviewed 10 patients with 14 cerebral AVM feeding artery aneurysms or intranidal aneurysms treated with intra-arterial ethanol sclerotherapy at our institution between 2005 and 2014. All patients presented with acute intracranial hemorrhage. Thirteen of 14 aneurysms were treated primarily with 60%-80% ethanol into the feeding artery. Complete target feeding artery and aneurysm occlusion was seen in all cases; 8/13 (62%) were occluded by using ethanol alone. No retreatments or recurrences were seen. One permanent neurologic deficit (1/13, 7.7%) and no deaths occurred. In a subset of ruptured cerebral AVMs, ethanol sclerotherapy of feeding artery aneurysms and intranidal aneurysms can be performed with a high degree of technical success and a low rate of complication.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · American Journal of Neuroradiology

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECT Retroclival hematomas are rare, appearing mostly as posttraumatic phenomena in children. Spontaneous retroclival hematoma (SRH) in the absence of trauma also has few descriptions in the literature. None of the reported clinical cases features the combination of an SRH and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Nevertheless, despite extensive cases of idiopathic or angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) of the posterior fossa, only a single case report of a patient with a unique spontaneous retroclival hematoma has been identified. In this study, the authors reviewed the presentation, management, and clinical outcome of this rare entity. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective analysis of all patients with diagnosed SRH at their institution over a 3-year period. Collected data included clinical history, laboratory results, treatment, and review of all imaging studies performed. RESULTS Four patients had SRH. All were appropriately evaluated for coagulopathic and/or traumatic etiologies of hemorrhage, though no etiology could be found. Moreover, all of the patients demonstrated SRH that both clearly crossed the basioccipital synchondrosis and was contained within a nondependent configuration along the retroclival dura mater. CONCLUSIONS Spontaneous retroclival hematoma, often associated with IVH, is a rare subtype of intracranial hemorrhage frequently recognized only when MRI demonstrates compartmentalization of the posterior fossa hemorrhage. When angiography fails to reveal an underlying lesion, SRH patients, like patients with traditional angiographically negative SAH, enjoy a remarkably good prognosis.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To develop a strategy of achieving targeted collection of endothelial cells (ECs) by endovascular methods and analyzing the gene expression profiles of collected single ECs. Methods and results 134 ECs and 37 leukocytes were collected from four patients' intra-iliac artery endovascular guide wires by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and analyzed by single-cell quantitative RT-PCR for expression profile of 48 genes. Compared to CD45+ leukocytes, the ECs expressed higher levels (p < 0.05) of EC surface markers used on FACS and other EC related genes. The gene expression profile showed that these isolated ECs fell into two clusters, A and B, that differentially expressed 19 genes related to angiogenesis, inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling, with cluster B ECs have demonstrating similarities to senescent or aging ECs. Conclusion Combination of endovascular device sampling, FACS and single-cell quantitative RT-PCR is a feasible method for analyzing EC gene expression profile in vascular lesions.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A minority of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas progress with time. We sought to determine features that predict progression and define outcomes of patients with progressive dural arteriovenous fistulas. We performed a retrospective imaging and clinical record review of patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula evaluated at our hospital. Of 579 patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas, 545 had 1 fistula (mean age, 45 ± 23 years) and 34 (5.9%) had enlarging, de novo, multiple, or recurrent fistulas (mean age, 53 ± 20 years; P = .11). Among these 34 patients, 19 had progressive dural arteriovenous fistulas with de novo fistulas or fistula enlargement with time (mean age, 36 ± 25 years; progressive group) and 15 had multiple or recurrent but nonprogressive fistulas (mean age, 57 ± 13 years; P = .0059, nonprogressive group). Whereas all 6 children had fistula progression, only 13/28 adults (P = .020) progressed. Angioarchitectural correlates to chronically elevated intracranial venous pressures, including venous sinus dilation (41% versus 7%, P = .045) and pseudophlebitic cortical venous pattern (P = .048), were more common in