R. Hopwood

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (77)

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the first major data release of the largest single key-project in area carried out in open time with the Herschel Space Observatory. The Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) is a survey of 600 deg^2 in five photometric bands - 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 um - with the PACS and SPIRE cameras. In this paper and a companion paper (Bourne et al. 2016) we present the survey of three fields on the celestial equator, covering a total area of 161.6 deg^2 and previously observed in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) spectroscopic survey. This paper describes the Herschel images and catalogues of the sources detected on the SPIRE 250 um images. The 1-sigma noise for source detection, including both confusion and instrumental noise, is 7.4, 9.4 and 10.2 mJy at 250, 350 and 500 um. Our catalogue includes 120230 sources in total, with 113995, 46209 and 11011 sources detected at >4-sigma at 250, 350 and 500 um. The catalogue contains detections at >3-sigma at 100 and 160 um for 4650 and 5685 sources, and the typical noise at these wavelengths is 44 and 49 mJy. We include estimates of the completeness of the survey and of the effects of flux bias and also describe a novel method for determining the true source counts. The H-ATLAS source counts are very similar to the source counts from the deeper HerMES survey at 250 and 350 um, with a small difference at 500 um. Appendix A provides a quick start in using the released datasets, including instructions and cautions on how to use them.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the region around the Planck-detected z=3.26 gravitationally lensed galaxy HATLAS J114637.9-001132 (hereinafter HATLAS12-00) using both archival Herschel data from the H-ATLAS survey and using submm data obtained with both LABOCA and SCUBA2. The lensed source is found to be surrounded by a strong overdensity of both Herschel-SPIRE sources and submm sources. We detect 17 bright (S870 > ∼7 mJy) sources at >4σ closer than 5 arcmin to the lensed object at 850/870μm. Ten of these sources have good cross-identifications with objects detected by Herschel-SPIRE which have redder colours than other sources in the field, with 350μm flux > 250μm flux, suggesting that they lie at high redshift. Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations localise one of these companions to ∼1 arcsecond, allowing unambiguous cross identification with a 3.6 and 4.5 μm Spitzer source. The optical/near-IR spectral energy distribution (SED) of this source is measured by further observations and found to be consistent with z > 2, but incompatible with lower redshifts. We conclude that this system may be a galaxy cluster/protocluster or larger scale structure that contains a number of galaxies undergoing starbursts at the same time.
    Full-text Article · May 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the data processing pipeline to generate calibrated data products from the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer on the Herschel Space Observatory. The pipeline processes telemetry from SPIRE observations and produces calibrated spectra for all resolution modes. The spectrometer pipeline shares some elements with the SPIRE photometer pipeline, including the conversion of telemetry packets into data timelines and calculation of bolometer voltages. We present the following fundamental processing steps unique to the spectrometer: temporal and spatial interpolation of the scan mechanism and detector data to create interferograms; Fourier transformation; apodization; and creation of a data cube. We also describe the corrections for various instrumental effects including first- and second-level glitch identification and removal, correction of the effects due to emission from the Herschel telescope and from within the spectrometer instrument, interferogram baseline correction, temporal and spatial phase correction, non-linear response of the bolometers, and variation of instrument performance across the focal plane arrays. Astronomical calibration is based on combinations of observations of standard astronomical sources and regions of space known to contain minimal emission.
    Full-text Article · May 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We combine Herschel/SPIRE submillimetre (submm) observations with existing multiwavelength data to investigate the characteristics of low-redshift, optically red galaxies detected in submm bands. We select a sample of galaxies in the redshift range 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.2, having >5σ detections in the SPIRE 250 μm submm waveband. Sources are then divided into two sub-samples of red and blue galaxies, based on their UV-optical colours. Galaxies in the red sample account for ≈4.2 per cent of the total number of sources with stellar masses M* ≳ 1010 M⊙. Following visual classification of the red galaxies, we find that ≳30 per cent of them are early-type galaxies and ≳40 per cent are spirals. The colour of the red-spiral galaxies could be the result of their highly inclined orientation and/or a strong contribution of the old stellar population. It is found that irrespective of their morphological types, red and blue sources occupy environments with more or less similar densities (i.e. the Σ5 parameter). From the analysis of the spectral energy distributions of galaxies in our samples based on magphys, we find that galaxies in the red sample (of any morphological type) have dust masses similar to those in the blue sample (i.e. normal spiral/star-forming systems). However, in comparison to the red-spirals and in particular blue systems, red-ellipticals have lower mean dust-to-stellar mass ratios. Besides galaxies in the red-elliptical sample have much lower mean star formation/specific star formation rates in contrast to their counterparts in the blue sample. Our results support a scenario where dust in early-type systems is likely to be of an external origin.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    R. S. Bussmann · D. Riechers · A. Fialkov · [...] · J. Wardlow
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) has identified large numbers of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a wide range in redshift. A detailed understanding of these DSFGs is hampered by the poor spatial resolution of Herschel. We present 870um 0.45" imaging obtained in Cycle 0 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of 29 HerMES DSFGs. The ALMA imaging reveals that these DSFGs comprise a total of 62 sources (down to the 5-sigma limit in our ALMA sample; sigma~0.2 mJy). Optical imaging indicates that 36 of the ALMA sources experience a significant flux boost from gravitational lensing (mu>1.1), but only 6 are strongly lensed and show multiple images. We introduce and make use of uvmcmcfit, a general purpose and publicly available Markov chain Monte Carlo visibility plane analysis tool to analyze the source properties. Combined with our previous work on brighter Herschel sources, the lens models presented here tentatively favor intrinsic number counts for DSFGs with a break near 8 mJy at 880um and a steep fall off at higher flux densities. Nearly 70% of the Herschel sources break down into multiple ALMA counterparts, consistent with previous research indicating that the multiplicity rate is high in bright sources discovered in single-dish sub-mm or FIR surveys. The ALMA counterparts to our Herschel targets are located significantly closer to each other than ALMA counterparts to sources found in the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey. Theoretical models underpredict the excess number of sources with small separations seen in our ALMA sample. The high multiplicity rate and low projected separations between sources seen in our sample argue in favor of interactions and mergers plausibly driving both the prodigious emission from the brightest DSFGs as well as the sharp downturn above S_880 = 8 mJy.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We explore the behaviour of [C ii] λ157.74 μm forbidden fine-structure line observed in a sample of 28 galaxies selected from ∼ 50 deg2 of the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey survey. The sample is restricted to galaxies with flux densities higher than S160 μm > 150 mJy and optical spectra from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey at 0.02 < z < 0.2. Far-IR spectra centred on this redshifted line were taken with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer instrument on-board the Herschel Space Observatory. The galaxies span 10 < log(LIR/L⊙) < 12 (where LIR ≡ LIR[8-1000 μm]) and $7.3<{\rm log} (L_{\rm [C\,\small {II}]}/{\rm L}_{\odot }) <9.3$, covering a variety of optical galaxy morphologies. The sample exhibits the so-called [C ii] deficit at high-IR luminosities, i.e. $L_{[{\rm C\,\small {II}}]}$/LIR (hereafter [C ii]/IR) decreases at high LIR. We find significant differences between those galaxies presenting [C ii]/IR >2.5 × 10−3 with respect to those showing lower ratios. In particular, those with high ratios tend to have: (1) LIR <1011 L⊙; (2) cold dust temperatures, Td < 30 K; (3) disc-like morphologies in r-band images; (4) a Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer colour 0.5 ≲ S12 μm/S22 μm ≲ 1.0; (5) low surface brightness ΣIR ≈ 108–9 L⊙ kpc−2, (6) and specific star formation rates of sSFR ≈0.05–3 Gyr−1. We suggest that the strength of the far-UV radiation fields (〈GO〉) is main parameter responsible for controlling the [C ii]/IR ratio. It is possible that relatively high 〈GO〉 creates a positively charged dust grain distribution, impeding an efficient photoelectric extraction of electrons from these grains to then collisionally excite carbon atoms. Within the brighter IR population, 11 < log(L IR/L⊙) < 12, the low [C ii]/IR ratio is unlikely to be modified by [C ii] self-absorption or controlled by the presence of a moderately luminous AGN (identified via the BPT diagram).