patients with progressive disease than in those without progression. Patients with progressive disease received more treatments than those without progression (median, 5 versus 3; P = .0068), but as a group, they did not demonstrate worse clinical outcomes (median mRS, 1 and 1; P = .39). However, 3 young patients died from intracranial venous hypertension and intracranial hemorrhage related to progression of their fistulas despite extensive endovascular, surgical, and radiosurgical treatments. Few patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas follow an aggressive, progressive clinical course despite treatment. Younger age at initial presentation and angioarchitectural correlates to venous hypertension may help identify these patients prospectively. © 2015 American Society of Neuroradiology.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECT Large arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remain difficult to treat, and ideal treatment parameters for volume-staged stereotactic radiosurgery (VS-SRS) are still unknown. The object of this study was to compare VS-SRS treatment outcomes for AVMs larger than 10 ml during 2 eras; Era 1 was 1992-March 2004, and Era 2 was May 2004-2008. In Era 2 the authors prospectively decreased the AVM treatment volume, increased the radiation dose per stage, and shortened the interval between stages. METHODS All cases of VS-SRS treatment for AVM performed at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS Of 69 patients intended for VS-SRS, 63 completed all stages. The median patient age at the first stage of VS-SRS was 34 years (range 9-68 years). The median modified radiosurgery-based AVM score (mRBAS), total AVM volume, and volume per stage in Era 1 versus Era 2 were 3.6 versus 2.7, 27.3 ml versus 18.9 ml, and 15.0 ml versus 6.8 ml, respectively. The median radiation dose per stage was 15.5 Gy in Era 1 and 17.0 Gy in Era 2, and the median clinical follow-up period in living patients was 8.6 years in Era 1 and 4.8 years in Era 2. All outcomes were measured from the first stage of VS-SRS. Near or complete obliteration was more common in Era 2 (log-rank test, p = 0.0003), with 3- and 5-year probabilities of 5% and 21%, respectively, in Era 1 compared with 24% and 68% in Era 2. Radiosurgical dose, AVM volume per stage, total AVM volume, era, compact nidus, Spetzler-Martin grade, and mRBAS were significantly associated with near or complete obliteration on univariate analysis. Dose was a strong predictor of response (Cox proportional hazards, p < 0.001, HR 6.99), with 3- and 5-year probabilities of near or complete obliteration of 5% and 16%, respectively, at a dose < 17 Gy versus 23% and 74% at a dose ≥ 17 Gy. Dose per stage, compact nidus, and total AVM volume remained significant predictors of near or complete obliteration on multivariate analysis. Seventeen patients (25%) had salvage surgery, SRS, and/or embolization. Allowing for salvage therapy, the probability of cure was more common in Era 2 (log-rank test, p = 0.0007) with 5-year probabilities of 0% in Era 1 versus 41% in Era 2. The strong trend toward improved cure in Era 2 persisted on multivariate analysis even when considering mRBAS (Cox proportional hazards, p = 0.055, HR 4.01, 95% CI 0.97-16.59). The complication rate was 29% in Era 1 compared with 13% in Era 2 (Cox proportional hazards, not significant). CONCLUSIONS VS-SRS is an option to obliterate or downsize large AVMs. Decreasing the AVM treatment volume per stage to ≤ 8 ml with this technique allowed a higher dose per fraction and decreased time to response, as well as improved rates of near obliteration and cure without increasing complications. Reducing the volume of these very large lesions can facilitate a surgical approach for cure.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Neurosurgery
  • Bruce Ovbiagele · Larry B. Goldstein · Randall T. Higashida

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Stroke
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    ABSTRACT: The proper role of endovascular treatment of cervicocerebral atherosclerosis is unclear. Posterior circulation disease has not been investigated as extensively as disease in the anterior circulation. In this study, we characterized the rates of technical success, transient ischemic attack, stroke, and death or disability, for both acute and elective endovascular treatment of atherosclerosis in the vertebrobasilar system. We identified patients with atherosclerosis of the vertebrobasilar circulation who underwent endovascular intervention at our hospital through retrospective medical record review, and evaluated the association between lesion and treatment features and subsequent stroke, death, or disability at 30 days and 1 year. We identified 136 lesions in 122 patients, including 13 interventions for acute strokes. Technical success was achieved in 123 of 136 cases (90.4%). Elective procedures had higher