    Full-text Article · Mar 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    R. Hopwood · E. T. Polehampton · I. Valtchanov · [...] · L. D. Spencer
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A systematic programme of calibration observations was carried out to monitor the performance of the SPIRE FTS instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. Observations of planets (including the prime point-source calibrator, Uranus), asteroids, line sources, dark sky, and cross-calibration sources were made in order to monitor repeatability and sensitivity, and to improve FTS calibration. We present a complete analysis of the full set of calibration observations and use them to assess the performance of the FTS. Particular care is taken to understand and separate out the effect of pointing uncertainties, including the position of the internal beam steering mirror for sparse observations in the early part of the mission. The repeatability of spectral line centre positions is <5km/s, for lines with signal-to-noise ratios >40, corresponding to <0.5-2.0% of a resolution element. For spectral line flux, the repeatability is better than 6%, which improves to 1-2% for spectra corrected for pointing offsets. The continuum repeatability is 4.4% for the SLW band and 13.6% for the SSW band, which reduces to ~1% once the data have been corrected for pointing offsets. Observations of dark sky were used to assess the sensitivity and the systematic offset in the continuum, both of which were found to be consistent across the FTS detector arrays. The average point-source calibrated sensitivity for the centre detectors is 0.20 and 0.21 Jy [1 sigma; 1 hour], for SLW and SSW. The average continuum offset is 0.40 Jy for the SLW band and 0.28 Jy for the SSW band.
    Full-text Article · Feb 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asymmetries in the recorded interferograms of Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) can be caused by optical, electronic, and sampling effects. Left uncorrected, these asymmetries will result in a spectrum with both real and imaginary components and thus a non-zero phase. One or more phase correction steps are applied in FTS data processing pipelines to correct for these effects. In this paper we describe the causes of non-zero phase particular to the Herschel/SPIRE FTS and present the two phase correction processing steps employed. The evolution of the phase correction algorithms is also described.
    Article · Jan 2015
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    Georgios E. Magdis · D. Rigopoulou · R. Hopwood · [...] · M. Vaccari
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 < z < 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L_IR > 10^11.5L_sun). With these measurements we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [CII]\,157.7microns, as well as the molecular gas of z~0.3 (U)LIRGs and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L_CII/L_FIR ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-$z$ star forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [CII] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow a L_CII-L_FIR relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high-z AGN dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L_CII/L_FIR ratio and the far-IR color L_60/L_100 observed in the local Universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L_CII/L_FIR at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterised by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L_CII/L_FIR ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L_LIR/L_CO or L_IR/M_gas) and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the present day and z > 1 is already significant by z ~ 0.3.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    B. M. Swinyard · E. T. Polehampton · R. Hopwood · [...] · R. Wu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Herschel SPIRE instrument consists of an imaging photometric camera and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), both operating over a frequency range of 450-1550 GHz. In this paper, we briefly review the FTS design, operation, and data reduction, and describe in detail the approach taken to relative calibration (removal of instrument signatures) and absolute calibration against standard astronomical sources. The calibration scheme assumes a spatially extended source and uses the Herschel telescope as primary calibrator. Conversion from extended to point-source calibration is carried out using observations of the planet Uranus. The model of the telescope emission is shown to be accurate to within 6% and repeatable to better than 0.06% and, by comparison with models of Mars and Neptune, the Uranus model is shown to be accurate to within 3%. Multiple observations of a number of point-like sources show that the repeatability of the calibration is better than 1%, if the effects of the satellite absolute pointing error (APE) are corrected. The satellite APE leads to a decrement in the derived flux, which can be up to ~10% (1 sigma) at the high-frequency end of the SPIRE range in the first part of the mission, and ~4% after Herschel operational day 1011. The lower frequency range of the SPIRE band is unaffected by this pointing error due to the larger beam size. Overall, for well-pointed, point-like sources, the absolute flux calibration is better than 6%, and for extended sources where mapping is required it is better than 7%.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    D. Rigopoulou · R. Hopwood · G. E. Magdis · [...] · L. Wang
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the first results from a spectroscopic survey of the [C II] 158 μm line from a sample of intermediate redshift (0.2 <z < 0.8) (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies, (U)LIRGs (L IR > 1011.5L ☉), using the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver-Fourier Transform Spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This is the first survey of [C II] emission, an important tracer of star formation, at a redshift range where the star formation rate density of the universe increases rapidly. We detect strong [C II] 158 μm line emission from over 80% of the sample. We find that the [C II] line is luminous, in the range (0.8-4) × 10–3 of the far-infrared continuum luminosity of our sources, and appears to arise from photodissociation regions on the surface of molecular clouds. The L [C II]/L IR ratio in our intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs is on average ~10 times larger than that of local ULIRGs. Furthermore, we find that the L [C II]/L IR and L [C II]/L CO(1-0) ratios in our sample are similar to those of local normal galaxies and high-z star-forming galaxies. ULIRGs at z ~ 0.5 show many similarities to the properties of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Our findings strongly suggest that rapid evolution in the properties of the star-forming regions of (U)LIRGs is likely to have occurred in the last 5 billion years.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    M. Negrello · R. Hopwood · S. Dye · [...] · J. Wardlow
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on deep near-infrared observations obtained with the Wide Field Camera-3 (WFC3) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the first five confirmed gravitational lensing events discovered by the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). We succeed in disentangling the background galaxy from the lens to gain separate photometry of the two components. The HST data allow us to significantly improve on previous constraints of the mass in stars of the lensed galaxy and to perform accurate lens modelling of these systems, as described in the accompanying paper by Dye et al. We fit the spectral energy distributions of the background sources from near-IR to millimetre wavelengths and use the magnification factors estimated by Dye et al. to derive the intrinsic properties of the lensed galaxies. We find these galaxies to have star-formations rates (SFR) ∼ 400–2000 M⊙ yr−1, with ∼(6–25) × 1010 M⊙ of their baryonic mass already turned into stars. At these rates of star formation, all remaining molecular gas will be exhausted in less than ∼100 Myr, reaching a final mass in stars of a few 1011 M⊙. These galaxies are thus proto-ellipticals caught during their major episode of star formation, and observed at the peak epoch (z ∼ 1.5–3) of the cosmic star formation history of the Universe.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    S. Dye · M. Negrello · R. Hopwood · [...] · M. Smith
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have determined the mass density radial profiles of the first five strong gravitational lens systems discovered by the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. We present an enhancement of the semilinear lens inversion method of Warren & Dye which allows simultaneous reconstruction of several different wavebands and apply this to dual-band imaging of the lenses acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope. The five systems analysed here have lens redshifts which span a range 0.22 ≤ $z$ ≤ 0.94. Our findings are consistent with other studies by concluding that: (1) the logarithmic slope of the total mass density profile steepens with decreasing redshift; (2) the slope is positively correlated with the average total projected mass density of the lens contained within half the effective radius and negatively correlated with the effective radius; (3) the fraction of dark matter contained within half the effective radius increases with increasing effective radius and increases with redshift.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We use multiwavelength (0.12-500 μm) photometry from Herschel-ATLAS, WISE, UKIDSS, SDSS and GALEX to study 23 nearby spheroidal galaxies with prominent dust lanes (DLSGs). DLSGs are considered to be remnants of recent minor mergers, making them ideal laboratories for studying both the interstellar medium (ISM) of spheroids and minor-merger-driven star formation in the nearby Universe. The DLSGs exhibit star formation rates (SFRs) between 0.01 and 10 M⊙ yr-1, with a median of 0.26 M⊙ yr-1 (a factor of 3.5 greater than the average SG). The median dust mass, dust-to-stellar mass ratio and dust temperature in these galaxies are around 107.6 M⊙, ≈0.05 per cent and ≈19.5 K, respectively. The dust masses are at least a factor of 50 greater than that expected from stellar mass loss and, like the SFRs, show no correlation with galaxy luminosity, suggesting that both the ISM and the star formation have external drivers. Adopting literature gas-to-dust ratios and star formation histories derived from fits to the panchromatic photometry, we estimate that the median current and initial gas-to-stellar mass ratios in these systems are ≈4 and ≈7 per cent, respectively. If, as indicated by recent work, minor mergers that drive star formation in spheroids with (NUV - r) > 3.8 (the colour range of our DLSGs) have stellar mass ratios between 1:6 and 1:10, then the satellite gas fractions are likely ≥50 per cent.