rates of technical success (6.5% vs 15.4%, p=0.21) and better clinical outcomes. In multivariate analysis, intracranial lesions were associated with more disability (modified Rankin Scale score >2) at 30 days (OR 7.1, p=0.01) and 1 year (OR 10, p=0.03). Patients with non-hypoperfusion related symptoms had fewer strokes at follow-up at 1 year when treated after an asymptomatic interval of >10 days compared with those treated within 10 days of the presenting symptoms (OR 0.2, p=0.03). Statin treatment prior to intervention was associated with favorable outcomes across several examined endpoints. Preoperative antiplatelet treatment was associated with lower rates of disability at 30 days and 1 year (OR 0.1, p<0.01 and OR 0.07, p=0.01, respectively), and preoperative anticoagulation treatment was associated with higher rates of death at 30 days, particularly when prescribed for reasons other than atrial fibrillation (OR 6.4, p=0.01). Endovascular treatment of symptomatic vertebrobasilar atherosclerosis can be performed safely and with good outcomes. Technical results were better for those with extracranial disease while clinical outcomes were more favorable in those patients with non-progressive symptoms in the subacute period and those receiving statin therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The lack of safe and reliable methods to sample vascular tissue in situ limits discovery of the underlying genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of many vascular disorders, including aneurysms. We investigated the feasibility and comparable efficacy of in vivo vascular endothelial cell sampling using a spectrum of endovascular devices. Using the rabbit elastase carotid aneurysm model we evaluated the performance of existing aneurysmal coils, intracranial stents, and stent-like devices to collect vascular endothelial cells. Additionally, we modified a subset of devices to assess the effects of alterations to coil pitch, coil wire contour, and stent surface finishing. Device performance was evaluated by (1) the number of viable endothelial cells harvested, (2) the degree of vascular wall damage analyzed using digital subtraction angiography and histopathological analysis, and (3) the ease of device navigability and retrieval. Isolated cells underwent immunohistochemical analysis to confirm cell type and viability. Coil and stent specifications, technique, and endothelial cell counts were tabulated and statistical analysis performed. Using conventional detachable-type and modified aneurysm coils 11 of 14 (78.6%) harvested endothelial cells with a mean of 7.93 (±8.33) cells/coil, while 15 of 15 (100%) conventional stents, stent-like devices and modified stents harvested endothelial cells with a mean of 831.33 (±887.73) cells/device. Coil stiffness was significantly associated with endothelial cell count in univariate analysis (p = 0.044). For stents and stent-like devices univariate analysis demonstrated stent-to-aorta diameter ratios (p = 0.001), stent length (p = 0.049), and the use of a pulling retrieval technique (p = 0.019) significantly predictive of endothelial cell counts, though a multivariate model using these variables demonstrated only the stent-to-aorta diameter ratio (p = 0.029) predictive of endothelial cell counts. Modified devices did not significantly impact harvesting. The efficacy and safety of existing aneurysm coils, intracranial stents and stent-like devices in collecting viable endothelial cells was confirmed. The technique is reproducible and the quantity and quality of collected endothelial cells is adequate for targeted genetic analysis. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Interventional Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: Intracranial hemorrhage is the most serious outcome for brain arteriovenous malformations. This study examines associations between venous characteristics of these lesions and intracranial hemorrhage. Statistical analysis was performed on a prospectively maintained data base of brain AVMs evaluated at an academic medical center. DSA, CT, and MR imaging studies were evaluated to classify lesion side, drainage pattern, venous stenosis, number of draining veins, venous ectasia, and venous reflux. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the association of these angiographic features with intracranial hemorrhage of any age at initial presentation. Exclusively deep drainage (OR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.87-6.26; P < .001) and a single draining vein (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.26-3.08; P = .002) were associated with hemorrhage, whereas venous ectasia (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.34-0.78; P = .002) was inversely associated with hemorrhage. Analysis of venous characteristics of brain AVMs may help determine their prognosis and thereby identify lesions most appropriate for treatment. © 2015 American Society of Neuroradiology.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: Object: Although the development and prevalence of cerebral vasospasm (CV) has been extensively investigated in adults, little data exist on the development of CV in children. The authors hypothesized that even though children have highly vasoreactive arteries, because of a robust cerebral collateral blood flow, they rarely develop symptomatic CV. Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed their university hospital's neurointerventional database for children (that is, patients ≤ 18 years) who were examined or treated for aneurysmal or traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) during the period 1990-2013. Images from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were analyzed for the extent of CV and collateralization of the cerebral circulation. Results from transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography were correlated with those from DSA. Cerebral vasospasm on TCD ultrasonography was defined according to criteria developed for adults. Clinical outcomes of CV were assessed with the pediatric modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: Among 37 children (21 boys and 16 girls ranging in age from 8 months to 18 years) showing symptoms of an aneurysmal SAH (comprising 32 aneurysms and 5 traumatic pseudoaneurysms), 17 (46%) had CV confirmed by DSA; CV was mild in 21% of these children, moderate in 50%, and severe in 29%. Only 3 children exhibited symptomatic CV, all of whom had poor collateralization of cerebral vessels. Among the 14 asymptomatic children, 10 (71%) showed some degree of vessel collateralization. Among 16 children for whom TCD data were available that could be correlated with the DSA findings, 13 (81%) had CV according to TCD criteria. The sensitivity and specificity of TCD ultrasonography for diagnosing CV were 95% and 59%, respectively. The time to CV onset detected by TCD ultrasonography was 5 ± 3 days (range 2-10 days). Twenty-five (68%) of the children had good long-term outcomes (that is, had mRS scores of 0-2). Conclusions: Children have a relatively high incidence of angiographically detectable, moderate-to-severe CV. Children rarely develop symptomatic CV and have good long-term outcomes, perhaps due to robust cerebral collateral blood flow. Criteria developed for detecting CV with TCD ultrasonography in adults overestimate the prevalence of CV in children. Larger studies are needed to define TCD ultrasonography-based CV criteria for children.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral vasospasm is a devastating complication after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The use of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) to non-invasively assess changes in cerebral tissue perfusion induced by intra-arterial (IA) verapamil treatment has not been described to our knowledge. A total of 21 consecutive post-craniotomy patients scheduled for possible IA verapamil treatment of cerebral vasospasm were recruited. The effect of IA verapamil injection on SctO2 being continuously monitored on both the left and right forehead was investigated. Comparisons between changes in SctO2 monitored on the ipsilateral and contralateral forehead in relationship to the side of internal carotid artery (ICA) injection were performed. A total of 47 IA verapamil injections (15 left ICA, 18 right ICA, and 14 vertebral artery injections) during 18 neurointerventional procedures in 13 patients were analyzed. IA verapamil administration led to both increases and decreases in SctO2. Changes in SctO2 ipsilateral to the ICA injection side were more pronounced (p=0.02 and 0.07 for left and right ICA injections, respectively) and favored compared to contralateral SctO2 changes. We were unable to obtain reliable measurements on the side ipsilateral to the craniotomy during four procedures in three patients, presumably secondary to pneumocephalus. The local cerebral vasodilating effect of IA verapamil injection is suggested by the differential changes in SctO2 ipsilateral and contralateral to the ICA injection side. The inconsistent changes in SctO2 and the limitations of applying cerebral oximetry in this patient population needs to be recognized.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
  • Bruno, C.A., Jr · P.M. Meyers · R.T. Higashida
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    ABSTRACT: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs; first described by Virchow in 1863) of the brain are rare, complex, vascular lesions that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic modalities include microsurgical resection, radiosurgery (focused radiation), and endovascular embolization [1]. Endovascular embolization is primarily used as a preoperative adjuvant before microsurgery or radiosurgery. Endovascular treatment is directed at particularly “weak points” within the AVM, including flow-related aneurysms and high-flow fistulae, and to decrease lesion volume and establish more normal blood flow patterns within surrounding brain parenchyma [2]. For AVMs that are not amenable to surgery or radiosurgery because of patient factors or AVM features, palliative embolization has been used successfully to reduce the risk of hemorrhage, alleviate clinical symptoms, and preserve or improve neurological function [3-8]. Less frequently, embolization is used as “primary therapy” particularly for smaller, surgically difficult lesions. Treatment planning requires a multidisciplinary team with expertise in cerebrovascular neurosurgery, endovascular intervention, and radiation therapy in order to provide all therapeutic options and determine the most appropriate treatment regimen according to patient characteristics and AVM morphology. Pathogenesis Brain AVMs are focal, abnormal, intraparenchymal conglomerations of dilated arteries and veins that lack normal vascular organization at the subarteriolar level as well as a normal capillary bed, resulting in direct connections between the cerebral arterial and venous systems [9,10]. The intervening network of vessels between the distal aspects of the arterial feeders and the proximal aspects of the draining veins is called the nidus, the primary target of embolization. Gliotic brain parenchyma is found within and surrounding the nidus. On angiography, brain AVMs demonstrate arteriovenous shunting, which results in early opacification of the draining vein(s) and shortened arteriovenous transit time. Brain AVMs are classified as superficial or deep types. Superficial AVMs are further divided into sulcal, gyral, or mixed, while deep types, which are relatively rare, are subdivided into subarachnoid, deep parenchymal, plexal, and mixed types [11]. Traditionally, brain AVMs have been thought of as congenital vascular lesions, without the potential for de novo postnatal development, resulting from failure of capillary formation during embryonic development [12]. Although the majority of brain AVMs are congenital, cases of both de novo development in an adult and recurrent disease in children have been reported [13,14].
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose Endovascular sampling and characterization from patients can provide very useful information about the pathogenesis of different vascular diseases, but it has been much limited by the lack of an effective method of endothelial cell (EC)enrichment. We optimized the EC yield and enrichment from conventional guide wires by laser capture microdissection (LCM) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) techniques, and addressed the feasibility of using these enriched ECs for downstream gene expression detection. Methods Iliac artery endovascular samples from 10 patients undergoing routine catheter angiography were collected using conventional 0.038 inch J-shape guide wires. Each of the samples were equally divided into two parts, which were respectively used for EC enrichment by immunocytochemistry -coupled LCM or multiple color FACS. After RNA extraction and reverse transcription, the amplified cDNA were used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Fixed ECs, with positive CD31 or vWF fluorescent signal and endothelial like nucleus, were successfully separated by LCM and live single ECs were sorted on FACS by a seven color staining panel. EC yields by LCM and FACS were 51 ± 22 and 149 ± 56 respectively (P < 0.001). The minimum number of fixed ECs from ICC-coupled LCM for acceptable qPCR results of endothelial marker genes was 30, while acceptable qPCR results as enriched by FACS were attainable from a single live EC. Conclusion Both LCM and FACS can be used to enrich ECs from conventional guide wires and the enriched ECs can be used for downstream gene expression detection. FACS generated a higher EC yield and the sorted live ECs may be used for single cell gene expression detection.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Biotechnology
  • S Hetts · T Tsai · D Cooke · M Amans · J Narvid · C Dowd · R Higashida · V Halbach
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Although many intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are straightforward to treat, de novo and rapidly progressive (“runaway” or “malignant”) DAVFs are more complex, often requiring multiple treatment sessions with suboptimal results. As these are rare entities, we sought to review our experience in the treatment of de novo and progressive DAVFs in order to better understand predictors of disease progression. Materials and methods Under an IRB-approved protocol, 29 patients with multiple, recurrent, de novo, or progressive DAVFs were identified from our hospital’s neurointerventional radiology database of 578 patients treated for intracranial DAVFs between 1986 and 2012. One patient with acute traumatic carotid cavernous fistulas was excluded. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, lesion angioarchitecture, treatment approaches, and clinical outcomes were categorized and assessed. Categorical variables were analyzed with odds ratios and 2-sided Fisher’s exact tests. Results We compared 28 patients with multiple, recurrent, de novo, or progressive DAVFs to 550 DAVF patients without such features. Whereas 18/28 (64%) of patients with multiple, recurrent, de novo, or progressive DAVFs were female, 283/550 (51%) without such features were female (OR 1.7, 95% CI: 0.73–4.2, p = 0.24). Mean age at presentation in the multiple, recurrent, de novo, or progressive DAVF group was 42 ± 23 years (range 2 months to 77 years) compared to 52 ± 20 years (range 1 day to 87 years) for the entire DAVF cohort. The most common presenting signs and symptoms the 28 patients treated for multiple, recurrent, de novo, or progressive DAVFs were headache (50%), cranial neuropathy (46%), tinnitus (36%), visual changes (32%), and intracranial haemorrhage (29%). 59 DAVFs were identified in these 28 patients. Location of fistulas included transverse/sigmoid sinus in 18 (64%), superior sagittal sinus in 8 (29%), torcula in 6 (21%), cavernous sinus in 5 (18%), marginal sinus in 5 (18%), and petrosal sinus in 2 patients (7%). Eight patients had DAVFs in other intracranial locations. Number of interventions per patient ranged from 2 to 19 (mean 5.5, median 4.5). All 28 patients were treated endovascularly; 15 (54%) were also treated with surgery. Embolic agents included coils in 25 patients (89%), ethanol in 23 (82%), polyvinyl alcohol in 21 (75%), N-butyl cyanoacrylate in 10 (36%), and Onyx in 5 (18%). 153 transarterial, transvenous, and surgical interventions were performed. The time between diagnosis of DAVF and last imaging ranged from 10 days to 21 years. At last follow up, 10 patients (36%) had no symptoms or residual DAVFs, 15 patients (54%) had neurological symptoms and/or residual DAVFs, and 3 patients (11%) had died due to intracranial haemorrhage or refractory elevations in intracranial pressure related to intracranial venous hypertension. A total of 19/28 patients had de novo or rapidly progressive DAVFs (68%) with all 3 deaths occurring in that group. No deaths were recorded in the other 9 patients with only recurrent or multiple DAVFs. Conclusion De novo or rapidly progressive DAVFs constituted 3% of all intracranial DAVF cases treated at our institution. Among these patients, despite aggressive endovascular and surgical care, a minority followed a malignant clinical course. Disclosures S. Hetts: 1; C; NIH-NIBIB, NIH-NCI, Siemens, Covidien. 2; C; Stryker, Penumbra, Medina Medical, Silk Road Medical. 4; C; Medina Medical, ChemoFilter, DriftCoast. T. Tsai: None. D. Cooke: 1; C; Siemens. 4; C; Viket. M. Amans: None. J. Narvid: None. C. Dowd: None. R. Higashida: None. V. Halbach: None.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Treatment decisions have most commonly been driven by the degree of luminal stenosis. This study compares ICAD lesion stability features with percentage stenosis for associations with adverse outcomes following treatment with stents. Materials and methods Retrospective analysis was performed of prospectively maintained procedure logs. Lesions were classified by symptom type as hypoperfusion, non-hypoperfusion, or indeterminate, and pretreatment asymptomatic intervals were noted. Hypoperfusion lesions and indeterminate or non-hypoperfusion lesions with ≥14 days of asymptomatic interval were classified as stable. Percentage stenosis was calculated and compared against these other symptom features for value in predicting technical complication, ischemic stroke, disability, or death at 90 days and 2 years using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results 130 lesions were treated in 124 patients. The only statistically significant percent stenosis finding was lesions with 60–99% stenosis were less likely to have technical complications. In univariate analysis, stroke at 2 years was less common with hypoperfusion and stable lesions. In multivariate analysis, only hypoperfusion status was associated with lower stroke rates at 2 years. Conclusions Lesion stability features, particularly non-hypoperfusion symptomatology, outperform percentage stenosis in predicting outcomes following treatment of ICAD with stents. Further examination is needed to better classify the natural history of ICAD and more precisely classify lesion stability.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant with indeterminate significance. Given the controversy surrounding fenestrations we sought their prevalence within our practice along with their association with other cerebrovascular anomalies. We retrospectively reviewed 10,927 patients undergoing digital subtraction angiography between 1992 and 2011. Dictated reports were searched for the terms "fenestration" or "fenestrated" with images reviewed for relevance, yielding 228 unique cases. A Medline database search from February 1964 to January 2013 generated 304 citations, 127 cases of which were selected for analysis. Cerebral arterial fenestrations were identified in 228 patients (2.1%). At least one aneurysm was noted in 60.5% of patients, with an aneurysm arising from the fenestration in 19.6% of patients. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage or non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were present in 60.1% and 15.8%, respectively. For the subset of patients with an aneurysm arising directly from a fenestration relative to those patients with an aneurysm not immediately associated with a fenestration, the prevalence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was 66.7% vs. 58.6% (p = 0.58). Fenestrations were more often within the posterior circulation (73.2%) than the anterior circulation (24.6%), though there was no difference in the prevalence of aneurysms within these groups (61.1% vs. 60.7%, p = 1.0). Cerebral arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant more often manifesting at the anterior communicating arterial complex and basilar artery and with no definite pathological relationship with aneurysms.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Interventional Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: Vein of Galen malformations (VOGMs) are rare and complex congenital arteriovenous fistulas. The clinical and radiological features of VOGMs and their relation to clinical outcomes are not fully characterized. To examine the clinical and radiological features of VOGMs and the predictors of outcome in patients. We retrospectively reviewed the available imaging and medical records of all patients with VOGMs treated at the University of California, San Francisco between 1986 and 2013. Radiological and clinical features were identified. We applied the modified Rankin Scale to determine functional outcome by chart review. Predictors of outcome were assessed by χ(2) analyses. Forty-one cases were confirmed as VOGM. Most patients (78%) had been diagnosed with VOGM in the first year of life. Age at treatment was bimodally distributed, with predominantly urgent embolization at <10 days of age and elective embolization after 1 year of age. Patients commonly presented with hydrocephalus (65.9%) and congestive heart failure (61.0%). Mixed-type (31.7%) VOGM was more common in our cohort than purely mural (29.3%) or choroidal (26.8%) types. The most common feeding arteries were the choroidal and posterior cerebral arteries. Transarterial embolization with coils was the most common technique used to treat VOGMs at our institution. Functional outcome was normal or only mildly disabled in 50% of the cases at last follow-up (median=3 years, range=0-23 years). Younger age at first diagnosis, congestive heart failure, and seizures were predictive of adverse clinical outcome. The survival rate in our sample was 78.0% and complete thrombosis of the VOGM was achieved in 62.5% of patients. VOGMs continue to be challenging to treat and manage. Nonetheless, endovascular approaches to treatment are continuing to be refined and improved, with increasing success. The neurodevelopmental outcomes of affected children whose VOGMs are treated may be good in many cases.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery

Publication Stats

23k Citations
1,669.89 Total Impact Points


  • 1986-2015
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging
      • • Department of Neurological Surgery
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Clinical Pharmacy
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2013
    • St. Michael's Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010
    • Royal North Shore Hospital
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2004-2010
    • Barrow Neurological Institute
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
    • Cornell University
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2004-2006
    • Columbia University
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1993-2006
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2003
    • Baptist Hospital
      Nashville, Tennessee, United States
  • 2000
    • Royal Perth Hospital
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
  • 1995
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Radiology
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1986-1992
    • University of Missouri - Kansas City
      • Department of Radiology
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 1989
    • Fukuoka University
      • Department of Radiology
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1987
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Surgery
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 1986-1987
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States