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We use galaxies from the Herschel-ATLAS survey, and a suite of ancillary simulations based on an isothermal dust model, to study our ability to determine the effective dust temperature, luminosity and emissivity index of 250um selected galaxies in the local Universe (z < 0.5). As well as simple far-infrared SED fitting of individual galaxies based on chi^2 minimisation, we attempt to derive the best global isothermal properties of 13,826 galaxies with reliable optical counterparts and spectroscopic redshifts. Using our simulations, we highlight the fact that applying traditional SED fitting techniques to noisy observational data in the Herschel Space Observatory bands introduces artificial anti-correlation between derived values of dust temperature and emissivity index. This is true even for galaxies with the most robust detections in our sample, making the results hard to interpret. We apply a method to determine the best-fit global values of isothermal effective temperature and emissivity index for z < 0.5 galaxies in H-ATLAS, deriving T = 22.3 +/- 0.1K and Beta = 1.98 +/- 0.02 (or T = 23.5 +/- 0.1K and Beta = 1.82 +/- 0.02 if we attempt to correct for bias by assuming that T and Beta are independent and normally distributed). We use our technique to test for an evolving emissivity index, finding only weak evidence. The median dust luminosity of our sample is log(Ldust/Lsolar) = 10.72 +/- 0.05 which (unlike T) shows little dependence on the choice of Beta used in our analysis, including whether it is variable or fixed. We use a further suite of simulations to emphasise the importance of the H-ATLAS PACS data for deriving dust temperatures at these redshifts, even though they are less sensitive than the SPIRE data. The majority of galaxies detected by H-ATLAS are normal star-forming galaxies, though a substantial minority (~31%) fall in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy category. (Abridged)
    Full-text Article · Sep 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strong gravitational lenses are now being routinely discovered in wide-field surveys at (sub)millimeter wavelengths. We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) high-spatial resolution imaging and Gemini-South and Multiple Mirror Telescope optical spectroscopy of strong lens candidates discovered in the two widest extragalactic surveys conducted by the Herschel Space Observatory: the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). From a sample of 30 Herschel sources with S_500>100 mJy, 21 are strongly lensed (multiply imaged), 4 are moderately lensed (singly imaged), and the remainder require additional data to determine their lensing status. We apply a visibility-plane lens modeling technique to the SMA data to recover information about the masses of the lenses as well as the intrinsic (i.e., unlensed) sizes (r_half) and far-infrared luminosities (L_FIR) of the lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). The sample of lenses comprises primarily isolated massive galaxies, but includes some groups and clusters as well. Several of the lenses are located at z_lens>0.7, a redshift regime that is inaccessible to lens searches based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy. The lensed SMGs are amplified by factors that are significantly below statistical model predictions given the 500um flux densities of our sample. We speculate that this may reflect a deficiency in our understanding of the intrinsic sizes and luminosities of the brightest SMGs. The lensed SMGs span nearly one decade in L_FIR (median L_FIR=7.9x10^12 L_sun) and two decades in FIR luminosity surface density (median Sigma_FIR=6.0x10^11 L_sun kpc^-2). The strong lenses in this sample and others identified via (sub-)mm surveys will provide a wealth of information regarding the astrophysics of galaxy formation and evolution over a wide range in redshift.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upon its completion, the Herschel Astrophysics Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) will be the largest sub-millimetre survey to date, detecting close to half-a-million sources. It will only be possible to measure spectroscopic redshifts for a small fraction of these sources. However, if the rest-frame spectral energy distribution (SED) of a typical H-ATLAS source is known, this SED and the observed Herschel fluxes can be used to estimate the redshifts of the H-ATLAS sources without spectroscopic redshifts. In this paper, we use a sub-set of 40 H-ATLAS sources with previously measured redshifts in the range 0.5 < z < 4.2 to derive a suitable average template for high-redshift H-ATLAS sources. We find that a template with two dust components (Tc = 23.9 K, Th = 46.9 K and ratio of mass of cold dust to mass of warm dust of 30.1) provides a good fit to the rest-frame fluxes of the sources in our calibration sample. We use a jackknife technique to estimate the accuracy of the redshifts estimated with this template, finding a root mean square of Δz/(1 + z) = 0.26. For sources for which there is prior information that they lie at z > 1, we estimate that the rms of Δz/(1 + z) = 0.12. We have used this template to estimate the redshift distribution for the sources detected in the H-ATLAS equatorial fields, finding a bimodal distribution with a mean redshift of 1.2, 1.9 and 2.5 for 250, 350 and 500 μm selected sources, respectively.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of CO molecular gas tracers in a sample of 500 μm-selected Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) galaxies at z < 0.05 (cz < 14990 km s−1). Using 22-500 μm photometry from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, Infrared Astronomical Satellite and Herschel, with H i data from the literature, we investigate correlations between warm and cold dust, and tracers of the gas in different phases. The correlation between global CO(3–2) line fluxes and far-infrared (FIR)-submillimetre (submm) fluxes weakens with increasing infrared wavelength (λ ≳ 60 μm), as a result of colder dust being less strongly associated with dense gas. Conversely, CO(2–1) and H i line fluxes both appear to be better correlated with longer wavelengths, suggesting that cold dust is more strongly associated with diffuse atomic and molecular gas phases, consistent with it being at least partially heated by radiation from old stellar populations. The increased scatter at long wavelengths implies that submm fluxes are a poorer tracer of star formation rate (SFR). Fluxes at 22 and 60 μm are also better correlated with diffuse gas tracers than dense CO(3–2), probably due to very small grain emission in the diffuse interstellar medium, which is not correlated with SFR. The FIR/CO luminosity ratio and the dust mass/CO luminosity ratio both decrease with increasing luminosity, as a result of either correlations between mass and metallicity (changing CO/H2) or between CO luminosity and excitation [changing CO(3–2)/CO(1–0)].
    Full-text Article · Aug 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    R. D. George · R. J. Ivison · R. Hopwood · [...] · P. van der Werf
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the redshift of HATLAS J132427.0+284452 (hereafter HATLAS J132427), a gravitationally lensed starburst galaxy, the first determined ‘blind’ by the Herschel Space Observatory. This is achieved via the detection of [C ii] consistent with z = 1.68 in a far-infrared spectrum taken with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). We demonstrate that the [C ii] redshift is secure via detections of CO J = 2 → 1 and 3 → 2 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique's Plateau de Bure Interferometer. The intrinsic properties appear typical of high-redshift starbursts despite the high lensing-amplified fluxes, proving the ability of the FTS to probe this population with the aid of lensing. The blind detection of [C ii] demonstrates the potential of the SPICA Far-infrared Instrument imaging spectrometer, proposed for the much more sensitive Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics mission, to determine redshifts of multiple dusty galaxies simultaneously without the benefit of lensing.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report spectroscopic and imaging observations of rotational transitions of cold CO and SiO in the ejecta of SN1987A, the first such emission detected in a supernova remnant. In addition to line luminosities for the CO J=1-0, 2-1, 6-5, and 7-6 transitions, we present upper limits for all other transitions up to J=13-12, collectively measured from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX), and the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE). Simple models show the lines are emitted from at least 0.01 solar masses of CO at a temperature > 14 K, confined within at most 35% of a spherical volume expanding at ~ 2000 km/s. Moreover, we locate the emission within 1'' of the central debris. These observations, along with a partial observation of SiO, confirm the presence of cold molecular gas within supernova remnants and provide insight into the physical conditions and chemical processes in the ejecta. Furthermore, we demonstrate the powerful new window into supernova ejecta offered by submillimeter observations.
    Full-text Article · Jul 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters

Publication Stats

1k Citations


  • 2010-2015
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Physics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011-2013
    • Cardiff University
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
    • Milton Keynes College
      Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Irvine, California, United States
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2009
    • The Open University (UK)
      • Department of Physical Sciences
      Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom